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NEET youth and young adults in Israel, Paula Kahan

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International Seminar on NEET Youth, 2017, Korea

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NEET youth and young adults in Israel, Paula Kahan

  1. 1. NEET Youth and Young Adults in Israel: Characteristics, Needs and Policies Paula Kahan-Strawczynski Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute, Jerusalem International Seminar on NEET Youth 2017, Seoul
  2. 2. Outline 2 The Israeli context for understanding NEET young people Rates of NEETs in Israel, characteristics and needs Existing aid policies, services and further programmatic directions 1 2 3
  3. 3. The Israeli Context
  4. 4. Israeli Social Context • 8.5 million people; 1,867,040 citizens aged 15-29 - 22% of the total population • Cultural, social and economic diversity • Among 15-29 : 74% Jewish, 26% Arab; 11% Immigrants; 10% ultra-Orthodox Jews • Mandatory military service at age 18 - men 3 years, women 2 years: 73% of men and 58% of women ages 20-24 served in 2014 • Voluntary civilian national service - 11% of Jewish young adults • Extended trip after completing military or national service Education • School attendance is mandatory and free from age 3 to 18 • Two systems of schools: Arabic-speaking system & the Hebrew-speaking system 4
  5. 5. The Education context: Rate of 17-Year-Olds Not Registered in any Educational Framework, by Sector, 2002-2015 10.4 9 10.7 8.5 7.3 7.1 8.8 7.4 24.4 16.5 16.5 11.9 2002 2006 2011 2015 5 All Jews Arab
  6. 6. 6 The Education Context – cont. Attention is paid to "hidden dropouts" Weak system of VET • Organizational fragmentation • Few settings incorporate work experience • Negative image among parents
  7. 7. • Received full matriculation certificate: 58.8% ; Jews:62.4% , Arabs: 48.4% • Received matriculation certificate that meets university admission criteria: 48.8%; 52.5% of the Jews and 37.5% of the Arabs 7 The Education Context – cont. 17-year-olds: 64% of all vocational school graduates are entitled to a vocational certificate High upper-secondary graduation rate (including general and vocational programs): 90%
  8. 8. Participation of Young Adults in the Labor Market (%, 2016) Ages 15-64 25-29 Unemployment rate 4.4 6.7 Labor force part. rate 72.2 80.8 8 Very low rate of participation in the Labor Force (ages 25-29): • Arab women - 45% • Ultra-orthodox men - 49%
  9. 9. Rates of NEETs in Israel
  10. 10. Rates of NEETs in Israel and the OECD average, by age, 2015 14.1 8.8 18.6 15.114.6 6.5 17 19.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 15-29 15-19 20-24 25-29 10 Israel OECD
  11. 11. Selected Characteristics of NEET Young Adults (18-24) Compared with No NEETs in Israel (%, Labor Force Survey, 2015) 44 67 33 27 23 39 23 40 60 12 7 27 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Arab** Arab Women** Arab men** Married women** Mothers** Low level of Educ. NEET young adults No NEETs ** p<0.01 11
  12. 12. Selected findings from a national survey Needs of NEET Young Adults (23-26) in Israel
  13. 13. About the survey Survey population: young adults aged 23-26 who neither worked nor studied in a post-secondary framework and did not intend to start such studies in the coming year. Two phases: A screening telephone interview with a national sample of the population aged 23-26 (some 5,450 respondents) 13 The goals: to increase awareness of the needs of NEET young adults in Israel, to identify vulnerable subgroups, and to serve as the basis for planning responses to support them. Based on the screening, a sample of young adults (some 1,200 respondents) were interviewed. 400 were NEET: 11% of the age group
  14. 14. Resources and Barriers to Employment or Education • Post-secondary certificate or college degree - 15% • Matriculation certificate - 29% • Vocational certificate - 23% • Having a profession, with or without a vocational certificate - 48% • Low levels of education - 56%: 23% did not complete high school; 33% had completed high school but without matriculation • Having the poorest human capital: Without a matriculation or vocational certificate and with no profession - 45% • Not having sufficient command of Hebrew - 22% • Not having adequate computer skills - 27% • Previous adjustment difficulties: in school - 32%; in military/national service - 18% 14 Resources Barriers
  15. 15. Barriers in the Employment Arena • 26% had never worked • 13% had worked, but not for at least two years before the survey • 12% had worked for a short time during the two years prior to the survey 15 Difficulty with 3+ of 13 employability items - 21% Low rate of participation in work-readiness programs - 6% Poor or no work experience - 51%:
  16. 16. Interest in Working or Studying 16 41% - interested in post- secondary studies or vocational training during the coming year All NEET young adults (23-26) 100% Not looking for work 43% Looking for work 57% Would be interested in working if offered a suitable job – 23% Interested in working – 80% 85% - interested in working and/or studying
  17. 17. Extent of Interest and Needs to Support Integration into Studies or Work 17 Interested in working 80% Need support 42% Need support 56% Interested in studying 41% Guidance and counseling 64% Enhancing human capital 33% Guidance and counseling 45% Financial assistance 41%
  18. 18. Aid Policies and Services for NEET Youth and Young Adults in Israel
  19. 19. Aid Policies and Services • Programs for High School Students • Aid Strategies during and after Military Service • Efforts to strengthen the education systems in the Arab and ultra-Orthodox sectors • National initiative to enhance the successful integration of Arab citizens into higher education • A similar initiative for ultra-Orthodox Jews 19 Interventions to Prevent Young People from Becoming NEET Strategies for Helping Minority Groups Improve their Educational Achievements
  20. 20. 20 • One-Stop Employment Centers for the Arab and ultra- Orthodox populations • Apprenticeship program for young adults aged 18+ – Starter • A program for young adults with disabilities – Rampa • A network of Young Adult Centers • The National Program for Young Adults at Risk – Yated ("Stake") Strategies for Helping Young Adults Advance towards Employment Comprehensive Programs and Initiatives for Supporting Vulnerable Young Adults Aid Policies and Services – cont.
  21. 21. Preventive Strategies At Risk of Becoming NEET Personal Characteristics Further directions must take into account: Elective Non Elective Promoting Strategies Already NEET Short-Term Long-Term Transitional Chronic 21
  22. 22. Further Programmatic Directions 22 Broader opportunities to complete matriculation or vocational certification and a post-secondary degree Provide information, counseling about work and studies Strengthen coordination among key players in developing training courses Expand opportunities to gain work experience Expand work-readiness programs Special attention to the more disadvantaged and vulnerable NEETs who are at risk of long- term disengagement
  23. 23. Thank You http://brookdale.jdc.org.il/ paula@jdc.org.il

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