2. Table of Contents
The Journey Over
The Croatan Native Americans
The Croatan-English Relationship
John White left the Colony
The Spanish Armada
Return to Roanoke
Myths and Theories
About the Authors
3. After Columbus discovered the New World, every king and queen
wanted some land for themselves. Spain was taking over the New
World fast, and Queen Elizabeth of England wanted some land
also. She gave Sir Walter Raleigh money to organize a colony. He
started the colony of Roanoke.
Sir Walter Raleigh and Queen Elizabeth were very close. One day,
the Queen was walking and she came across a puddle. Sir Walter
Raleigh jumped forward and threw his cloak across the puddle so
that she would not get her shoes dirty. In 1580, Raleigh helped put
down the Irish rebellion, was knighted, and became a favorite of
Queen Elizabeth’s. He became very wealthy (Alchin).
4. In 1584, explorers Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe were the first
known Europeans to see the island of Roanoke. They had been sent to
the area by Sir Walter Raleigh to scout and find a good spot to make a
settlement. The new land was named “Virginia” in honor of the Virgin
Queen, Elizabeth. The next year, in 1586, Raleigh put Ralph Lane in
charge of the settlement. When Lane was not successful, he abandoned
the settlement leaving 15 of his men behind. Raleigh then sent 100
soldiers, miners, and scientists to Roanoke Island (“Roanoke Voyages”).
Queen Elizabeth gave Sir Walter Raleigh money to explore the New World
so Raleigh organized the journey for the colonists (National Park
Service). Raleigh hired John White to found a colony. It was to be called
“The Cittie of Raleigh”. They were headed for the Chesapeake Bay but
stopped in Roanoke to pick up the 15 men abandoned there previously.
The captain of White's ship, Fernandes, told the colonists they had to get
off on Roanoke (“Roanoke Voyages”).
Later, Elizabeth discovered that Raleigh had married one of her maids.
She got very jealous and threw both he and his wife in the Tower of
London. He was no longer her favorite (Alchin).
5. Later, Elizabeth discovered that Raleigh had married one of her maids. She
got very jealous and threw both he and his wife in the Tower of London. He
was no longer her favorite (Alchin).
Fig. 2. Sir Walter RaleighFig. 1. Queen Elizabeth I
6. The Journey Over
As mentioned previously, in 1587, the English made an
attempt to found a colony in the New World.
(Smithsonian Environmental). On voyages in that time,
the crew received harsh punishments for not doing what
they were supposed to do. The food consisted of salt
beef, pork, fish, ale, or biscuits. There was also a great
deal of sickness because of many reasons, such as
spoiled food (Royal Museums). The journeys were
usually very rough because of all the storms at sea. It
took the ships about ninety-two days to make the trip.
They were sailing for Virginia, but because of the
upcoming hurricane season, the colonists were forced
to end their journey earlier than planned. So they
settled on Roanoke Island, in what today is called
North Carolina (Smithsonian Environmental).
7. Fig. 3. This painting by Seth Eastman, c.1850 depicts a 'small'
pinnace, a boat design that was used on the earliest voyages
from England to establish the Popham Colony in southern
Maine, and settlement at Jamestown and other sites on coastal
Virginia in the first decade of the 17th century. The 1584 date
refers to the ill-fated, late 16th century English colony at
8. Led and governed by John White, the 117
settlers were off to the New World. The
settlers were gentlemen, women, children,
and many artisans (Smithsonian). Queen
Elizabeth hired Sir Walter Raleigh to help
her expand her empire. The Spanish had
already started exploring the New World,
and she did not want England to be left
behind. Raleigh then hired John White to be
the leader and governor for the journey to
the New World. Raleigh promised the future
colonists a plot of land. Once the colonists
arrived they had many responsibilities in
order to survive (Oregon Public
Fig. 4. Map of Roanoke.
9. Life was difficult in the colony of Roanoke. The colonists were
struggling to survive. It was especially hard for the colony because
they did not have much food or living supplies (Smithsonian
Environmental Research Center).
It took a very long time for the supply ships to arrive in Roanoke.
The colonists had some supplies such as blankets (but they did not
help much because the blankets were thin), rotten food, animals, and
a very small amount of crops. There was a lack of food and water.
There were also many diseases that made living in Roanoke very
hard. Many people died from starvation, food poisoning, diseases,
and wild beasts (Intriguing Family History). Surviving Roanoke was a
struggle and many people faced death (Oregon Public Broadcasting).
11. Before the colonists came to Roanoke, the Croatan Native
Americans inhabited the land surrounding Roanoke Island. They
were a group of Native Americans who lived very close to
The Croatan lived in North Carolina for a long period of time.
