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Computers7 Ch4 2


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Chapter 4 - Part II

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Computers7 Ch4 2

  1. 1. The Central Process Unit Chapter 4 B.M.H
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><ul><li>System Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System bus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion buses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion slot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion cards </li></ul></ul>MIU
  3. 3. The System Unit <ul><li>; The case that houses the electronic components of the computer system </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The main system unit component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard drive, floppy drive, CD/DVD-ROM drive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wires and Ribbon Cables </li></ul></ul>MIU
  4. 4. MIU
  5. 5. Motherboard <ul><li>Called the main circuit board </li></ul><ul><li>The flat circuit board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>within the personal computer housing that hold the computer circuitry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A mass of chips and connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that organize the computer ’ s activities </li></ul></ul>MIU
  6. 6. Motherboard <ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor ; the most important component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory chips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System bus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion buses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion slots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion cards </li></ul></ul>MIU
  7. 7. MIU
  8. 8. MIU
  9. 9. Microprocessor <ul><li>Central processing unit on a chip </li></ul><ul><li>Called Logic chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when it is used to control specialized devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>key components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic/logic unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System clock </li></ul></ul>MIU
  10. 10. Microprocessor MIU
  11. 11. Microprocessor <ul><li>Contain tiny transistors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic building block of the microprocessor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, millions of transistors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic switches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that may or may not allow current to pass through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If current passes through, the switch is ( ), representing a ( ) bit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If current does not pass through, the switch is ( ), representing a ( ) bit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of transistors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stand for combination of ( ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represent digits, letter, and special characters </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU Refer to Computers7_ch4_2_1 Computers7_ch4_2_2
  12. 12. Microprocessor <ul><li>Pentium chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By Intel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The current workhorse in the PC market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes multimedia instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PowerPC family of chips -- non-Intel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By Apple, IBM, and Motorola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufactured by both IBM and Motorola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primary use : Apple Macintosh family of PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alpha -- non-Intel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by Compaq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in high-end servers and workstations </li></ul></ul>MIU
  13. 13. Memory Component <ul><li>Evolved from primitive vacuum tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Today ’ s modern memory ; Semiconductor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reliability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>compactness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lower power usage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require continuous electric current to represent data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monolithic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all the circuits on single chip together constitute an inseparable unit of storage </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU
  14. 14. Semiconductor Memory <ul><li>Thousand of very small circuits-pathways for electric currents-on a silicon chip </li></ul><ul><li>Each circuit on a chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>be in one of two states, on or off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two states : represent the binary digits 1 and 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these digits : combined to represent ( c~ ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thus makes the memory chip a storage bin for data and instructions </li></ul></ul>MIU
  15. 15. Semiconductor Memory <ul><li>CMOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one important type of semiconductor design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C omplementary M etal O xide S emiconductor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the design is noted for using relatively little electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMOS RAM : In PC, one use for CMOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a small amount of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that, thanks to battery power, retains data when the computer is shut off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to store information your computer needs when it boots up, such as time, date, and hardware configuration data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when the computer is running, it can be updated </li></ul></ul>MIU
  16. 16. MIU
  17. 17. RAM (Random Access Memory) <ul><li>volatile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>its contents are lost once the power is shut off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Static RAM(SRAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>will retain its contents without intervention from the CPU as long a power is maintained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>much faster than DRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic RAM(DRAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must be constantly refreshed (recharged) by the CPU or it will lose its contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used for most PC memory because of its size and cost advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a faster type of DRAM, used in most PCs today </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rambus DRAM(RDRAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>faster than SDRAM </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU
  18. 18. DRAM MIU
  19. 19. RAM <ul><li>RAM packaged on circuit boards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SIMMs (single in-line memory modules) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>memory chips are installed on one side of the board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DIMMs (dual in-line memory modules) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>memory chips are installed on both sides of the board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Motherboard design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determines the maximum amount of memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li> For increasing the PC's RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>buy extra memory modules and plug into your computer's motherboard </li></ul></ul>MIU
  20. 20. ROM (Read-only memory ) <ul><li>Contain programs and data that are permanently recorded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>into this type of memory at the factory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonvolatile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex) the boot routine is stored in ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PROM (programmable read-only memory) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By ROM burners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the instructions within it can be changed </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU
  21. 21. Bus Line (Bus) <ul><li>A set of parallel electrical paths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that transport electrical signals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>copper tracing on the surface of the motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transports data between the CPU and memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion buses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connect to expansion slots, and ports on the motherboard </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU P4-113
  22. 22. Bus <ul><li>Bus width </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the number of bits of data that can be carried at one time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indicates the number of electrical paths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the greater the width, the more data can be carried at a time . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the width of system bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depend on the CPU design, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>normally, the same as the CPU's word size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bus speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in megahertz (MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The faster the bus speed, the faster data travels through the system </li></ul></ul>MIU
  23. 23. Expansion Boards <ul><li>interface cards or adapter cards </li></ul><ul><li>Connect various peripheral devices to a computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by plugging them into expansion slots on the motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide external connectors, called ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To plug in peripherals such as a printer, a mouse, and a keyboard </li></ul></ul>MIU
  24. 24. Port <ul><li>Serial ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit data one bit at a time, similar to cars on a one-lane road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are typically used for slow-speed devices such as the mouse and keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallel ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit groups of bits together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are used for faster devices such as printers and scanners </li></ul></ul>MIU
  25. 25. Serial port VS. Parallel port <ul><li>Serial Port </li></ul>MIU <ul><li>Parallel Port </li></ul>Computer / Main Board - Port                        
  26. 26. Common Buses and Ports on PCs <ul><li>Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used for slow-speed devices such as the mouse and modem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A high-speed bus used to connect devices such as hard disks and network cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to provide a dedicated connection between memory and an AGP graphics card </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal Serial Bus (USB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through a port on the back of the system unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect and disconnect them without turning off the power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IEEE 1394 bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A highly speed bus that is normally used to connect video equipment to a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PC Card bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The slot accepts credit card-sized PC Card devices </li></ul></ul>MIU
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