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Al W & W 2008 11 05


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Al W & W 2008 11 05

  1. 1. Saving Water, Saving Energy The Alabama Environmental Council The Alabama Rivers Alliance World Wildlife Fund The River Network
  2. 2. The Alabama Environmental Council The Alabama Environmental Council works for a healthy environment with an emphasis on clean air, efficient and renewable energy, and improved waste reduction practices. We provide a voice for Alabama now and for the future. From the low and gentle mountains of the north to the pure white sands of the coast, we breathe Alabama's air, drink Alabama's water and depend on Alabama's land. We recognize the positive link between a strong economy, a clean environment and a healthy, proactive citizenry.
  3. 3. The Alabama Rivers Alliance Our purpose is to protect & restore Alabama's rivers. To do this, we advocate smart water policy, organize at the grassroots level, and teach citizens how they can protect their water. Our goal is to achieve healthy rivers, healthy people, and a healthy system of government for the state of Alabama.
  4. 4. World Wildlife Fund Southeast Rivers and Streams Initiative It is the vision of WWF to protect and restore the ecological health of the region’s rivers and streams to safeguard natural processes, conserve native species and reach a balance between the needs of people and nature.
  5. 5. The River Network <ul><li>River Network’s vision is to improve the quality of all fresh waters in the U.S. and the health of all people and ecosystems dependant upon them </li></ul><ul><li>Through their new Saving Water, Saving Energy project, River Network is working to show how much water and energy we can save, how we can do it, and how everyone of us can get started today. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Saving energy by saving water is one of the best strategies available to decrease climate change impacts! </li></ul>
  7. 10. Only 1% Fresh Water 97% Salt Water 2/3 of 1% is underground 1/3 of 1% is rivers, streams, and lakes 2% frozen in ice
  8. 11. According to data collected by NASA and the World Health Organization, 4 billion people will face water shortages by 2050.
  9. 12. Water is life. There is no substitute. It is our obligation to ensure its protection for the generations who will inherit our planet. Photo: Hunter Nichols
  10. 14. Alabama’s unique biodiversity in our rivers and streams runs deep. Our state has over 77,000 miles of rivers and streams Photo: Nelson Brooke Black Warrior River
  11. 15. The Cahaba River is home to more species of fish than any other river of its size in North America. Photo: Hunter Nichols
  12. 16. <ul><li>Alabama: #1 in states for freshwater diversity, i.e. the number of species that live in our rivers and streams </li></ul><ul><li>species of freshwater fish </li></ul><ul><li>species of mussels </li></ul><ul><li>species of freshwater snails </li></ul><ul><li>species of freshwater turtles </li></ul><ul><li>species of crayfish </li></ul><ul><li>species of damselflies </li></ul>
  13. 17. SE rivers a global priority of World Wildlife Fund, The Nature Conservancy, National Geographic, and others <ul><li>Particular emphasis on Tennessee, and Mobile River Basins </li></ul>Dr. Randy Haddock, Cahaba River Society
  14. 18. Are Alabama’s water resources effected by the changes in our planet’s climate?
  15. 19. Effects of Climate Change happening now: <ul><li>Sea levels are rising </li></ul><ul><li>Arctic sea ice is melting </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciers and permafrost are melting </li></ul><ul><li>Sea-surface temperatures are warming </li></ul><ul><li>Heavier rainfall cause flooding in many regions </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme drought is increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems are changing </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes have changed in frequency and strength </li></ul><ul><li>Heat waves more frequent </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer temperatures affect human health </li></ul>
  16. 20. Alabama Temperature Trends
  17. 21. Alabama Precipitation Trends
  18. 22. How will Alabama change as the climate changes? Two models: Hotter & dryer Warmer & wetter Impacts: More floods & erosion ? More droughts & drinking water shortages? No peaches grown in Alabama?
