Sports Studies - Sport In Action
Session 4 - Wk 12
Marketing
Marketing
What is it?
The four P‟s
Relationship > Transaction
Branding
Social Media
Prosumers
Marketing
What is it?
Marketing
What is it?
“A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or
service. The buyers as a group de...
Organised market:
Buyers and sellers of a certain product meet at a location at a pre-
arranged time to arrange sales.
Uno...
Marketing
What is it?
“…marketing is that essential part of the management process that
matches markets with the sport pro...
Marketing
The Four P‟s
Marketing
The Four P‟s
Product Place
Promotion Price
Marketing
The Four P‟s
Product Place
Promotion Price
Does it satisfy your customers wants or needs?
How is it different fr...
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
• Traditionally sport marketing has been considered from a
transactional point of vie...
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
Many sport organisations have adopted an approach we call „relationship
marketing‟.
“...
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
Two main types of relationship are formed…
Business to Business (B to B) relationship...
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
• An organisation employs relationship marketing to develop its relationship with
tho...
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
• The understanding within organisations of the benefits of relationship
marketing ha...
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
Sport
Public
Schools
Private
Schools
Universities
Colleges
Apparel
Manufacturers
Equi...
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
• Issues facing sports organisations are often complex (lack of resources,
difficult ...
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
“the process of identifying and establishing, maintaining, enhancing and
when necessa...
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
• Concept of a relationship is a series of interactions between two
parties with each...
Marketing
Relationship > Transaction
Social links
One of the cornerstones of the sport system.
An organisation that helps ...
Marketing
Branding
Marketing
Branding
A brand is…
“a name, a word, a symbol, a drawing, or a combination of
these.”
Kotleret al (2000, p.478)...
Marketing
Branding
…so these tangible and intangible aspects of the brand add up to create
feelings and beliefs in people ...
Marketing
Branding
• The brand is a fully controllable form of communication that
allows an organisation to portray themse...
Marketing
Branding
Customer contact points:
• Promotions
• In person
• Competitions
• Events
• Products
• Email
• Website
...
Marketing
Branding
Marketing
Branding
We have two issues in the Sport & Leisure industry
when branding an organisation…
Branding is Condition...
Marketing
Branding
So that‟s WHAT brands are.
But WHY are they important?
WHY is all this branding necessary?
• Brands and...
Marketing
Branding
• We term how much value your brand adds or subtracts to the
perceived value of your product/service „b...
Marketing
Branding
unbranded nike
Marketing
Branding
perceivedvalue
totheconsumer
unbranded nike unfashionable
brand
Marketing
Branding
perceived quality…
Refers to consumers evaluation of
a brand when considering the
purpose of the produc...
Marketing
Branding
“Do you think it‟s possible that IBM could look like the kind of
company it really is?”
How do we get p...
Marketing
Branding
Visual Identity
Logo
Colours
Typefaces
Symbols
Verbal Identity
Name of brand
Name of products
Strapline...
Marketing
Branding
A LOGO does one, or a combination, of these three things…
1. Identification
The logo identifies your or...
Marketing
Branding
What to consider when choosing a SYMBOL for the organisation and their logo…
1. Storytelling:
Not all s...
Marketing
Branding
crest
devil
ship
footballs
Colours – red
Psychological Meaning Cultural Meaning
Western:
danger
a warning to stop
anger
Valentine's Day
Eastern:
pros...
Colours – blue
Psychological Meaning Cultural Meaning
Western:
conservative,
"something blue" bridal tradition
masculine c...
Colours – yellow
Psychological Meaning Cultural Meaning
Middle East:
happiness
prosperity
Japan:
courage
beauty and refine...
Colours – orange
Psychological Meaning
• Warmth
• Happiness
• Physical energy
• Cheerfulness.
• Enthusiasm
• Courage
Cultu...
Colours – green
Psychological Meaning Cultural Meaning
• Growth and vitality
• Renewal
• Restoration
• Self-reliance
• Rel...
San Serif (without feet) – Modern
• Arial
• Verdana
Serif (feet) – Traditional
• Times New Roman
• Century Schoolbook
Mark...
Marketing
Branding
So when looking at anything visual that is associated with a brand it
should be communicating something, however subtle, a...
