Planning Matthew J. Hendrickson Ball State University May 1, 2007
Plan: Defined <ul><li>Plan, v.t. -to bother about the best method of accomplishing an accidental result. - Devil’s Diction...
Planning Defined <ul><li>Planning -the process of setting objectives and determining what should be done to accomplish the...
Chess <ul><li>“ No other master has such a terrific will to win.  At the board he radiates danger, and even the strongest ...
Topics <ul><li>Fallacy of Planning and the Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg and IQ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triarchic Theory ...
Fallacy-Heath & Heath <ul><li>The army invests enormous amounts of energy into planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Plans work well...
Fallacy <ul><li>Solution? Commander’s Intent (CI). </li></ul><ul><li>A clear, concise statement printed on the top of ever...
Fallacy <ul><li>Plans fall apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep them simple, find the core of the idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Example...
The TOTE- Miller, Galanter, & Pribram (1960) <ul><li>Test-Operate-Test-Exit Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Each unit of behavi...
Sternberg <ul><li>Triarchic Theory of Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual  relates intelligence to the external worl...
Sternberg <ul><li>Global Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the formation of a macrostrategy that applies to a set o...
 
Sternberg <ul><li>Local Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The formation of a microstrategy that will be sufficient for solvin...
Ayduk & Mischel <ul><li>Self-regulatory analyses of goal attainment point to the importance of  implementation plans  in t...
Business-Schermerhorn <ul><li>Planning-the process of setting objectives and determining what should be done (plan) to acc...
 
Business <ul><li>The five steps of the planning process: </li></ul><ul><li>Define your objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Deter...
Business <ul><li>Benefits of planning: </li></ul><ul><li>Improves focus and flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Allows people an...
Business <ul><li>Planning needs to be ongoing to be effective. </li></ul><ul><li>The best planning is always done with the...
 
Business <ul><li>Types of plans used by managers: </li></ul><ul><li>Short-range -covers one year or less. </li></ul><ul><l...
Business <ul><li>Strategic Plan -is comprehensive and addresses longer-term needs and directions of the organization. </li...
Business <ul><li>Standing plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure/Rule </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Business <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><...
 
 
Business <ul><li>Forecasting-attempts to predict outcomes; involves a projection into the future based on historical data ...
Business <ul><li>Contingency Planning -identifies alternative courses of action that can be taken if and when circumstance...
Business-Krajewski <ul><li>Planning Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chase Strategy -hiring and laying off employees to ma...
Conclusions <ul><li>There is little literature on planning concerning theories because planning does not work well in the ...
References: <ul><li>Ayduk, O., & Mischel, W. (2002). When smart people behave stupidly: Reconciling inconsistencies in soc...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Planning

726 views

Published on

This presentation was part of my graduate school studies.

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
726
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Planning