  19. 24. Ground-water monitoring wells Drought conditions 2008 Provided by: Alabama Geological Survey
  20. 25. The Cahaba River 2007 Trussville Photo: Hunter Nichols
  21. 26. Lake Martin 2007 Kowaliga Marina
  22. 27. Lake Martin 2007 Veasey’s Marina
  23. 28. Chattahoochee River Photo by Mike Neilsen Water Wars
  24. 29. The Natural Human Tendency “We never know the worth of water until the well runs dry.” – Thomas Fuller Source: Office of Water Resources
  25. 34. Four simple questions <ul><li>What are our greenhouse gas emissions in Alabama today? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do they come from? </li></ul><ul><li>How many of them are water-related? </li></ul><ul><li>How much energy could we save by saving water? </li></ul>
  26. 35. Alabama’s Greenhouse Emissions - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 1990 = 108 million tons 2005 = 142 million tons (13 th highest in the country) 23% increase in CO2 emissions since 1990 source: Federal Energy Information Administration
  27. 38. Where do Alabama’s CO2 emissions come from? 55% 25% 16% 2% 1% 2004 AL’s CO2 emissions from electricity – 55% US Total CO2 emissions from electricity – 39% source: Federal Energy Information Administration
  28. 39. Where does our electricity come from in Alabama? 56% of our electricity comes from coal 16% 14% 23% 56% 14% 5% 3% source: Federal Energy Information Administration
  29. 40. 56% of Alabama’s electricity production comes from coal.
  30. 41. What is Alabama’s main electric utility company doing about its CO2 emissions? Not what you expect.
  31. 42. <ul><li>Here are some facts: </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Company (Alabama Power’s parent company) is the top CO2 polluting company in the US and the 4th worst in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Spent $14,500,000 on lobbying expenses in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Strongest opponents of legal requirements to reduce air pollution. </li></ul>
  32. 43. Outdated, dirty, coal-fired power plants are a problem About ½ of the nation’s power plants (548) are responsible for emitting: 91% of CO2 emissions 98% NOx emissions 99% SO2 emissions Some of the worst plants are in Alabama Widows Creek Colbert
  33. 44. Why are the old, dirtiest power plants still in use? <ul><li>The Clean Air act was written in 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Congress had a loophole which “grandfathered” these plants from new pollution standards </li></ul><ul><li>They are still using pollution control technology from the 1950s and 60s, emitting 80-90% more emissions than a new plant </li></ul>James Miller Plant in west Jefferson county on the Black Warrior River 5 th largest producer of CO2 in the nation 3 rd largest producer of Mercury in the nation Photo: Black Warrior Riverkeeper
  34. 45. Saving Energy by Saving Water <ul><li>Savings potential surprising, substantial </li></ul><ul><li>Quicker, cheaper and more reliable results than most potential strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Only environmental impacts are positive </li></ul>
  35. 46. Consider: <ul><li>In five minutes, a hot water faucet uses as much energy as a 60-watt bulb uses in 14 hours. </li></ul>Source: US EPA
  36. 47. U.S. electricity used for residential water heating = More than 104 billion kWh US EIA 2001
  37. 48. U.S. electricity used for residential water heating = More than 104 billion kWh Comparison: All residential lighting, indoor and out = 101 billion kWh US EIA 2001
  38. 49. Municipal water/sewer plant energy use <ul><li>U.S. annual total* = 75 billion kilowatt hours per year </li></ul><ul><li>Equal to entire residential electricity demand of California </li></ul><ul><li>More than entire energy-intensive pulp/paper and petroleum sectors combined </li></ul><ul><li>Public bill = Already $4B/yr. Increasing. </li></ul>Sources: Pacific Institute & NRDC * 60,000 drinking water treatment plants + 15,000 sewage treatment plants
  39. 50. Other water-related energy use includes… <ul><li>Groundwater pumping </li></ul><ul><li>Interbasin transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping water to drinking water treatment plants and from there to homes </li></ul><ul><li>Heating water in homes, businesses and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Heating and cooling water in industries </li></ul><ul><li>Pumping water to sewage treatment plants and discharge points </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
  40. 51. California’s annual water- related energy use <ul><li>19% of all electricity </li></ul><ul><li>30% of natural gas* </li></ul><ul><li>88 million gallons of diesel fuel </li></ul>Source: California Energy Commission * Natural gas figure excludes that used by power plants
  41. 52. We estimate total current U.S. water-related energy use to be at least 360 billion kWh per year .* * Includes water-related energy other than electricity (i.e., natural gas) in kWh equivalent.
  42. 53. How much is 360 billion kWh? U.S. EIA ?