Marketing
Branding
Visual Identity
Logo
Colours
Typefaces
Symbols
Verbal Identity
Name of brand
Name of products
Strapline...
serious/professional/grown up >< fun/different/child like
Marketing
Branding
Descriptive Associative Abstract
KICK TV
Shoot
Who Scored
Nike
Adidas
Reebok
UK Sport
Sport England
Youth Sport Trust
Bran...
Descriptive Associative Abstract
Product names should fit with your tone of voice.
Products in the same range need to shar...
„Just Do It‟
Strapline:
Why a customer should choose you.
3-6 words with very few over 8.
Slogan.
Marketing
Branding
Strapline: How
Challenge
Question and answer
Mirroring
AliterationRhyming
Marketing
Branding
Challenge:
Challenge the reader into action.
Adidas… „Impossible is nothing‟
Nike… „Just do it‟
Marketing
Branding
Question and Answer:
Posing and answering a question, or simply having two half sentences
making different sides of a poin...
Mirroring:
Reflecting or repeating a word or words to make a memorable phrase.
Local shop… „Conveniently Reliable, Reliabl...
Rhyming:
Creating a small rhyme makes your sentence more memorable;
though they can feel a little tacky if not done well!
...
Alliteration:
Similar to rhyming, alliteration involves the first sound of a word
instead of the end.
Land Rover… The Best...
Marketing
Social Media
Traditional media are static, one-way, broadcast technologies.
Social media, or new media, technologies are two-way.
Marke...
1. Blogs
2. Microblogs (Twitter)
3. Social Networks (Facebook, LinkedIn)
4. Media Sharing Sites (Flickr, YouTube)
5. Socia...
Social media has leveled the playing field.
Previously the marketing budget, as much as anything, defined a
promotions sco...
- Customer contact point.
- Conversation, not a promotion.
- Part of the relationship.
- Easy to identify prosumers.
- Spe...
Trust
Recommendations from people known 90%
TV 62%
Newspaper 61%
Magazines 59%
Online banner ads 33%
Marketing
Social Media
Marketing
Prosumers
A product or brand advocate with the ability
to influence a chain of consumers.
Marketing
Prosumers
To be getting on with:
• Mission statement.
• Diary of ALL activity. Meetings, thoughts, progress, teamwork issues,
leader...
Bart, C. &Baetz, M. (1998) „The relationship between mission statements and firm performance: An exploratory study‟, Journ...
Marketing
What is it?
The four P‟s
Relationship > Transaction
Branding
Social Media
Prosumers
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Sports Studies - Sport in Action - wk12 - session 4 - Marketing

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Sports Studies - Sport in Action - wk12 - session 4 - Marketing

  1. 1. Sports Studies - Sport In Action Session 4 - Wk 12 Marketing
  2. 2. Marketing What is it? The four P‟s Relationship > Transaction Branding Social Media Prosumers
  3. 3. Marketing What is it?
  4. 4. Marketing What is it? “A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service. The buyers as a group determine the demand for the product, and the sellers as a group determine the supply of the product.” Mankiw and Taylor (2011, p.68)
  5. 5. Organised market: Buyers and sellers of a certain product meet at a location at a pre- arranged time to arrange sales. Unorganised market: More commonly you have numerous sellers in numerous locations and the buyers choose when and where to purchase the product. Marketing What is it?
  6. 6. Marketing What is it? “…marketing is that essential part of the management process that matches markets with the sport products and services. It assesses the needs and wants of potential customers.” Torkildsen (1999, p.435)
  7. 7. Marketing The Four P‟s
  8. 8. Marketing The Four P‟s Product Place Promotion Price
  9. 9. Marketing The Four P‟s Product Place Promotion Price Does it satisfy your customers wants or needs? How is it different from your competitors? Where will buyers look for your product/service? If marketing an event where will it take place and is is socially, economically and geographically accessible. “The process is one of pulling customers to the product using words, music, pictures and symbols to present an image of the product that is attractive, if not compelling.” Torkildsen (1999, p452) What type of market is your product or service in and can you set your own price or do you need to follow the market value for your product or service.
  10. 10. Marketing Relationship > Transaction
  11. 11. Marketing Relationship > Transaction • Traditionally sport marketing has been considered from a transactional point of view. • Transactional Marketing seeks to facilitate an exchange of products and/or services for money.
