Computers3 Ch2


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Computers3 Ch2

  1. 1. Operating Systems Chapter 2 B.M.H
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Software Classification </li></ul><ul><li>System Software </li></ul><ul><li>Operating System </li></ul><ul><li>OS of PCs </li></ul><ul><li>NOS </li></ul>MIU
  3. 3. Computer System <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor (CPU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul>MIU
  4. 4. Software <ul><li>System software </li></ul><ul><li>all programs related to coordinating computer operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming language translators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A variety of utility programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul><ul><li>allows user to perform useful work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing, spreadsheet software, etc </li></ul></ul>MIU
  5. 5. System SW <ul><li>When you think of a computer, what first comes into your head? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The physical component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like the monitor, keyboard, or mouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The applications that run on your computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like word processing, video game, internet browsing </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU
  6. 6. Operating System <ul><li>An operating system is the software needed to communicate application programs and computer hardware to each other. (called OS) </li></ul>MIU
  7. 7. OS MIU
  8. 8. OS <ul><li>Serves as a intermediary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between the applications software and the hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The fundamental software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that controls access to all other hardware and software resources </li></ul></ul>MIU
  9. 9. OS <ul><li>A set of programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that lies between the applications software and the hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel : the most important program in OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be divided as remaining in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resident : Kernel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonresident : other OS programs </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU
  10. 10. Kernel <ul><li>The program that manages the OS </li></ul><ul><li>Most of it remains in memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to as resident </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controls the entire OS </li></ul><ul><li>Loads into memory other OS programs (called nonresident) from disk storage only as needed </li></ul>MIU
  11. 11. Kernel MIU A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer.
  12. 12. Booting <ul><li>The process of loading the OS into memory </li></ul><ul><li>When computer is turned on, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A small program stored in a ROM chip performs some internal HW component tests, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then loads the kernel from the hard drive into the computer ’ s memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Called bootstrapping </li></ul>MIU
  13. 13. OS <ul><li>Three main functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing the computer ’ s resources, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>such as the CPU, memory, disk drives and printers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing a user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executing and providing services for applications software </li></ul></ul>MIU
  14. 14. User interface <ul><li>Determines how the user interacts with the OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Interface : inter + face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>: a way of presenting information to and obtaining information from a user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two basic forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command-line interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul></ul>MIU
  15. 15. User interface <ul><li>Command-line interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires you to type in complete OS commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) MS-DOS, Unix, Linux, many large-computer OSs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual images and menus to allow users to enter commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) Windows, Mac OS, some installations of Linux and Unix </li></ul></ul>MIU
  16. 16. <ul><li>OSs for Personal Computers </li></ul><ul><li>OSs for Networks </li></ul><ul><li>OSs for Large Computer Systems </li></ul>MIU Index
  17. 17. OS for personal computers <ul><li>When you buy something for your computer, you must know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not only the OS the computer has, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but also about its platform </li></ul></ul>MIU
  18. 18. OSs for Personal Computers <ul><li>The SW is grouped according to the platform, on which the SW can run. </li></ul><ul><li>Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of computer hardware and operating system software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common families of platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows family : (referred as Wintel) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows + Intel processor based PC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macintosh family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS + Motorola processor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unix family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unix + all families of processors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>MIU
  19. 19. MIU
  20. 20. MS-DOS <ul><li>Called DOS (Disk Operating System) </li></ul><ul><li>Command-line user interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C: (disk drive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> : prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a signal that the system is prompting you to do something </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the only visible result of booting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At this point, you must type command </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU
  21. 21. Microsoft Windows <ul><li>GUI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Icons, menus (pull-down menus, pop-menus) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three branches serving different users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home/consumer market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 9x (95, 98, ME) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT, 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both the consumer and corporate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> For pocket computers and Internet appliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows CE </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU
  22. 22. MIU
  23. 23. MAC OS <ul><li>The first commercially successful GUI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on concepts developed at Xerox ’ s PARC research center in Palo Alto, California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MAC OS X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancement in multimedia support and multitasking-the ability to do several things at once. </li></ul></ul>MIU
  24. 24. MIU
  25. 25. UNIX <ul><li>A multiuser time-sharing OS </li></ul><ul><li>A character-based system with a command-line user interface </li></ul><ul><li>The primary OS in use on Internet server, today </li></ul><ul><li>Run on about every type of computer available from microcomputers to mainframes </li></ul>MIU
  26. 26. LINUX <ul><li>Linus Torvalds, a student at the Univ. Of Helsinki in Finland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the kernel of a Unix-like OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made the source code available to the public free of charge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Command-line interface, also provide a GUI </li></ul>MIU
  27. 27. OSs for Networks <ul><li>NOS (Network Operating System) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An extension of OSs for PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to let computers on a network share resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to a standard OS but include special features for handling network functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) Windows 2000 </li></ul></ul>MIU
  28. 28. NOS <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource sharing on a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Such as hard disks and printers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does this user have the right to that data? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer *** on the network failed to receive a message intended for it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Track the online hours and track the number of messages to and from each computer </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU
  29. 29. NOS <ul><li>In a client/server relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of the NOS : on Server computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>file access, management programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other NOS components : on Client computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>software that permits requests to the server and messages to other computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client computers has its own OS (ex, Windows ME) </li></ul></ul></ul>MIU