  43. 54. How much is 360 billion kWh? <ul><li>9% of all U.S. electricity use </li></ul><ul><li>Entire residential electricity use of nearly 90 million Americans </li></ul><ul><li>(Alabama’s population times 20!) </li></ul>
  44. 55. How much is 360 billion kWh? <ul><li>33% more power than is generated by all U.S. dams in a year </li></ul>U.S. EIA
  45. 56. How much is 360 billion kWh? <ul><li>More than is generated by 100 typical coal-fired power plants </li></ul><ul><li>… So, if we only reduced our water-related energy use by 1% per year…. </li></ul><ul><li>We could retire (or leave unbuilt) one coal-fired power plant per year </li></ul>Colbert Power Plant in northeast Alabama on Tennessee River 8,350,545 tons of CO2 emissions in 2006
  46. 57. Each year, a typical coal-fired power plant…
  47. 58. Source: Union of Concerned Scientists; Federal Energy Information Administration … emits 3.7 million tons of CO2 (equivalent to cutting down 161 million trees) James Miller Plant in west Jefferson county on the Black Warrior River Emitted 22,890,070 tons of CO2 in 2006
  48. 59. Source: Union of Concerned Scientists … emits 10,000 tons of sulfur dioxide – SO2 (which causes acid rain and a host of human heath problems) E.C. Gaston Plant in Wilsonville on the Coosa River Emitted 130,494 tons of SO2 in 2006
  49. 60. Source: Union of Concerned Scientists, EPA … emits 170 pounds of mercury (1/70 th of a teaspoon of mercury deposited on a 25-acre lake can make fish unsafe to eat) Barry Plant in Bucks on Mobile River CO2 emissions in 2006: 13,345,578 tons 39 bodies of water in Alabama have Mercury advisory warnings in 2006. Many are in the Mobile/Baldwin county area
  50. 61. Each year, a typical coal-fired power plant also emits… Source: Union of Concerned Scientists <ul><li>500 tons of small airborne particles </li></ul><ul><li>720 tons of carbon monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>220 tons of hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds which form ozone </li></ul><ul><li>225 pounds of arsenic </li></ul><ul><li>114 pounds of lead , 4 pounds of cadmium , and trace amounts of uranium </li></ul>
  51. 62. Other coal impacts <ul><li>Mining impacts to land and water </li></ul><ul><li>Other air pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arsenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water use in electricity generation </li></ul>Acid mine drainage – Hurricane Creek Photo: Friends of Hurricane Creek Strip mining on Sipsey Fork Photo: Friends of Rural Alabama
  52. 63. Thomas Edison once said that burning fossil fuels for power production is like burning your front door for heat .
  53. 64. <ul><li>Reducing our electricity use is crucial in addressing the Climate Change issue for the health of our planet and ALL its inhabitants. </li></ul>
  54. 65. <ul><li>If we cut our water use in half, we cut our water-related energy use by about half </li></ul><ul><li>We can easily cut per capita water use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By well more than 10% in just a few years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By well more than 50% over the next 50 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If we set our minds to it… </li></ul></ul>Premise
  55. 66. How much water can we save? (Aren’t we using more water all the time as our population and economy grow?)
  56. 67. AL Population Growth Source: US Census, 2005
  57. 68. Alabama total water withdrawls Total withdrawals were 9,942 Mgal/d (almost 10 Billion gallons per day) 2005 Source: USGS & Office of Water Resources
  58. 69. In 2000, total U.S. water use was estimated at 408 billion gallons per day In Alabama, total water use was estimated at 10 billion gallons per day
  59. 70. Total Water Withdrawls Source: AL Geological Information Survey and Office of Water Resources
  60. 71. National Water Use
  61. 72. Easily achievable water use reductions could allow us to <ul><li>Retire hundreds of dirty power plants much sooner </li></ul><ul><li>Give us cleaner, healthier air to breathe </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly advance overall effort to reduce greenhouse gas reductions </li></ul><ul><li>Keep much more water in streams and lakes where it belongs </li></ul>
  62. 73. What we aren’t talking about
  63. 74. We are talking about a revolutionary change in water use and management in Alabama In phases 3-5 years 5-25 years 25-50 years
  64. 75. Old water model <ul><li>Single large source in an entire region </li></ul><ul><li>All water from that source treated to drinking water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Little of that water actually used for drinking </li></ul><ul><li>All “wastewater” (and a lot of rainwater too) conveyed to central point for treatment </li></ul><ul><li>All discharged to single surface water point </li></ul>
  65. 76. Old water model Source Treatment Use Treatment Discharge
  66. 77. Old water model Source Treatment Use Treatment Discharge Leaks More leaks Inefficient use Centralized collection Single-point discharge
  67. 78. Old water model Source Treatment Use Treatment Discharge Leaks More leaks Major Energy Use Inefficient use Centralized collection Single-point discharge Pumping? Pumping? Pumping?
