Elements of Culture 2011


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Elements of Culture 2011

  1. 1. The Elements of Culture
  2. 2. Culture <ul><li>The way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cultural anthropology <ul><li>Studies: cultural variations among humans </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of global economic and political process on local cultures </li></ul>
  4. 4. cultural diffusion <ul><li>The process of spreading new knowledge from one culture to another </li></ul>
  5. 5. Language <ul><li>Through language people communicate information and experiences and pass on cultural values and traditions </li></ul>
  6. 6. dialect <ul><li>A local form of a language that differs from the main language </li></ul>
  7. 7. Geographic Skills <ul><li>Provide the tools and methods for understanding the relationships between people, places, and environments </li></ul>
  8. 8. absolute location <ul><li>The exact spot at which a place is found on earth </li></ul><ul><li>To pinpoint the spot geographers use latitude and logitude </li></ul>
  9. 9. relative location <ul><li>Locating a place in relation to other places </li></ul>
  10. 10. Religion <ul><li>Beliefs vary significantly around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Differences can be a source of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Religion can provide a sense of identity </li></ul>
  11. 11. monotheism <ul><li>Belief in one god </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism, Christianity, and Islam </li></ul>
  12. 12. polytheism <ul><li>Belief in more than one god </li></ul>
  13. 13. animism <ul><li>Belief that spirits inhabit natural objects and forces of nature </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social Groups <ul><li>A social system develops to help the members of a culture work together to meet basic needs </li></ul>
  15. 15. family <ul><li>In all cultures the family is the most important group </li></ul>
  16. 16. extended family <ul><li>Includes great grandparents, grandparents, parents, children, aunts, uncles, and cousins </li></ul><ul><li>Parents and children share their home with members if the extended family </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes extended families live in family compounds in a village or city </li></ul>
  17. 17. nuclear family <ul><li>Parents and children living together as a family </li></ul>
  18. 18. patriarchal family <ul><li>Families that are headed by a male family member </li></ul><ul><li>Usually these are also extended families </li></ul>
  19. 19. social class <ul><li>Groups of people ranked according to ancestry, wealth, education, or other criteria </li></ul>
  20. 20. ethnic group <ul><li>People who share a common language, history, place of origin, or a combination of these elements </li></ul><ul><li>Irish, German, Mexican, Hmong, Serbian </li></ul>
  21. 21. ethnic cleansing <ul><li>Expelling or killing a rival ethnic group </li></ul><ul><li>Former Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda </li></ul><ul><li>Darfur </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes occurs with genocide </li></ul>
  22. 22. ethnocentrism <ul><li>Judging another culture according to the standards of your own culture </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone is ethnocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it is unintentional and takes the form of simply misunderstanding another culture </li></ul>
  23. 23. Government <ul><li>Maintains order </li></ul><ul><li>Provides protection from outside dangers </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies services to its people </li></ul>
  24. 24. unitary system <ul><li>Gives all key powers to the national or central government </li></ul><ul><li>France, United Kingdom </li></ul>
  25. 25. federal system <ul><li>Divides the power of the government between national and state or provincial levels </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul>
  26. 26. autocracy <ul><li>The power and authority to rule belong to a single individual </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest form of government </li></ul><ul><li>Totalitarianism is a type of this </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler’s government in Germany </li></ul>
  27. 27. monarchy <ul><li>A king or queen exercises the supreme control of the government </li></ul><ul><li>It is a type of autocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia </li></ul>
  28. 28. oligarchy <ul><li>A system of government is which a small group hold power </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul>
  29. 29. democracy <ul><li>Leaders rule with the consent of the people </li></ul><ul><li>United States, France </li></ul>
  30. 30. representative democracy <ul><li>People elect representatives with the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government </li></ul><ul><li>Also called a republic </li></ul>
  31. 31. imperialism <ul><li>Political and economic domination </li></ul>
  32. 32. Economy <ul><li>How a culture utilizes natural resources to meet its needs </li></ul><ul><li>How people produce, obtain, use, and sell goods and services </li></ul>
  33. 33. market economy <ul><li>Individuals and private groups make decisions about what to produce </li></ul><ul><li>People decide what products to buy </li></ul><ul><li>Free enterprise: the idea that individuals have the right own own and operate their own business for profit </li></ul>
  34. 34. command economy <ul><li>The government owns or directs the means of production(land, labor, capital) </li></ul><ul><li>The government also controls the distribution of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes are used for social services </li></ul><ul><li>Communism or socialism </li></ul>
  35. 35. socialism <ul><li>Public ownership of essential services and factories </li></ul><ul><li>Higher taxes pay for more public services, such as free health care, free day care, and free college education </li></ul><ul><li>Western European countries </li></ul>
  36. 36. development <ul><li>The process of improving material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology </li></ul><ul><li>The development process is continuous, involving never ending actions to constantly improve the health and prosperity of the people. </li></ul>
  37. 37. More Developed Country <ul><li>MDC </li></ul><ul><li>A country that has progressed further along the development continuum </li></ul><ul><li>U.S., Japan, Brazil </li></ul>
  38. 38. Less Developed Country <ul><li>LDC </li></ul><ul><li>Also called developing country </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Republic of Congo, Pakistan </li></ul>
  39. 39. subsistance economy <ul><li>Also subsistance farming </li></ul><ul><li>People grow food to meet their own needs </li></ul><ul><li>People make their own products, or buy/trade from other villagers </li></ul>