Prolog Programming : Basics


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This Presentation briefs you with basics of prolog programming language which is used in designing Artificial Intelligence

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  • Clear and concise. Simple and 'Declarative' as Prolog. Since I wasn't able to shrink and organized a ppt, thanks! I just wanna share a reference(to where I should've based my ppt) also of learning Prolog,
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Prolog Programming : Basics

  1. 1. Prolog Programming BY: MITUL K. DESAI
  2. 2. What is Prolog?  Prolog stands for programming in logic (PROgrammation en LOgique).  Prolog is the most widely used language to have been inspired by logic programming research.  Prolog is the only successful example of the family of logic programming languages.  A Prolog program is a theory written in a subset of first-order logic, called Horn clause logic.  Prolog is declarative. A Prolog programmer concentrates on what the program needs to do, not on how to do it.
  3. 3. A Little History  Prolog was invented by Alain Colmerauer, a professor of computer science at the university of Aix-Marseille in France, in 1972.  The first application of Prolog was in natural language processing.  Its theoretical underpinning are due to Donald Loveland of Duke university through Robert Kowalski (formerly) of the university of Edinburgh
  4. 4. Main Advantages  Ease of representing knowledge.  Natural support of pattern-matching.  Natural support of meta-programming.  Meaning of programs is independent of how they are executed.  Simple connection between programs and computed answers and specifications.  No need to distinguish programs from databases.
  5. 5. Anatomy of Prolog Program  Prolog programs are made up of facts and rules.  A fact asserts some property of an object, or relation between two or more objects. e.g. parent(jane,alan). Can be read as “Jane is the parent of Alan.”  Rules allow us to infer that a property or relationship holds based on preconditions. e.g. parent(X,Y) :- mother(X,Y). = “Person X is the parent of person Y if X is Y‟s mother.”
  6. 6. Predicate Definitions  Both facts and rules are predicate definitions.  ‘Predicate’is the name given to the word occurring before the bracket in a fact or rule: parent (jane,alan).  By defining a predicate you are specifying which information needs to be known for the property denoted by the predicate to be true. Predicate name
  7. 7. Clauses  Predicate definitions consist of clauses. = An individual definition (whether it be a fact or rule). e.g. mother(jane, alan). = Fact parent(P1,P2):- mother(P1,P2). = Rule  A clause consists of a head  And sometimes a body. -- Facts don‟t have a body because they are always true. head body
  8. 8. Arguments  A predicate head consists of a predicate name and sometimes some arguments contained within brackets and separated by commas. mother(jane, alan).  A body can be made up of any number of subgoals (calls to other predicates) and terms.  Arguments also consist of terms, which can be: -- Constants e.g. jane, -- Variables e.g. Person1, or -- Compound terms Predicate name Arguments
  9. 9. Terms: Constants Constants can either be:  Numbers:  integers are the usual form (e.g. 1, 0, -1, etc), but  floating-point numbers can also be used (e.g. 3.0E7)  Symbolic constants:  always start with a lower case alphabetic character and contain any mixture of letters, digits, and underscores (but no spaces, punctuation, or an initial capital).  e.g. abc, big_long_constant, x4_3t.  String constants:  are anything between single quotes e.g. „Like this‟.
  10. 10. Terms: Variables  Variables always start with an upper case alphabetic character or an underscore.  Other than the first character they can be made up of any mixture of letters, digits, and underscores. e.g. X, ABC, _89two5, _very_long_variable  There are no “types” for variables (or constants) – a variable can take any value.  All Prolog variables have a “local” scope: --- they only keep the same value within a clause; the same variable used outside of a clause does not inherit the value (this would be a “global” scope).
  11. 11. Naming Tips  Use real English when naming predicates, constants, and variables. e.g. “John wants to help Somebody.” Could be: wants(john, to_help, Somebody). Not: x87g(j,_789).  Use a Verb Subject Object structure: wants(john, to_help).  BUT do not assume Prolog Understands the meaning of your chosen names! -- You create meaning by specifying the body (i.e. preconditions) of a clause.
  12. 12. Using Predicate Definitions Command line programming is tedious e.g. | ?- write(„What is your name?‟), nl, read(X), write(„Hello „), write(X). We can define predicates to automate commands: | ?- greetings. What is your name? |: tim. Hello tim X = tim ? yes Prolog Code Terminal greetings:- write(‘What is your name?’), nl, read(X), write(‘Hello ‘), write(X).
  13. 13. Running prolog program on windows After SWI-Prolog has been installed on a Windows system, the following important new things are available to the user:  A folder (called directory in the remainder of this document) called swipl containing the executable, libraries, etc., of the system. No files are installed outside this directory.  A program swipl-win.exe, providing a window for interaction with Prolog.  The program swipl.exe is a version of SWI-Prolog that runs in a console window.  The file extension .p1 is associated with the program swipl-win.exe.  Opening a .p1 file will cause swipl-win.exe to start, change directory to the directory in which the file to open resides, and load this file.
  14. 14. Executing a query After loading a program, one can ask Prolog queries about the program. ?- likes (sam, x) . X = dahl ; X = tandoori ; …… X = chips ; ?-
  15. 15. Prolog Execution Most Prolog clauses have both a declarative reading and a procedural reading. Whenever possible, the declarative reading is to be preferred. mother (X, Y) :- parent (X, Y), female (X) . Declarative reading: x is the mother of y if x is parent of y and x is female
  16. 16. Prolog Execution Procedural reading : To show that x is the mother of y, first show that x is a parent of y, then show that x is female. Clauses: parent (john, bill) . parent (jane, bill) . female(jane) . Query: | ?- mother (M, bill) .
  17. 17. Prolog Execution  The clause of mother /2 will be located, and the unification X=M, Y=bill will occur.  Then parent (M, bill) will be attempted, resulting in the unification M=john.  Next, female (john) will be attempted, but will fail.  Prolog will backtrack to parent (M, bill) and look for another solution for this; it will succeed and unify M=jane.  Finally, it will attempt female (jane), and succeed; so the inquiry will succeed, having performed the unification M=jane.
  18. 18. Thank You