  12. 12. Marketing Relationship > Transaction Many sport organisations have adopted an approach we call „relationship marketing‟. “The goals of relationship marketing are to build long-term relationships with the organisations best customers, generating further business and ultimately profit. It is also designed to contribute to strengthening brand awareness, increase understanding of consumer needs, enhance loyalty and provide additional value for consumers.” Stavros et al (2008)
  13. 13. Marketing Relationship > Transaction Two main types of relationship are formed… Business to Business (B to B) relationships. Business to Consumer (B to C) relationships.
  14. 14. Marketing Relationship > Transaction • An organisation employs relationship marketing to develop its relationship with those from outside the organisation, whether that be customers or other organisations. • Relationship marketing's objective is to build loyalty by strengthening the organisations relationship with its customers. • It is based on the notion that it is not the exchanges (product for money) per se that are the core of marketing. • Rather, exchanges take place in ongoing relationships between parties. • The relationship is with the brand, NOT the individual products.
  15. 15. Marketing Relationship > Transaction • The understanding within organisations of the benefits of relationship marketing have led to a paradigm shift in marketing. • Relationships offer an opportunity for an analogous message between those in the relationship. They both get to portray who they are through the relationship between the two, or more, organisations. • Relational approach suits sports organisations better than the transactional approach because sports organisations are network based and operate in a system formed by numerous stakeholders (those who are affected by the process and outcome of an organisations objectives). • The core of the system is sport itself…
  16. 16. Marketing Relationship > Transaction Sport Public Schools Private Schools Universities Colleges Apparel Manufacturers Equipment Manufacturers Sports Stores Sport Technology Amateur Clubs Professional Clubs Participants Professional Athletes Consumers Fans Local Public Organisations National Public Organisations Sponsors Charities Non-profit Organisations Media Events Stadia Gyms Public Sporting Facilities Private Sporting Facilities
  17. 17. Marketing Relationship > Transaction • Issues facing sports organisations are often complex (lack of resources, difficult to reach target markets, etc.) • It can be difficult for an organisation working in isolation to achieve its goals. • To build a relationship an organisation must first determine which parties have matching or complementary goals and identify ways in which they can work together.
  18. 18. Marketing Relationship > Transaction “the process of identifying and establishing, maintaining, enhancing and when necessary terminating relationships with customers and other stakeholders, so that the objectives of all parties are met” Gronroos (2004, p.101)
  19. 19. Marketing Relationship > Transaction • Concept of a relationship is a series of interactions between two parties with each interaction contributing to the evolution of the relationship • Each relationship has a content that obtains benefits for the parties involved. • Long term development of relationships contributes to the formation of links. Relationships will illicit one or more of the following links between members of the relationship…
  20. 20. Marketing Relationship > Transaction Social links One of the cornerstones of the sport system. An organisation that helps an individual or group of consumers socialise or form new friends forms a social link. Emotional links Interaction with the organisation and their product or services produce emotions that hopefully will be positive. Fundamental for a sports club. Functional links Related to the use of a product or service. The user of a pair of running trainers forms a functional link with the manufacturer or distributer. Commercial links Based on the construction of relationships that provide economic benefit. A sports team and their sponsor have a commercial link.
  21. 21. Marketing Branding
  22. 22. Marketing Branding A brand is… “a name, a word, a symbol, a drawing, or a combination of these.” Kotleret al (2000, p.478) “a set of mental associations, held by the consumer, which add to the perceived value of a product or service” Keller (1998)
  23. 23. Marketing Branding …so these tangible and intangible aspects of the brand add up to create feelings and beliefs in people about an organisation. It is a marketers job to ensure that the feelings and beliefs are positive so as to ensure the organsiation and it‟s products/services are more desirable. Tangibles • mission statement • logo • promotions • font •shopfront • uniforms •colours Intangibles • identity matching • symbolism • beliefs • origins • story • staff manner
  24. 24. Marketing Branding • The brand is a fully controllable form of communication that allows an organisation to portray themselves the way they wish to be seen. • An organisation can portray an image of themselves to both potential and current customers about who they are, what they do, how they do it and why they do it. •Organisations hope to control the way they are perceived through their branding. • Everything matters.
  25. 25. Marketing Branding Customer contact points: • Promotions • In person • Competitions • Events • Products • Email • Website • Phone • Social media …these are all opportunities.