  68. 79. Saving Water A comprehensive, integrated approach Conservation Reuse Efficiency
  69. 80. Conservation Reuse Efficiency
  70. 81. Conservation = Reducing Waste <ul><li>Does not have to mean hardship </li></ul><ul><li>Does mean changing some behavioral habits </li></ul>
  71. 82. Drought Tool: short-term relief Planning Tool: lessen gap between demand and available supply, lessen the system peak, provide water for future growth Environmental Tool: provide more water for aquatic habitat and flows for water quality and reduce energy usage Economic Tool: defer capital facilities for drinking water and wastewater treatment Multiple Benefits of Conservation
  72. 83. Advancing Conservation <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Significant conservation potential virtually everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Should be the foundation of our water planning </li></ul><ul><li>To maximize, we should use all the tools </li></ul>
  73. 84. Penalize or prohibit profligate waste Encourage and reward stewardship
  74. 85. Conservation Reuse Efficiency
  75. 86. Efficiency = Getting more performance out of every drop used <ul><li>No hardship at all </li></ul><ul><li>Saves resources and money </li></ul><ul><li>Payback periods quick </li></ul><ul><li>Tremendous existing potential </li></ul>
  76. 87. Homes <ul><li>Toilets </li></ul><ul><li>Faucets </li></ul><ul><li>Showerheads </li></ul><ul><li>Washing machines </li></ul><ul><li>Dishwashers </li></ul><ul><li>Hot water heaters* </li></ul><ul><li>* Tankless models save little or no water, but save a lot of energy </li></ul>
  77. 88. EPA Labeling Program <ul><li>Helps consumers ensure they are buying high-performing water-efficient devices </li></ul><ul><li>Perform as well or better than water-wasting devices </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  78. 89. Home efficiency potential <ul><li>“ Water Sense” EPA-certified are at least 20% more efficient than similar devices currently in marketplace – and much more efficient than many older devices still in homes </li></ul><ul><li>If just 10% of existing fixtures were replaced with devices just 20% more efficient, could save 128B gallons/year – enough to supply water to 3.5 million people </li></ul>* Source: US EPA
  79. 90. Toilets <ul><li>~30% residential water use </li></ul><ul><li>Old models use 5-9 gallons per flush </li></ul><ul><li>Replacing older models with 1.0-1.6 gpf could save 2 billion gallons per day in U.S. (US EPA, 2007) </li></ul>
  80. 91. Faucets <ul><li>~15% indoor water use </li></ul><ul><li>High-efficiency devices can reduce by 30% or more without sacrificing performance </li></ul>
  81. 92. Showerheads <ul><li>Many older models still use 3-5 gallons per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Some models now deliver excellent showers between 1.0 & 2.2 gpm </li></ul>
  82. 93. Washing machines and dishwashers <ul><li>Best new models save 50% or more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detergent </li></ul></ul>
  83. 94. Tankless water heaters <ul><li>On-demand hot water </li></ul><ul><li>No tank of water kept continuously hot </li></ul><ul><li>Other practical benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Key is getting right flow rate for your household </li></ul>
  84. 95. Outdoor use <ul><li>Better targeting of use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better methods of use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drip irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>Of the 7 billion gallons of water used outdoors on the average day, as much as 50% is wasted due to wind, evaporation, improper system design, installation or maintenance. – US EPA
  85. 96. Infrastructure efficiency <ul><li>Repairing, maintaining and operating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In U.S., more than 20% of water is lost in infrastructure leaks before it ever reaches homes or businesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In developing world, figure often more than 50% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better pumps don’t save water, but save much energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Smaller-scale, decentralized systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate technology in many situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be managed centrally </li></ul></ul>
  86. 97. Businesses & Institutions <ul><li>Efficiency potential usually as great or greater than residential </li></ul><ul><li>Payback periods faster (because multiple users) </li></ul><ul><li>Financing easier </li></ul>
  87. 98. Industry and agriculture <ul><li>Some industries have already improved dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all still have significant potential </li></ul><ul><li>Most still have enormous potential </li></ul>
  88. 99. Advancing Efficiency <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Phase-outs </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Retrofit programs (utility-sponsored) </li></ul>
  89. 100. Water and energy utilities can help <ul><li>Many water utilities need paradigm shift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose isn’t to sell more water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s to meet customers’ real water needs better </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many energy utilities do too </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many have long run effective retrofit programs for light bulbs, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water efficiency retrofits make at least as much sense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water and energy utilities should work together on water efficiency programs </li></ul>
  90. 101. Conservation Reuse Efficiency
  91. 102. What could happen if we did all these things and if we quit thinking of stormwater and wastewater as problems and began thinking of them as resources ?