The Croatan are also known as the Lumbee or the Cheraw Native
Americans. They were a thriving group of natives that lived from
hunting deer, wild turkey, and other animals. They harvested corn,
squash, beans, and tobacco. They also fished on the outer banks of
the island, though they lived in the forests. Croatan Island was
fairly big and was forty-two miles long (Native Languages).
The Croatan Native Americans
13. John White described the Croatan Native Americans as his friends
(Gudzune). The Native Americans were hospitable to the colonists,
but the colonists treated them like slaves. For instance, when one
of the colonists noticed his silver drinking cup missing, he
threatened to burn the Native Americans and their chief. This was
bad for their colony because the colonists were relying on the
Native Americans and could not risk any trouble. (Margaret
14. Fig. 6. Warrior of the Secotan Indians in North Carolina.
Watercolour painted by John White in 1585.
15. John White founded the colony of Roanoke in 1584. Life was
very difficult in the colony. Food and clean water was scarce
and the colonists had to deal with disease. When supplies ran
out, John White returned to England to get supplies. When he
reached England, he found the country at war against Spain.
England could not spare any ships to send supplies to the
colony. John White was not able to return to Roanoke because
the English needed all the ships to fight the war. After three
years, the war ended and England won. Queen Elizabeth allowed
White to return to the colony with the supplies needed
John White Returned to England
16. Fig. 7. Baptism of Virginia Dare, John White's granddaughter and the
first child born in the Americas to English parents.
17. The Spanish Armada was a huge fleet of Spanish warships. The
Spanish Armada trapped the English naval fleet in England. The
English ships were unable to leave. John White could not bring back
much needed supplies to the colony in time (Foresman). The
Spanish Armada consisted of 130 ships (22 warships and converted
merchant vessels), which carried about 2,500 guns. There were
30,000 men on the ships. It sailed from Lisbon, Spain, which is
modern day Portugal, on July 19, 1588. The Armada sailed to gain
control of the English Channel during the Anglo-Spanish War. The
reason for that was because the Spanish wanted to move an
invasion army from the Netherlands to England (Trueman).
The Spanish Armada
Fig. 8. The Spanish Armada.
19. When John White returned to Roanoke in mid-August 15, he saw
smoke in two different places on the island. The smoke was
from a forest fire. White found nothing. All the houses were
destroyed and there was no sign of settlement except the word
“CRO” scratched on a tree (A&E). White knew that the Croatan
Native Americans lived near the settlers, White assumed that the
colonists went to live with the Native Americans. John White and
some men searched for the settlers. White thought that settlers
had moved in with the Native Americans and tried to get to
Croatoan Island. However, there was a big storm and he was
forced to return to England after finding nothing in Roanoke.
He had no money left for another voyage. It was hard for John
White to face the tragedy of what may have occurred in Roanoke
because of the loss of his family (“The Lost Colony”).
Return to Roanoke
20. Fig. 10. John White discovers the word "CROATOAN" carved at
Roanoke's fort palisade.
21. When the colonists disappeared, many myths and theories formed
over the years. Most of the myths and theories started when people
saw CROATOAN scratched on a tree, and CRO scratched on another
post nearby on Roanoke Island. There are many different kinds of
myths and theories about what could have happened to the
Some people think that a hurricane destroyed the settlement and
the colonists washed out to sea. Another theory is that an
aggressive Native American tribe murdered the colonists and ruined
their homes. That is a theory that many people believe that is true
because the colonists did not have the correct material to build a
shelter that would have been able to stand up to a hurricane or an
attack (“What Happened”).
Myths and Theories
Rebecca B. and Gil S.
22. People think that while John White was delayed in England
trying to get supplies, the colonists were famished, alone, and
cold, so they decided to live with the Croatans. Another
theory relating to this is that the colonists of Roanoke
starved to death. This could be because that is one of the
reasons White went back to England to get more food. After
the colony disappeared, it was documented that the settlers
had intermarried the pale-skinned Native Americans
One myth is that werewolves attacked the colony and turned
the colonists into werewolves. Another myth is that aliens
came, took the colonists, and flew away. Many people try to
avoid coming to this abandoned settlement because they
think it is haunted (Embrose).
These are the theories and myths that have formed after the
colony disappeared, but what might have happened to the
colony still remains a mystery to this very day.
23. Fig. 11. "CRO" written on a tree, part of the Lost Colony
performance at Fort Raleigh National Historic Site.
24. A&E Television Networks, LLC. “Roanoke Colony Deserted.” This
Day In History. Web. 8 Mar. 2013.
Alchin, L. K. “Sir Walter Raleigh.” Elizabethan Era. Web. 8 Mar. 2013.
Embrose, Kala. “Haunted History.” Examiner.com, 16 June 2012. Web.
8 Mar. 2013.
Foresman, Scott. "The Battle of the Spanish Armada." Social
Studies: The United States. Glenview, IL: Pearson Education, Inc.,
2006. 158. Print.
