The invention of agriculture was also pretty big. Guns, Germs, and Steel. I guess what makes the industrial revolution even more transformative was the move away from the land for most people and the enormous injection of wealth into the economies of industrial nations. Combined with colonization, it was also world-wide in scope. The Industrial Revolution also went hand in hand with the rise of capitalism.
Have students write the formula for profit on the side.
This map showing the British Empire was produced in 1886. The sun never set on the British empire.
This is what Gandhi was up against!!!!
Visitors spoke of the richness of the pastures and numerous flocks. The English countryside was beautiful and prosperous
Land was held by a small group of very large landlords. Rural life was already commercialized. By then tea was already the national drink, consumed even by the laboring classes. People worked in the fields for cash income.
Trade with the colonies was much more important than farming or manufacturing to the British economy. This show a British business specializing in tea.
In 1750 the navy had about 6,000 merchant ships, many times the size of the French fleet.
This picture depicts the British fleet entering the harbor at Burma. In Britain manufacturing interests held great influence in the government, unlike the other European countries, such as France and the Netherlands.
Britain experienced extraordinary expansion. Britain could capture other countries export markets and destroy competition within particular countries. Both of these were done to India, which had produced and exported very high quality cotton textiles.
Hobsbaum, Eric. P. 34
It was forced slave labor from the New World that supplied so much cotton to Britain. The stockpiling of cotton in the ports city of Liverpool compelled the British to invent machines to deal with it.
A Liverpool slave ship. Even today, several streets in Liverpool are named after slaving families, such as Tarleton and Gildart.
Remember, it was the British who controlled virtually all trade, anywhere. During the 18 th century the Indian princely states were waring among themselves, which disrupted the Indian production of cotton textiles.
Again, this demand for the product made the inventions for cotton spinning necessary.
This was not a complicated machine!! The ability to build it had existed for years.
It was the the last two, the water frame and the mule that really implied factory production.
The technology of cotton manufacture was fairly simple. It required little technical skill or scientific knowledge. It hardly even required steam power. Even many years later in the 1800s, water power was still often used for these machines.
Later on, the British working people end up having great sympathy for Gandhi and the struggles of the Indian people.
Contrast Henry Ford who paid a wage sufficient that his employees could buy a Model T. Remember, too, the British government threw its entire weight behind colonization in order to support the British manufacturers.
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution <ul><li>The most fundamental transformation of human life in the history of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain was the epicenter of this transformation </li></ul><ul><li>It began around 1770. </li></ul>
Capitalism or Market Economy <ul><li>People are free to own and operate their own business for profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Profit is revenue earned, minus all business expenses, such as the cost of raw materials and wages paid to workers </li></ul>
The Really Huge Question: <ul><li>Why did the the Industrial Revolution happen where it did and when it did. </li></ul>
<ul><li>No country has ever surpassed Britain in world power and influence, and no country is likely to in the forseeable future. </li></ul>
Britain became the agency of global economic interchange <ul><li>Between: </li></ul><ul><li>The advanced and the underdeveloped </li></ul><ul><li>The industrial and the suppliers of raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>The metropolitan and the colonial </li></ul>
<ul><li>International transfers of capital and commodities passed through British hands, in British ships, and were calculated in terms of the pound sterling . </li></ul>
1750 <ul><li>England was green, tidy, and prosperous, like a well-kept garden </li></ul>
<ul><li>London had a population of about 175,000 and was twice the size of Paris. </li></ul>
The Industrial Revolution was Cotton!!! <ul><li>Through cotton, there arose a new form of industrial capitalism: The Factory </li></ul>
Manchester was the City <ul><li>“ Hundreds of 5-6 storied factories, each with a towering chimney by its side, which exhales black coal vapor.” </li></ul>
The Slave Trade and the over-abundance of raw material: Cotton <ul><li>1500’s: less than .5 million African slaves taken to the New World </li></ul><ul><li>1600’s: 1.5 million African slaves taken </li></ul><ul><li>1700’s: 7 million African slaves taken </li></ul>
Get This!!!! <ul><li>The first local cotton manufacturers established themselves near slave trading ports, such as Liverpool. </li></ul><ul><li>There was an excess of cotton coming in to these ports that needed to be used. </li></ul>
Ultimately, the most modern center of production, Lancashire, preserved and extended the most primitive form of exploitation : slavery
And then there is the market side: <ul><li>Between 1750 and 1770 there were periodic disruptions in the Indian supply of cotton textiles, primarily destined for Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>British manufacturers had to step in to supply the cotton textiles for the British traders. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Remember, it was the British who controlled virtually all trade, anywhere!! </li></ul>
<ul><li>This vast expansion of British-made cotton exports after 1750 gave the industry its impetus. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1750 and 1770 British cotton exports multiplied 10 times over. </li></ul>
<ul><li>By the end of the 19 th century, 90% of British cotton was exported . </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the exports went to India, after the British succeeded in shutting down Indian cotton textile production. </li></ul><ul><li>East Asia also received a lot of the British cotton exports. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The cotton factories of the Industrial Revolution were essentially spinning mills. </li></ul><ul><li>The innovation stopped there for the next 30-40 years . Rail and steel and all the rest came later. </li></ul>
Terrible working conditions <ul><li>Most employees in the cotton industry were women and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Very long hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Low wages. </li></ul><ul><li>Danger. </li></ul><ul><li>The standard of living went down for the working classes. </li></ul>
It was possible to maintain very low wages for the British working population and still remain very profitable due to the huge export market.
Conclusion <ul><li>The Industrial Revolution was deeply intertwined with the fates of Africa and Asia. </li></ul>