  1. 1. Planning Matthew J. Hendrickson Ball State University May 1, 2007
  2. 2. Plan: Defined <ul><li>Plan, v.t. -to bother about the best method of accomplishing an accidental result. - Devil’s Dictionary. A. Bierce. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan -a statement of intended means or desired end states that one wishes to achieve. -Shermerhorn. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan, n. -1. A method or scheme for achieving or doing something. 2. An aim: goal. 3. A diagram or drawing prepared to scale. -Webster’s Dictionary. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Planning Defined <ul><li>Planning -the process of setting objectives and determining what should be done to accomplish them. -Shermerhorn. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning, v. -1. To draw up a plan of: design. 2. To have in mind: intend. 3. To formulate a way to achieve or do. -Webster’s Dictionary. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chess <ul><li>“ No other master has such a terrific will to win. At the board he radiates danger, and even the strongest opponents tend to freeze, like rabbits, when they smell a panther. Even his weaknesses are dangerous. As white, his opening is predictable—you can plan against it—but so strong that your plans almost never work. In middle game his precision and invention are fabulous, and in the end game you simply cannot beat him” (p. ix-emphasis added). </li></ul><ul><li>Bobby Fischer Teaches Chess. Quote from a German Chess expert. Referring to Bobby Fischer, the youngest International Grand Master in chess history. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Topics <ul><li>Fallacy of Planning and the Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg and IQ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triarchic Theory of Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global vs. Local Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steps in the Planning Process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning Strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic vs. Operational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning Tools </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fallacy-Heath & Heath <ul><li>The army invests enormous amounts of energy into planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Plans work well when all goes as expected, but what about uncertainties? </li></ul><ul><li>Col. Tom Kolditz, head of Behavioral Science at West Point: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning is useful in the sense that there is proof it had occured. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Fallacy <ul><li>Solution? Commander’s Intent (CI). </li></ul><ul><li>A clear, concise statement printed on the top of every order. States the goal and desired end state of the operation. </li></ul><ul><li>You can lose the ability to execute a plan, but not the responsibility of executing the intent. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fallacy <ul><li>Plans fall apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep them simple, find the core of the idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Southwest Airlines </li></ul><ul><li>CEO once said anyone could run the business as well as he has if they accept one truth...they are “THE low-fare airline.” </li></ul><ul><li>Any decision based on this will head in the right direction. </li></ul><ul><li>They have been cutting costs and increasing profits for 30 years. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The TOTE- Miller, Galanter, & Pribram (1960) <ul><li>Test-Operate-Test-Exit Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Each unit of behavior starts with Test of the present outcome against the desired outcome (the Image). If not congruent, another operation is performed. This is repeated as necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>An individual TOTE, a hierarchy of TOTEs, or a sequence of TOTEs executed in order to realize and Image is called a Plan. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sternberg <ul><li>Triarchic Theory of Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual relates intelligence to the external world of the individual; it looks at what behaviors are intelligent for whom and of where these behaviors are intelligent. </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential relates intelligence to both the internal and external worlds of the individual: it answers when behavior is intelligent. </li></ul><ul><li>Componential relates intelligence to the internal world of the individual; it answers how intelligent behavior is generated. </li></ul><ul><li>Global vs. Local planning is primarily focused on the Contextual aspect of intelligence. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sternberg <ul><li>Global Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the formation of a macrostrategy that applies to a set of problems, regardless of the particular characteristics of a particular problem that is a member of a given set. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The problem studied is an analogy task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lawyer : Client :: Doctor : (a.Patient, b.Medicine) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Sternberg <ul><li>Local Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The formation of a microstrategy that will be sufficient for solving a particular problem within a given set. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The aspect of problem solving during which an individual devises or selects detailed tactics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher IQ individuals take longer during global planning and less time for local planning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This increased time in global planning increases the likelihood that the overall strategy will be correct. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Ayduk & Mischel <ul><li>Self-regulatory analyses of goal attainment point to the importance of implementation plans in the actualization of the objectives one has set for oneself (Gollwitzer, 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation plans specify where, when, and how to pursue a goal intention by linking a specific situation with a specific response. </li></ul><ul><li>By properly planning, structuring, and rehearsing implementation plans, one can help self-control. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, we can modify our behavior and form habits by creating and adhering to strong plans. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Business-Schermerhorn <ul><li>Planning-the process of setting objectives and determining what should be done (plan) to accomplish them. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives-the specific results or desired end states that one wishes to achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan-a statement of intended means for accomplishing a desired result. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Business <ul><li>The five steps of the planning process: </li></ul><ul><li>Define your objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine where you stand vis-a-vis objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop premises regarding future conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze and choose among action alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Implement the plan and evaluate results. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Business <ul><li>Benefits of planning: </li></ul><ul><li>Improves focus and flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Allows people and organizations to stay ahead of the competition and become better at what they are doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes us more results, priority, and advantage oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves coordination at various levels of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Improves time management. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Business <ul><li>Planning needs to be ongoing to be effective. </li></ul><ul><li>The best planning is always done with the active participation and involvement of those people whose work efforts will eventually determine whether or not the objectives are accomplished. </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory planning -the inclusion in the planning process of as many people as possible from among those who will be affected by plans and/or asked to help implement them. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Business <ul><li>Types of plans used by managers: </li></ul><ul><li>Short-range -covers one year or less. </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate-range -covers one to two years. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-range -covers three or more years into the future. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Business <ul><li>Strategic Plan -is comprehensive and addresses longer-term needs and directions of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Plan -a plan of limited scope that addresses those activities and resources required to implement strategic plans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Resource plan </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Business <ul><li>Standing plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure/Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single use plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero-based budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Business <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenario Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul></ul>
  22. 27. Business <ul><li>Forecasting-attempts to predict outcomes; involves a projection into the future based on historical data combined in some scientific manner. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative-uses expert opinion to predict future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative-uses mathematical models and statistical analysis of historical data and surveys to predict future events. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. Business <ul><li>Contingency Planning -identifies alternative courses of action that can be taken if and when circumstances change with time. </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario Planning -identifies alternative future “scenarios” and makes plans to deal with each. This is a long-term version of contingency planning </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking -a process of comparing operations and performance with other organizations known for excellence. </li></ul>
  24. 29. Business-Krajewski <ul><li>Planning Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chase Strategy -hiring and laying off employees to match the demand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level-Utilization Strategy -keeps the workforce constant but varies it utilization based on the demand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level-Inventory Strategy -keeps both the output and workforce constant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Strategy -a combination of all/any of the other strategies. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. Conclusions <ul><li>There is little literature on planning concerning theories because planning does not work well in the sense that it is always being manipulated. It appears to be a method of extracting ideas and thinking about possibilities. However, planning often fails and is modified as needed until the plan is obsolete. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning appears often in intelligence literature primarily as a means of assessing capabilities of thinking and reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>In the business arena, long-range planning is becoming more difficult due to the “internet time” and many other advances in technology. </li></ul>
  26. 31. References: <ul><li>Ayduk, O., & Mischel, W. (2002). When smart people behave stupidly: Reconciling inconsistencies in social-emotional intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Why smart people ca be so stupid (pp. 86-105). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Bierce, A. (1911/2003). The devil’s dictionary. New York: Bloomsbury. </li></ul><ul><li>Fischer, B., Margulies, S., & Mosenfelder, D. (1966/1972). Bobby Fischer teaches chess. New York: Bantam Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Heath, C, & Heath, D. (2007). Made to stick: Why some ideas survive and others die. New York: Random House. </li></ul><ul><li>Krajewski, L.J., Ritzman, L.P, & Malhotra, M.K. (2007). Operations management: Processes and value chains (8th ed.). Upper Salle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, G., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior . As cited in Sternberg, R.J. (1985). </li></ul><ul><li>Schermerhorn, J.R., Jr. (2005). Management (8th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg, R.J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg, R.J. (1990). Metaphors of mind: Conceptions of the nature of intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg, R. J. (2003). Cognitive Psychology (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. </li></ul><ul><li>Webster’s II New Riverside Dictionary: Revised Office Edition (1996). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. </li></ul>

×