  26. 26. Marketing Branding
  27. 27. Marketing Branding We have two issues in the Sport & Leisure industry when branding an organisation… Branding is Conditional • You can portray your organisation in a certain way but delivering upon that image is CONDITIONAL on other factors within the organisation. • e.g. You have built your brand around a reputation for quality, built to last products, but the manufacturers produce a poor batch of your latest product and your brand loses credibility as a result. Intangible products/services • Often the products/services we offer in the S & L industry are intangible – they are without physical presence and are unable to be touched. So we have limited control over their exact nature and they have the ability to perform „off brand‟. • e.g. Live sporting events being affected by the weather or a participant in a coaching session diminishing the service for others by their behavior services.
  28. 28. Marketing Branding So that‟s WHAT brands are. But WHY are they important? WHY is all this branding necessary? • Brands and branding are tools for value creation. • The goal for a brand is to ensure consumers want to engage with their products/services more regularly and, potentially, at a higher costs than their competitors simply because it has come from their brand. • If your product is perceived to be more valuable simply because it has been produced/distributed through/by your brand, you‟ve been successful in adding value through your branding. APPROPRIATE BRANDING ADDS VALUE
  29. 29. Marketing Branding • We term how much value your brand adds or subtracts to the perceived value of your product/service „brand equity‟. • The value added to your product/service by your brand is positive brand equity. • The opposite, that obviously you want to avoid, is negative brand equity which results from a brands association with a product/service lowering its perceived value to its potential consumers. • Let‟s look at an example…
  30. 30. Marketing Branding unbranded nike
  31. 31. Marketing Branding perceivedvalue totheconsumer unbranded nike unfashionable brand
  32. 32. Marketing Branding perceived quality… Refers to consumers evaluation of a brand when considering the purpose of the product as well as alternative options. brand awareness… Consumers ability to recall a brand when a competitor is mentioned. brand associations… The feelings and thoughts consumers hold for a brand. brand loyalty… Brands ability to attract consumers and to keep them indicates how connected consumers are to a brand. the four components of brand equity…
  33. 33. Marketing Branding “Do you think it‟s possible that IBM could look like the kind of company it really is?” How do we get perceived the way we would like to be & how do we achieve positive brand equity?
  34. 34. Marketing Branding Visual Identity Logo Colours Typefaces Symbols Verbal Identity Name of brand Name of products Strapline Tone of voice
  35. 35. Marketing Branding A LOGO does one, or a combination, of these three things… 1. Identification The logo identifies your organisation in a quick, visual way. It‟s the first thing a customer sees and they need to know who it belongs to. 2. Distinction The logo distinguishes your organisation from the competition. You are recognised because of it. Or at least should be if it is unique enough. 3. Communication The logo should communicate something about your organisation. Sometimes directly, sometimes subtly.
  36. 36. Marketing Branding What to consider when choosing a SYMBOL for the organisation and their logo… 1. Storytelling: Not all symbols are created equal - choose symbols that tell a story. Do your research and make sure the symbols incorporated in your logo convey clear and concise representations. 2. International Perspectives: What a symbol represents in one culture may not be what it represents in another. This is crucial for companies who seek to create international identities and brands. 3. Conflicts Of Interest: Do not use multiple symbols in one logo or brand that might possibly represent conflicting ideas. 4. Clarify The Communication: Each logo should communicate something. Symbols are powerful communication devices when used wisely. One smart symbolic element in a logo design can express everything, but the symbol used in a logo should express one thing well, not many ideas poorly.