  92. 103. Imagine for a moment that Some day we will all have easy access to treated drinking water and 1-2 other sources of water...
  93. 104. Alternate sources already exist in some places <ul><li>Rainwater “harvested” on site </li></ul><ul><li>Stormwater detained near site </li></ul><ul><li>Graywater from dishes, washing machines, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Wastewater” treated to levels adequate for re-use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes higher levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often lower levels than required for surface water discharge </li></ul></ul>
  94. 105. Problems with today’s stormwater approach in populous areas <ul><li>During/right after storms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During dry spells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower flows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher pollutant concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In general </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less groundwater recharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radically altered flow regimes </li></ul></ul>
  95. 106. Forest cover Shallow Infiltration Deep Infiltration Surface Runoff
  96. 107. After typical development Shallow Infiltration Deep Infiltration Surface Runoff
  97. 108. After typical development Shallow Infiltration Deep Infiltration Surface Runoff
  98. 109. Can we turn these “problems” into solutions?
  99. 110. There are many home systems for rainwater harvest <ul><li>Small to large scale </li></ul><ul><li>Simple to very sophisticated </li></ul>
  100. 111. SmartStorm
  101. 112. Rainwater harvesting system in Springville, AL Provides 100% of household use water
  102. 113. With strong conservation efforts, this family of 2 only needs rainwater!
  103. 114. Underground Rainwater Harvesting System in Argo, AL
  104. 115. Seattle’s King Center <ul><li>1600 employees </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater harvesting meets >60% of entire facility’s water needs </li></ul><ul><li>Saves >1.4 million gallons of drinking water per year </li></ul><ul><li>Also keeps runoff from entering storm sewers </li></ul>
  105. 116. Social Security Building Birmingham, AL
  106. 117. Jenkins Brick Moody Facility
  107. 118. Jenkins Brick Moody Facility
  108. 119. Detained stormwater Treated wastewater
  109. 120. Many potential uses of treated “wastewater”
  110. 121. San Antonio wastewater recycling <ul><li>Already has large-scale reuse program </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily commercial and industrial purposes today, served by 80 miles of delivery pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Source is cheaper and more reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Already reducing demand on Edwards Aquifer and region’s rivers by 29 million gallons per day </li></ul>For more info: Dos Rios recycled water outfall
  111. 122. So, we can easily imagine that some day we will all have easy access to treated drinking water and 1-2 other sources of water. How would we use it?
  112. 123. Highest quality water
  113. 124. <ul><li>Drinking, cooking and bathing account for less than 1/3 of indoor residential water use </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all other uses could be met as well with captured rainwater or other sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other residential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All outdoor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most industrial </li></ul></ul>
  114. 125. Other uses of re-used water
  115. 126. “ New model keeps water in our streams, coal in the ground, carbon out of the air, money in our pockets ” -Don Elder, Former Director of the River Network
  116. 127. What can I do?
  117. 128. What can I do?
  118. 129. What can I do?
  119. 130. What can I do?
  120. 131. What can I do? Remember to change your lightbulbs
  121. 132. What else can I do? <ul><li>Get your family involved – make a water use graph </li></ul><ul><li>Start harvesting your rain water </li></ul>
  122. 133. What else can I do? <ul><li>Talk to your water utility. Find out where your water is coming from </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to your friends about the water-energy connection </li></ul><ul><li>Identify groups to give this presentation to: churches, civic organizations, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a letter to the editor </li></ul>
  123. 134. What else can I do? <ul><li>Let your elected officials know you care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the Joint Legislative Committee on Water Policy Management that we must make Conservation, Efficiency and Reuse a priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the Energy Committee that water is an important component in energy usage. (And that renewables must be a priority) </li></ul></ul>
  124. 135. What else can I do? <ul><li>Join efforts of a local environmental group </li></ul>
  125. 137. Climate change is the exact opposite <ul><li>We have the technology </li></ul><ul><li>We have the knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s get started </li></ul>Climate Change is no longer a technology or science issue. It is a matter social and political will.
  126. 138. Saving Energy by Saving Water Conservation Reuse Efficiency
  127. 139. Saving Water, Saving Energy The Alabama Environmental Council The Alabama Rivers Alliance World Wildlife Fund The River Network