Published on

It is a brief summary, including parts of following units... I recommend you compare with Saeed and Cruse to have a more accurate view of it.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. Layers of Meaning in a Sentence <ul><li>• Meaning is relevant in a different way at each of these levels: utterances, sentences and propositions. </li></ul><ul><li>• At a BASIC LEVEL, what is relevant is the codification of entities and the type of relation that links them. </li></ul><ul><li>PREDICATION is the theoretical construct which encapsulates these relations – Halliday’s ideational or representational level. </li></ul><ul><li>• At the PROPOSITION LEVEL, the illocutionary force of a possible fact is important: different ways in which languages formalize (grammaticalize and/or lexicalize) i.e. Asking questions or making promises - using the different language-functions that can be identified. </li></ul><ul><li>• At the SENTENCE LEVEL, although abstraction is still needed to understand the possible utterances from a sentence, the force of the text is in operation. The Speech act is also relevant. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Dik’s Functional Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>• Model which tries to capture all these levels of linguistic abstraction. </li></ul><ul><li>• Theoretically grounded in predicate calculus – a part of logic. </li></ul><ul><li>• That part of meaning identified from the logical structure of each verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Van Valin’s most important contribution </li></ul><ul><li>- Typology of Participants Roles. </li></ul><ul><li>♦ The logical structure of a particular verb in a language is a function of its lexical characteristics, part of a particular lexical domain in a particular language – CONTRADICTION appears between the degree of abstraction required by any linguistic model and the requirements for concreteness that verbs used in the real world. </li></ul>
  3. 3. SENTENCE SEMANTICS. PARTICIPANTS. <ul><li>PARTICIPANTS ROLES described in semantics terms, have certain syntactic effects at the sentence level of analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The agreement in the treatment of these issues is only partial. There is no agreement on the terminology used. </li></ul><ul><li>At the SENTENCE LEVEL the type of situations (or SoA: State of affairs) and the participants taking part in them are important and interrelated. Tense and Aspect are also important. </li></ul><ul><li>2 evident factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Components of a situation (or SoA) can be identified at an abstract level. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all languages codify, lexically or grammatically, these participants, but when they do, the way they are materialized in different languages is not the same. </li></ul><ul><li>-> when languages are examined the same roles crop up but in a limited number of possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>• CLASIFICATION from different authors: </li></ul><ul><li>Van Valin and LaPolla differentiate THEMATIC RELATIONS, as linguistic entities, and ARGUMENTS POSITIONS in which participants roles are not linguistic but properties of the SoA in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Van Valin added that situations, events, actions and processes are all SoA expressed by the sentence, and simplified a range of participant roles into 2 macroroles: ACTOR and UNDERGOER . </li></ul>
  4. 4. PARTICIPANTS ROLES – Cruse & Fillmore’s Proposals. <ul><li>John opened the door – two main participants: John and the door . John is the doer, the agent, supplies the force to open the door; the door is passive, affected by the action, and undergoes the change of state. </li></ul><ul><li>John saw the door – one of the two participants has another possible relationship with the verb. John is no longer a supplier of the force but the entity affected by a perceptual experience. It would be misleading to say that John’s experience was caused by the door. </li></ul><ul><li>-> These relations are called FUNCTIONAL ROLES, CASE ROLES, DEEP CASES, PARTICIPANT ROLES or THEMATIC ROLES – not only vary in the names given by different authors but in the description given to some of them. </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Cruse’s Preliminary Division – Functional Roles : more relevant or central. </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li> - Circumstancial Roles : optional. </li></ul><ul><li>ɑ . John repaired his bycicle in the garage. </li></ul><ul><li>Ƅ . John put his bycicle in the garage. </li></ul><ul><li>In Ƅ , in the garage is more essential than in ɑ because put it a 3 argument predicate ( you 1 put something 2 somewhere 3 ) and mentioning argument 3 cannot be avoided cause it would be ungrammatical so it would not make sense. </li></ul><ul><li>In ɑ , repair is a 2 two place predicate and in the garage acts as a circumstancial role. Grammatically speaking circumstancial roles are clausal adjuntcs and optional. </li></ul><ul><li>Circumstancial Roles : 1. Occur as subject, D. Object or I. Object of verb. </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Omission (‘missing element’) must be recovered from context. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classification of Participants Roles Fillmore & Cruse <ul><li>AGENTIVE – Fillmore defined it as animate perceived instigator of the action identified by the verb. Cruse made subdivisions : force for non-animated instigators & effector for when an agent-like entity provides the force but not the will. </li></ul><ul><li>PROTOTYPICAL ANIMATED AGENT – Ronaldo kicks the ball . </li></ul><ul><li>• INSTRUMENT – Inanimate force or object defined by the verb. Cruse argues instruments as inanimate (i.e The police used sniffer dogs to locate the drugs – snnifer dogs considered instrument). </li></ul><ul><li>Peter used the ice pick to kill the victim. The ice pick kill the victim. </li></ul><ul><li>They signed the agreement with the same pen . He wiped the wound with a dirty cloth . </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVE . Fillmore identifies it semantically as the most neutral case affected by the action of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Cruse focuses on whether the affected entity is changed by the process or action or not giving theme as unchanged inanimate and patient as changed entity. </li></ul><ul><li>THEME is the entity moved by an action whose location is described. It usually remains unchanged. </li></ul><ul><li>Roberto passed the ball wide. </li></ul><ul><li>The book is in the library. </li></ul><ul><li>PATIENT is the entity undergoing the effect of some action, undergoing some change of state. </li></ul><ul><li>The sun melted the ice . </li></ul><ul><li>Mary minced the meat. </li></ul><ul><li>Factitive by Fillmore is the case of the object resulting from the action, understood as part of the meaning of the verb; also identified as patient. Fillmore factive (patient) case – John cooked a delicious meal . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Classification of Participants Roles (2) Fillmore & Cruse <ul><li>• DATIVE also called experiencer – animate being affected by the state or action. </li></ul><ul><li>Carmen heard the choir singing. The choir enchanted Carmen . Mary show the smoke. John felt ill. </li></ul><ul><li>Cruse distinguised between EXPERIENCER and BENEFACTIVE (called beneficiary by Saaed) – defined as the entity for whose benefit the action was performed. Fillmore does not identify this case separately from the dative. </li></ul><ul><li>William filled in the form for his grandmother. He baked me a cake. Robert received a gift of flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>• LOCATIVE identifies the location or special orientation of the state or action. </li></ul><ul><li>The witch was hiding in the woods . The pianist played in the stage . </li></ul><ul><li>Mary vaulted the wall . John put his finger in the button . </li></ul><ul><li>Cruse subdivisions: 1. Locative: Static location or the place. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations-> Source – entity from which something move, literally or metaphorically. </li></ul><ul><li>The plane came back from Paris. We got the idea from a French magazine. The lamps emits heat. </li></ul><ul><li>-> Path – not always recognized separately . She crossed the street. </li></ul><ul><li>-> Goal – entity towards which something moves, literally or metaphorically. </li></ul><ul><li>We finally reached the summit. Peter handed his licence to the policeman. Pat told the joke to his friends. </li></ul>
  7. 7. FUNCTIONAL ROLES AND GRAMMATICAL CHARACTERIZATIONS ♦ The link between functional roles and grammatical characterizations is the same as subject-object - Traditionally the subject is the ‘doer’ and the object is the ‘done to’(in the active voice) but not always. Fillmore proposed this hierarchy: AGENTIVE ˃ INSTRUMENTAL ˃ EXPERIENCER ˃ LOCATIVE ˃ OBJECTIVE -> In English a subject is obligatory, if there is only one noun phrase in a sentence automatically becomes the subject. Accepted by most semanticists and syntacticians. <ul><li>SPEECH ACTS </li></ul><ul><li>• Knowing whether we have been asked a question, given an order or requested to do something is the part of the meaning of a sentence communicated by illocutionary force. </li></ul><ul><li>Cruse , following Austin explained how communication through expressed propositions with a particular illocutionary force performs particular kinds of action such as asking, promising... called Speech acts. </li></ul><ul><li>- It is important for Cruse distinguish between three sort of things during the production of an utterance: </li></ul><ul><li>Locutionary acts refer to the physical act of speaking, that is the production of a noise, conforming the grammar including the speaker’s intention. </li></ul><ul><li>Perlocutionary acts use the language as a tool, persuading somebody to do something is an example. Elements which define the act are external to the locutionary act. The importancy is in the effects the act of saying has not in the act of saying certain things in a certain way but in having a certain effect (the addressee being in a better mood), which could have been produce in some other way. </li></ul><ul><li>Illocutionary acts are internal to the locutionary act – i.e. I promise to buy you a ring performs the act of promising. Performative verbs encode illocutionary force: promise, beg, thank, command... </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sentence Meaning & Speaker’s Attitude MODALITY <ul><li>Tense , aspect and modality as semantic systems operate at a syntagmatic level. </li></ul><ul><li>MODALITY is used by speakers to express their particular attitude towards a given proposition or situation. </li></ul><ul><li>As tense, modality can also be grammatical and lexical . Examples of lexical modality in English – can, could, may, might… </li></ul><ul><li>• Modality can be: </li></ul><ul><li>Deontic ( expresses obligation or permission) </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemic (expresses degrees of knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>EVIDENTIALITY is a term used to refer to the speaker’s attitude to the source of information. In English is acchieved by a separate clause or by parenthetical adverbials. </li></ul>