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Issues in Urban Hydrogeology Lecture

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Issues in Urban Hydrogeology Lecture

  1. 1. Water in the MegaregionWater in the Megaregion Mike Dobbins Spring 2010
  2. 2. Necessity of waterNecessity of water
  3. 3. World Water Supplies 97% 3% Salt Water Fresh Water 3% Fresh Water 30% 0.3% 0.7% 69% Ice Ground Water Surface Water Atmospheric Water Where is the WaterWhere is the Water
  4. 4. Fresh Water AvailabilityFresh Water Availability • Of all the Water on EarthOf all the Water on Earth – > 1% is Potable and Accessible to Use by> 1% is Potable and Accessible to Use by MankindMankind • >.09% is in Surface Water>.09% is in Surface Water • ≈≈.9% is in Ground Water.9% is in Ground Water • All of the rest of the water on Earth isAll of the rest of the water on Earth is either Saltwater or is locked in the ice ofeither Saltwater or is locked in the ice of the Arctic or in the Antarctica, Greenlandthe Arctic or in the Antarctica, Greenland and Iceland icesheetsand Iceland icesheets
  5. 5. Water useWater use •Thermoelectric Power Generation – 48%Thermoelectric Power Generation – 48% •Agricultural Irrigation – 34%Agricultural Irrigation – 34% •Public Water Supplies – 11%Public Water Supplies – 11% •Industrial Uses – 5%Industrial Uses – 5% •Aquaculture – >1%Aquaculture – >1% •Livestock – 1%Livestock – 1% •Mining – >1%Mining – >1% •Domestic wells – >1%Domestic wells – >1%
  6. 6. Groundwater PrimerGroundwater Primer • Aquifers – Subsurface water which may orAquifers – Subsurface water which may or may not be isolated from surface watersmay not be isolated from surface waters – Unconfined Aquifers – Shallow and connectedUnconfined Aquifers – Shallow and connected to surface waters. i.e. Edwards Aquiferto surface waters. i.e. Edwards Aquifer – Confined Aquifers – unconnected to surfaceConfined Aquifers – unconnected to surface waters. i.e. Ogallala Aquiferwaters. i.e. Ogallala Aquifer • Permeability vs. PorosityPermeability vs. Porosity
  7. 7. Edwards AquiferEdwards Aquifer •Recharged by Local and Regional Rainfall
  8. 8. Ogallala AquiferOgallala Aquifer •Less then 1% RechargeLess then 1% Recharge by Rainfallby Rainfall •““Ancient” water –Ancient” water – 250,000 to 2 Million250,000 to 2 Million Years oldYears old •Water is effectivelyWater is effectively “mined”“mined”
  9. 9. Water Issues in the MegaregionWater Issues in the Megaregion • Impervious CoverImpervious Cover • Water QualityWater Quality • Aquifer Recharge/DischargeAquifer Recharge/Discharge • Urban StructuresUrban Structures • Effects of Climate ChangeEffects of Climate Change • PoliticsPolitics
  10. 10. Impervious CoverImpervious Cover • Flash FloodsFlash Floods • Captures Pollutants and DebrisCaptures Pollutants and Debris • Pollutant concentrationPollutant concentration • OverchargeOvercharge • Diversion – Channelization – AquiferDiversion – Channelization – Aquifer BypassBypass
  11. 11. Impervious CoverImpervious Cover •West Edmonton Mall – 20,000 Parking Spaces in 1,2 and 3 LevelsWest Edmonton Mall – 20,000 Parking Spaces in 1,2 and 3 Levels
  12. 12. Impervious CoverImpervious Cover •MGM/Disney World, Epcot Center, Champion Stadium –MGM/Disney World, Epcot Center, Champion Stadium – Epcot/Disney 40,000+ parking Spaces on 1 levelEpcot/Disney 40,000+ parking Spaces on 1 level
  13. 13. Diversion – Las VegasDiversion – Las Vegas
  14. 14. Diversion – Las VegasDiversion – Las Vegas
  15. 15. Las Vegas - ChannelizationLas Vegas - Channelization
  16. 16. Las Vegas –Las Vegas – Diversion/ChannelizationDiversion/Channelization •Artificial Riparian HabitatsArtificial Riparian Habitats •Capture Pollution and DebrisCapture Pollution and Debris •Flood ControlFlood Control •Artificial LakesArtificial Lakes •Erosion/Flood ControlErosion/Flood Control •Pollution and Debris CapturePollution and Debris Capture •Attempt to Recapture Aquifer BypassAttempt to Recapture Aquifer Bypass
