How to make a video - Part 1: Video Production Basics
HOW TO MAKE A VIDEO
Instructor: Kris Brewer
Typical Video Production Workflow
(Script, Casting, etc.)
(Video, Audio - Primary and B Roll, etc.)
(Sequencing, adding music/VOs, etc.)
(Compression for Web, print to video - DVD, VHS, etc.)
(TV, Films, Internet - MIT TechTV, YouTube, etc.)
Public View Final Product
Thinking up a story
Conceptualizing The Edited Program
* What are your objectives?
* How will this video be used?
* What is your budget?
* What source material will be used?
* How will you distribute this video?
* What is the target audience?
* What is the title of your project?
* What will the project look like? (Storyboard)
* Do you have performance copyrights and location releases?
Giant Leaps - http://techtv.mit.edu/videos/3155-span-classhighlightgiantspan-leaps
ZigZag Express Episode #18 - http://techtv.mit.edu/videos/534-zigzag-express-episode-18
Vladimir Bulovic on OLED Displays - http://techtv.mit.edu/videos/3175-vladimir-bulovic-on-oled-displays
Keep Lawrence Clean - http://techtv.mit.edu/videos/2652-keep-lawrence-clean
Sustainability at MIT: Greening MIT's Campus and Beyond -
There are many cameras and many formats
Still or Video
Analog v. Digital
HD v. SD
Interlaced v. Progressive
Film, Tape or Disc
Getting your footage
On a person (3-way lighting):
•Key Light - main light 45 degree angle
•Fill light - less intense 45 degree angle opposite Key
•Back light - less intense behind subject just off camera
Choose the right type of Mic:
• interviews - handheld or lavalier (cardioids or omni)
• action - shotgun (directional)
• area noise - stereo (omni-directional)
Camera Mac or External Mic:
• most cameras have a built in mic but the range usually
isn’t very good (6 - 10 ft) and it may pick up everything
including camera noise.
• external mics give you a wide range of options
(make sure your camera has a mic input)
Set / Scenery
Pay attention to where you are shooting:
• background noise (cars, trains, a/c units, etc.)
• light sources (sun, room lights, flashing lights)
be aware that lighting can change while you
shoot, so the more you can control it, the better
• distractions (background scenery, people, other)
The more control you have, the easier it is to shoot.
Studios give you the most control since they are built
to control lighting, sound, and everything else video.
How to prepare for the editing process
To get ready to edit efficiently, the best thing to do is to review your footage and log it.
Use the following logging format with your word processor, spreadsheet or database program
• Reel number [followed by a tab]. Use three digit numbers starting with 101 In-point
Formatted as hour:minute:second, such as 01:10:12.
• The in and out can be within a couple of seconds, so you can ignore frame numbers
on the windows dub/timecode display
• 2-3 word name for clip/shot
• Description of up to 10 words including the first and last few words of the segment
• Priority. Place an asterisk next to clips you like, two *s next to clips you like even
better, etc. No limit to number of *s you can use
• Carriage return at end of line
Here is a sample screening log:
REEL IN-POINT OUT-POINT CLIP NAME IN-CUE AND OUT-CUE PRIORITY
101 09:02:13 09:02:34 Porter One of great… Rudolph, Jewett **
101 08:29:55 08:30:11 Pierce There was Andy… only one *
102 10:00:29 10:00:44 Lincoln House to woods… from above ****
Edit Scripts and Outlines: The “Paper” Edit
An edit script or outline communicates a general idea about how the video might flow.
This step, although optional, can make sure the structure of the first rough edit
matches your vision. To prepare an edit script, simply copy and paste the
complete information for each clip (the full line of text) into a new document
in the order you wish.
* Prepare visual elements
o Provide existing print or other graphic designs
o Create a list of participants and other titles
o Write text for full-frame graphic screens
o Prepare a full list of credits including all participants
* Music preparation
o You can choose music from several libraries for a reasonable fee
o Remember that commercially-recorded music is protected by copyright
o Use a rights-clearing house to purchase rights
o Use local musician’s recordings for a small fee or in exchange for credit
(Creative Commons) http://techtv.mit.edu/
Hands-on / Q&A
Let’s take a look at cameras, mics, lights, etc.
Pick a subject (something new to you on campus,
a person, a place, a thing, etc.)
Make a 1 - 2 minute summary video of your subject
• write your outline and scene shots
• get your footage
• compile your extras (graphics, music, other)
• digitize and log your footage
• start editing a rough cut if you’re up for it