  37. 37. Marketing Branding crest devil ship footballs
  38. 38. Colours – red Psychological Meaning Cultural Meaning Western: danger a warning to stop anger Valentine's Day Eastern: prosperity good fortune worn by brides China: the color of good luck and celebration vitality, happiness, long life China cont... used as a wedding color used in many ceremonies from funerals to weddings used for festive occasions traditionally worn on Chinese New Year to bring luck and prosperity Russia: associated with the Bolsheviks and Communism, means beautiful in Russian language often used in marriage ceremonies • Action • Energy and speed • Attention-getting • Assertive and confident • Energizing • Stimulating • Exciting • Powerful • Passionate • Courageous and strong Marketing Branding
  39. 39. Colours – blue Psychological Meaning Cultural Meaning Western: conservative, "something blue" bridal tradition masculine color baby boys Eastern: immortality China: immortality associated with pornography and 'blue films' feminine color Korea: color of mourning Iran: color of mourning heaven and spirituality immortality Egypt: virtue protection - to ward off evil Middle East: protection US Politics: Liberalism Belgium: color for baby girls • Loyalty • Trust and integrity • Perseverance • Caring and concern Authority Marketing Branding
  40. 40. Colours – yellow Psychological Meaning Cultural Meaning Middle East: happiness prosperity Japan: courage beauty and refinement aristocracy cheerfulness Europe: happiness, joy cowardice, weakness hazard warning Western: happiness, joy hope cowardice caution, warning of hazards Eastern: sacred imperial China: sacred imperial, royalty honor masculine color • Cheerfulness • Enthusiasm • Fun • Good-humored • Confidence Marketing Branding
  41. 41. Colours – orange Psychological Meaning • Warmth • Happiness • Physical energy • Cheerfulness. • Enthusiasm • Courage Cultural Meaning Western: affordable or inexpensive items Halloween, combined with black Eastern: happiness spirituality Thailand: color for Thursday Ireland: religious color for Protestants appears on the Irish flag along with white for peace and green for Catholics Netherlands: color of the Dutch Royal Family Hinduism: Saffron, a soft orange color, is considered an auspicious and sacred color Marketing Branding
  42. 42. Colours – green Psychological Meaning Cultural Meaning • Growth and vitality • Renewal • Restoration • Self-reliance • Reliability and dependability • Nature, Western: lucky color in most western cultures spring, new birth, regeneration nature and environmental awareness color for 'go' at traffic lights Saint Patrick's Day jealousy greed Eastern: new life, regeneration and hope fertility China: fertility Disgrace Ireland: religious color for Irish Catholics color symbol of Ireland Middle East: color of Islam strength fertility Luck USA: money Jealousy Marketing Branding
  43. 43. San Serif (without feet) – Modern • Arial • Verdana Serif (feet) – Traditional • Times New Roman • Century Schoolbook Marketing Branding
  44. 44. Marketing Branding
  45. 45. So when looking at anything visual that is associated with a brand it should be communicating something, however subtle, about that brand. When your creating a brand and trying to get its message across through a visual medium, ask yourself „Does this portray my brand the way I want it to be portrayed?‟…. …If it doesn‟t, then it needs revising. Marketing Branding
  46. 46. Marketing Branding Visual Identity Logo Colours Typefaces Symbols Verbal Identity Name of brand Name of products Strapline Tone of voice
  47. 47. serious/professional/grown up >< fun/different/child like Marketing Branding
  48. 48. Descriptive Associative Abstract KICK TV Shoot Who Scored Nike Adidas Reebok UK Sport Sport England Youth Sport Trust Brand names should fit with your tone of voice. Marketing Branding
  49. 49. Descriptive Associative Abstract Product names should fit with your tone of voice. Products in the same range need to share an identity, so their names need to be related. Calling your product the same as another product on the market is OK, but only if the other product is COMPLETELY unrelated to yours. Get Into Sport PredatorHyperspeed Marketing Branding
  50. 50. „Just Do It‟ Strapline: Why a customer should choose you. 3-6 words with very few over 8. Slogan. Marketing Branding
  51. 51. Strapline: How Challenge Question and answer Mirroring AliterationRhyming Marketing Branding
  52. 52. Challenge: Challenge the reader into action. Adidas… „Impossible is nothing‟ Nike… „Just do it‟ Marketing Branding
  53. 53. Question and Answer: Posing and answering a question, or simply having two half sentences making different sides of a point. Maybelline… „Maybe She‟s Born With it, Maybe it‟s Maybelline‟ Marketing Branding
  54. 54. Mirroring: Reflecting or repeating a word or words to make a memorable phrase. Local shop… „Conveniently Reliable, Reliably Convenient‟ Financial advisor… „Money Talks, So Let‟s Talk Money‟ Kit Kat… „Have a Break, Have a Kit Kat‟ Marketing Branding