  17. 17. Groundwater Cycle in the UrbanGroundwater Cycle in the Urban EnvironmentEnvironment •Normal Aquifer RechargeNormal Aquifer Recharge •RainRain •Infiltration to AquiferInfiltration to Aquifer •Runoff to StreamsRunoff to Streams •EvapotranspirationEvapotranspiration •Urban Aquifer RechargeUrban Aquifer Recharge •RainRain •RunoffRunoff •Infiltration to AquiferInfiltration to Aquifer •EvapotranspirationEvapotranspiration •DiversionDiversion •LeakageLeakage •OverdraftOverdraft •Many More CausesMany More Causes
  18. 18. Water QualityWater Quality • Point Source vs. Non-Point Source – DoesPoint Source vs. Non-Point Source – Does it Matterit Matter • Runoff from Impervious CoverRunoff from Impervious Cover • Industrial PollutantsIndustrial Pollutants • ExobiologicsExobiologics • PharmaceuticalsPharmaceuticals
  19. 19. Dangers to Water QualityDangers to Water Quality •Leaking pipesLeaking pipes •Building and Construction (Old and New)Building and Construction (Old and New) •Underground TanksUnderground Tanks •PetsPets •Lawn CareLawn Care •Impervious CoverImpervious Cover
  20. 20. Aquifer Recharge andAquifer Recharge and DischargeDischarge • Las Vegas – Channelization causesLas Vegas – Channelization causes bypass of the Aquifer, hence no rechargebypass of the Aquifer, hence no recharge • Austin / San AntonioAustin / San Antonio – Impervious cover built on top if the EdwardsImpervious cover built on top if the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone decreasing rechargeAquifer Recharge Zone decreasing recharge (Bad Zoning)(Bad Zoning) – San Antonio – Single source for all water,San Antonio – Single source for all water, Edwards Aquifer, but few conservationEdwards Aquifer, but few conservation controlscontrols
  21. 21. • OverchargeOvercharge – Impervious Cover over captureImpervious Cover over capture – Leaking utilities (Water, Sewer)Leaking utilities (Water, Sewer) – IrrigationIrrigation – Climate ChangeClimate Change • DischargeDischarge – Overdraft (over pumping)Overdraft (over pumping) – Climate ChangeClimate Change – ConstructionConstruction • Both Overcharge and Overdraft can causeBoth Overcharge and Overdraft can cause permanent damage to an aquiferpermanent damage to an aquifer
  22. 22. Overdraft (Over pumping)Overdraft (Over pumping)
  23. 23. More OverdraftMore Overdraft
  24. 24. Urban StructuresUrban Structures • Refer back to Impervious Cover andRefer back to Impervious Cover and Aquifer BypassAquifer Bypass • Pipelines, TunnelsPipelines, Tunnels • FoundationsFoundations • OtherOther
  25. 25. • FoundationsFoundations – What happens when you dig a 60-100 foot deep foundationWhat happens when you dig a 60-100 foot deep foundation – What happens when you put 10, 20, 50 of these foundationsWhat happens when you put 10, 20, 50 of these foundations togethertogether – We don’t knowWe don’t know • River walls, Weirs, Dykes, etc.River walls, Weirs, Dykes, etc. – LondonLondon • Thames River WallsThames River Walls • Thames BarrierThames Barrier – AmsterdamAmsterdam • Below sea levelBelow sea level
  26. 26. Climate ChangeClimate Change • The Great UnknownThe Great Unknown • More ExtremesMore Extremes • Local and Regional DifferencesLocal and Regional Differences
  27. 27. Politics - Water lawPolitics - Water law • Surface WaterSurface Water – Riparian RightsRiparian Rights • English “Absolute” Rule (Rule of Capture)English “Absolute” Rule (Rule of Capture) • American “Reasonable Use” RuleAmerican “Reasonable Use” Rule – Safe YieldSafe Yield – SustainableSustainable – Prior AppropriationPrior Appropriation • Mainly Western U.S.Mainly Western U.S. • ““First in Time – First in Right”First in Time – First in Right”