Gudzune, Jeffrey. “Croatan & Roanoke.” Suite101.com, 29 Sept.
2006. Web. 22 Mar. 2013.
25. Intriguing Family History. “The Lost Colony of Roanoke Island.”
Education & Outreach. Web. 8 Mar. 2013.
“The Lost Colony of Roanoke” Social Studies for Kids. Web. 8
National Park Service. “The Roanoke Voyages.” Fort Raleigh. Web.
8 Mar. 2013.
Native Languages of the Americas. “Lumbee Indian Fact Sheet.”
Native American Facts for Kids. Web. 23 Apr. 2013.
North Carolina Museum of History. “What Happened to the Lost
Colony?” Legends of North Carolina. Web. 8 Mar. 2013.
Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Margaret. “Roanoke Island, the Virginian
Colony.” The Courtly Lives--Roanoke Island. Web. 3 Apr. 2013.
Oregon Public Broadcasting. “Historical Background.” Time Team
America. Web. 12 Mar. 2013.
“Roanoke Colony.” Wikipedia.org. Web. 12 Mar. 2013.
26. "Roanoke Voyages: England’s Expeditions to the New World
Between 1584 and 1590, Including the Lost Colony.” The Lost
Colony. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.
Royal Museums Greenwich. “Life at Sea in the Age of Sail.”
National Maritime Museum. Web. 11 Mar. 2013.
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. “The Lost Colony of
Roanoke Island.” Education & Outreach. Web. 15 Mar. 2013.
Trueman, Chris. “The Spanish Armada.” History Learning Site. Web.
8 Mar. 2013.
27. Image Credits
Cover. By Missvain (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://
creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.
Fig. 1. Attributed to George Gower [Public domain], via Wikimedia
Fig. 2. By French School (bridgeman.co.uk) [Public domain], via
Fig. 3. By Original painting by Seth Eastman, c.1850. [Public domain,
Public domain or CC-BY-SA-3.0</a>], via Wikimedia Commons.
Fig. 4. John White’s sketch of the Roanoke area, c.1584. [Public
domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
Fig. 5. Author unknown [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
Fig. 6. By John White, explorer and artist (British Museum, London)
[Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
28. Fig. 7. Henry Howe [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
Fig. 8. Nicholas Hilliard [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
Fig. 9. By Ori~ [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.
Fig. 10. Author unknown [Public domain], via Wikimedia
Fig. 11. By Missvain (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia
Fig. 12. 5th grade MJGDS students, by Talie Zaifert.
Alien. A person of a foreign country or nation.
Artisan. A skilled worker, especially making things by hand.
Cloak. An outdoor garment.
Colony. A settlement that is ruled by another country.
Croatan. A group of Native Americans who lived in North Carolina.
Descendant. A person who is related by blood.
Disease. A disorder in a human, animal or plant.
Exploration. The act of traveling in an unfamiliar area.
Island. A piece of land surrounded by water.
Myth. A traditional story about the early history of peoples or places.
30. Native. A person who is associated with a place by birth.
New World. The Americas.
Pinnace. A small boat with sails.
Rebellion. An act of public violence.
Settlement. The act of settling, making a home.
Slave. One who is owned by another person and is forced to do what
their owner says.
Theory. A thought that has not been proven.
Voyage. A long journey involving travel by sea or space.
31. We are a small group of fifth
grade students at the Martin J.
Gottlieb Day School, located in
Jacksonville, Florida, USA. All
eleven of us are very excited
for this eBook to be read by a
global audience and to be
utilized as a teaching tool
about the Lost Colony. We have
all worked very hard on
making this the best it can be.
About the Authors
For more information about our school and the students, please
visit our blogs, http://mjgds.org/students (for the student blogs)
or http://mjgds.org/classrooms/5thgrade (for our class blog).
Fig. 12. Fifth grade class at
32. Our process of making this book took a lot longer than we thought
it would. First, we gathered information from different, credible
websites and added the websites to our Diigo account. Next, we
drafted our chapters based on the research that we collected on
Diigo. After we finished drafting, we put our chapters into ebook
form on Book Creator for iPad. Then we decided the layout of our
Some advice from the authors: When you work, you need to be very
patient and put a lot of time and effort into your book. Depending
on the genre of your ebook, you want to pay attention to your
writing style, stay in the right tense, and continuously check your
work throughout the process. When you research, you need to make
sure that the website is credible to not gather false information.
When you search for images, make sure that they are under Creative
Commons and also check that you cite the images and information
Next time, we could do this project better by choosing the topic
ourselves and having more time.
Overall, this was an amazing project. We put a lot of effort into this
and we are all very proud of the outcome.
We hope that you enjoyed our ebook!