  55. 55. Rhyming: Creating a small rhyme makes your sentence more memorable; though they can feel a little tacky if not done well! Shell… „You Can Tell When it‟s Shell‟ Marketing Branding
  56. 56. Alliteration: Similar to rhyming, alliteration involves the first sound of a word instead of the end. Land Rover… The Best Four by Four by Far Marketing Branding
  57. 57. Marketing Social Media
  58. 58. Traditional media are static, one-way, broadcast technologies. Social media, or new media, technologies are two-way. Marketing Social Media
  59. 59. 1. Blogs 2. Microblogs (Twitter) 3. Social Networks (Facebook, LinkedIn) 4. Media Sharing Sites (Flickr, YouTube) 5. Social Bookmarking and Voting Sites (Digg, Reddit) 6. Review Sites (Yelp) 7. Forums 8. Virtual World (Second Life) Marketing Social Media
  60. 60. Social media has leveled the playing field. Previously the marketing budget, as much as anything, defined a promotions scope. Now, it‟s content, customer engagement and creativity/relevance that matter; not necessarily budget. Small brands can make big names for themselves. Marketing Social Media
  61. 61. - Customer contact point. - Conversation, not a promotion. - Part of the relationship. - Easy to identify prosumers. - Specific, targeted marketing. - Know what people are saying about you. Good and bad! - Placeless. - Opportunity to express visual and verbal identity. - People get to know „who you are‟ to a much deeper degree. - Add (hopefully!) perceived value through positive brand equity. Marketing Social Media
  62. 62. Trust Recommendations from people known 90% TV 62% Newspaper 61% Magazines 59% Online banner ads 33% Marketing Social Media
  63. 63. Marketing Prosumers
  64. 64. A product or brand advocate with the ability to influence a chain of consumers. Marketing Prosumers
  65. 65. To be getting on with: • Mission statement. • Diary of ALL activity. Meetings, thoughts, progress, teamwork issues, leadership elements, problems, etc. • Consider, beyond your participants, who you should be building relationships with (people &organisations). • Build your brand (through visual & verbal identity) ready to portray yourselves to your customers in the way you which to be perceived. • Identify prosumers. • How are you addressing the four P‟s? • Construct a social media campaign that is „on brand‟.
  66. 66. Bart, C. &Baetz, M. (1998) „The relationship between mission statements and firm performance: An exploratory study‟, Journal of Management Studies, 35 (6) pp.823-853. Beech, J. and Chadwick, S. (2007) The Marketing of Sport. Harlow: Prentice Hall. Branson, R. (2013) „More mission, less statement‟, Canadian Business, 86. Bridgewater, S. (2010) Football Brands. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Clifton, R. & Simmons, J. (2003) Brands and branding. London: Profile Books. Desbordes, M. and Richelieu, A. (2012) Global sport marketing: contemporary issues and practice. New York: Routledge. Ford, K. (2005) Brands laid bare: Using market research for evidence-based brand management. Chichester: John Wiley & Son Ltd. Gronoos, C. (2004) The relationship management process: communication, interaction, dialogue, value. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 19(2), pp.99-113. Hinch, T. and Higham, J. Sport Tourism Development. Clevedon: Channel View Publications. Keeling, M. (2013) „Mission statements: Rhetoric, reality or road map to success?‟, Knowledge Quest, 42(1) pp.30-36. Keller, K., Aperia, T. &Georgson, M. (2012) Strategic brand management: A European perspective. (2ndedn.) Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Mankiw, N and Taylor, M. (2011) Economics. China: RR Donnelley. Simmons, A. (2007) Whoever tells the best story wins: How to find, develop, and deliver stories to communicate with power and impact. New York: Amacom Stavros, C., Pope, N. and Winzar, H. (2008) Relationship marketing in Australian professional sport: an extension of the Shani framework. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17(3), pp.135-145. Stewart, B., Smith, A. and Nicholson, M. (2003) Sport consumer typologies: a critical review. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 12(4), pp.206-216. Temporal, P. (2010) Advanced brand management: Managing brands in a changing world. Singapore: Wiley. Tolkildsen, G. (1999) Leisure and Recreation Management. London: Routledge. Williams, L. (2008) „The mission statement: A corporate reporting tool with a past, present and future‟, Journal of Business Communication, 45 (2) pp.94-119. Williams, J. and Chinn, S. (2010) Meeting relationship-marketing goals through social media: a conceptual model for sport marketers. International Journal of Sport Communication. 3, pp.422-437. Wheeler, A. (2013) Designing brand identity. New Jersey: Wiley.
  67. 67. Marketing What is it? The four P‟s Relationship > Transaction Branding Social Media Prosumers
  68. 68. http://www.slideshare.net/mjb87

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