  28. 28. Politics – Water LawPolitics – Water Law • GroundwaterGroundwater – English “Absolute” Rule (Rule of Capture) (Texas)English “Absolute” Rule (Rule of Capture) (Texas) – American “Reasonable Use” RuleAmerican “Reasonable Use” Rule – Correlative RightsCorrelative Rights • You own what’s under your property (Do you see a problem here?)You own what’s under your property (Do you see a problem here?) – Frazer v. Brown (Ohio, 1861) – No right to regulate groundwaterFrazer v. Brown (Ohio, 1861) – No right to regulate groundwater • “…“…the existence, origin, movement, and course of such waters, andthe existence, origin, movement, and course of such waters, and the causes that govern and direct their movement, are sothe causes that govern and direct their movement, are so secret andsecret and occultoccult, and concealed that an attempt to administer any set of legal, and concealed that an attempt to administer any set of legal rules in respect to them would be involved in hopeless uncertainty ,rules in respect to them would be involved in hopeless uncertainty , and would, therefore, be practically impossible.”and would, therefore, be practically impossible.” – Houston & Central Texas Railway v. East (Texas, 1904)Houston & Central Texas Railway v. East (Texas, 1904) • Based on Frazer v. Brown groundwater isBased on Frazer v. Brown groundwater is occultoccult in nature so evenin nature so even though cause and effect can be shown and that there were nothough cause and effect can be shown and that there were no corollary rights assigned to East then the case iscorollary rights assigned to East then the case is damnum abs quedamnum abs que injuriainjuria [an injury that can not be remedied][an injury that can not be remedied]
  29. 29. Politics – Water LawPolitics – Water Law • Federal LawFederal Law – Very little, based on Interstate Commerce andVery little, based on Interstate Commerce and Frazer v. Brown (Ohio,1861)Frazer v. Brown (Ohio,1861) • StatesStates – Most water regulation is done by states or byMost water regulation is done by states or by regions within a stateregions within a state – Texas Water Development Board and TexasTexas Water Development Board and Texas Water Conservation DistrictsWater Conservation Districts
  30. 30. Politics – Allocation and ManagementPolitics – Allocation and Management • ““Tragedy of the Commons” (Garret Harden)Tragedy of the Commons” (Garret Harden) • Decision Support Systems (DSS)Decision Support Systems (DSS) – Combines science, opinion and community wants andCombines science, opinion and community wants and needs into a sustainability modelneeds into a sustainability model – Outcome BasedOutcome Based • Uses Community based decisions on futureUses Community based decisions on future conditions to determine current and futureconditions to determine current and future allocationsallocations
  31. 31. Politics – DSSPolitics – DSS • SoftwareSoftware – MODFLOWMODFLOW – Custom DSS softwareCustom DSS software
  32. 32. So What About theSo What About the Megaregion?Megaregion? • Spatial coverageSpatial coverage
  33. 33. So What About theSo What About the Megaregion?Megaregion? • SpatialSpatial – Cross Political and Legislative BoundariesCross Political and Legislative Boundaries – Cross Cultural BoundariesCross Cultural Boundaries – Cross Regulatory BoundariesCross Regulatory Boundaries • DiversityDiversity – Problems may not me one-to-oneProblems may not me one-to-one – Solutions may not be one-to-oneSolutions may not be one-to-one • Increased Complexity and QuantityIncreased Complexity and Quantity
  34. 34. Finally….Finally…. • Nothing about the issues or problems areNothing about the issues or problems are new or uniquenew or unique • The scale has just increasedThe scale has just increased • The time is past forThe time is past for laissez-farelaissez-fare management and planning andmanagement and planning and comme ci,comme ci, commecomme ççaa leadershipleadership • Best Practices must be developedBest Practices must be developed

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