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La leadership. Un processo in evoluzione. The leadership of an evolving process.

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Breve storia del concetto di leadership.
A brief history of the concept of leadership.

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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La leadership. Un processo in evoluzione. The leadership of an evolving process.

  1. 1. La leadership. Un processo in evoluzione. A cura del dott. Bozzi Domenico
  2. 2. Per il Vocabolario Treccani on line (2015), LEADERSHIP è un sostantivo inglese composto da leader, «capo, guida» e ship, terminazione che esprime «condizione, ufficio, professione e sim.», usato in italiano al femminile. La parola leader secondo l’Oxford English Dictionariy compare nel XIII sec., mentre leadership compare nella prima metà del XIX secolo per indicare l’influenza autorevole dei politici inglesi. Leader deriva dal verbo inglese to lead e significa «guidare, condurre», e da lead si ottiene leading che vuol dire «stabilire una direzione ed influenzare gli altri a seguirla». La parola condurre, a sua volta per quanto riguarda la lingua italiana deriva dal latino cum, «insieme, con» e ducere, dal significato di «guidare, condurre» da cui scaturiva la parola dux, ossia «condottiero».
  3. 3. Si fa risalire la nascita del concetto di leadership al sociologo tedesco Max Weber (1864-1920) che, agli inizi del XX secolo, si appassionò all’aspetto carismatico di alcuni leader. Per Confucio (551 ca - 479 a.C.), il leader deve essere una figura dotata di un elevato senso morale. Per Platone (428 o 427 a. C. - 348 o 347), nella Repubblica, il leader deve guidare ispirandosi all'ordine e alla ragione. Machiavelli (1469-1527) è considerato il primo importante autore della leadership (Il principe, 1513) dove il leader deve raggiungere l'obiettivo di esercitare il potere e mantenere l'autorità per ben governare. Plutarco (I-II secolo d.C.) con la sua opera «Vite parallele» delle maggiori figure greche e romane, darà interesse al tema della leadership con una tendenza comparativa delle caratteristiche dei leader. Il libro di Le Bon, Psicologia delle folle (1895), venne studiato dai dittatori totalitari del XX secolo che basarono il proprio potere sulla capacità di controllare e manipolare le masse.
  4. 4.  La classificazione di Bass M.B., (1981):  Leadership come focus della dinamica di gruppo.  Leadership come personalità e suoi effetti.  Leadership come l’arte di indurre il consenso.  Leadership come esercizio di influenza.  Leadership come comportamento.  Leadership come forma di persuasione.  Leadership come relazione di potere.  Leadership come strumento per raggiungere l’obiettivo.  Leadership come fattore emergente dell’interazione.  Leadership come ruolo di differenziazione.  Leadership come l’iniziazione di una struttura.
  5. 5. Per questa teoria «leader si nasce» (Borgatta, Couch, Bales, 1954), è la teoria del grande uomo sorta negli anni ’50. Una prima formulazione è di Galton (1869), alcuni tratti innati sono predittori di leadership. Per Brown (1991), invece «non si è mai riusciti ad associare la leadership ad alcun tratto della personalità umana, ad alcuna caratteristica dell’intelligenza o ad un particolare tipo di motivazione ». Fiedler (1967) critica le teorie sugli stili di leadership che esulano dal contesto in cui essa si esplica. Fiedler e collaboratori ipotizzano che il giusto tipo di comportamento dipende anche da quanto la situazione è favorevole al leader. La leadership come combinazione di tre fattori: 1) la posizione di potere del leader; 2) la struttura del compito; 3) i rapporti tra il leader e gli altri.
  6. 6. Il modello di House e Mitchell (1974) sostiene che nell'esecuzione dei compiti i risultati rappresentano l'obiettivo mentre i compiti sono il percorso. I leader influenzano la percezione dei subordinati rispetto al «sentiero verso l’obiettivo» (path goal), aiutandoli a trovare il percorso per raggiungere gli obiettivi del gruppo. I comportamenti per aumentare la motivazione nei subordinati sono legati: 1) alle caratteristiche dei subordinati; 2) ai fattori del contesto. La griglia manageriale di Blake e Mouton (1964), esamina l'interesse per la relazione e l'interesse per la produzione (ma non esamina le variabili situazionali) del processo di leadership che si esercita su due variabili, ossia lo stile di comando dei dirigenti: 1) interesse per la produzione; 2) interesse per le persone. Lo stile di leadership efficace e duraturo è quello che media.
  7. 7. Per Hersey e Blanchard (1984) non c’è lo stile ideale e valido in assoluto e il vero leader fa diagnosi e adatta lo stile alle situazioni. Ci sono quattro modalità diverse di gestione della leadership (delegare, partecipare, vendere, prescrivere) e quattro diversi livelli di Maturità. Gli stili di leadership sono: 1) stile direttivo; 2)stile persuasivo; 3) stile partecipativo; 4) stile delegante. Essi suggeriscono al leader lo stile di leadership in rapporto alla situazione in cui agisce. Il modello ha cinque stili decisionali: 1)autocratico; 2)autocratico con richiesta d’informazioni; 3)consultivo individuale; 4)consultivo di gruppo; 5)partecipativo e tre criteri per determinare l’efficacia di una decisione: 1)la qualità; 2) l'accettazione; 3) il tempo. Fiedler e collaboratori (Fiedler, Potter, Zais, Knowlton; 1979) hanno studiato gli effetti dello stress interpersonale sulla performance spiegando i risultati ottenuti con la teoria della facilitazione sociale (Zajonic, 1965).
  8. 8. È legata al concetto di empowerment e spiega come i leader sviluppano e aumentano il coinvolgimento dei follower, appellandosi ai loro ideali e valori più alti (Burns, 1978). Per Bass e Stogdill (1990), un leader trasformazionale deve: 1) utilizzare il proprio carisma; 2) creare ispirazione; 3) utilizzare la considerazione; 4) stimolare intellettualmente i follower. Per Hollander (1985), essere leader dipende dagli scambi tra leader e seguaci nel corso dell’interazione a partire dal primo istante in cui essa ha inizio. Per Bass e Stogdill (1990), vengono usate le ricompense associate alla buona performance e al raggiungimento di un obiettivo. Per Calder (1977), il successo del leader dipende dall’attribuzione ad esso da parte degli altri membri del gruppo delle qualità necessarie. House (1977) sostiene che i leader carismatici riescono a cambiare i valori, gli obiettivi, i bisogni e le disposizioni dei loro collaboratori. Negli studi l’attenzione è rivolta ai collaboratori del leader, sulla loro risposta emozionale ad esso.
  9. 9. L'influenza è un processo attraverso il quale si cerca di ottenere intenzionalmente acquiescenza dagli altri, con l'uso dell'autorità legittima e del potere (Scott e Mitchell 1972,; Kaneklin, 1978; Rugiadini, 1979). Per comprendere meglio ciò occorre introdurre il concetto di contratto psicologico. Il contratto psicologico è l'insieme delle reciproche aspettative tra l'organizzazione e i suoi membri ( quantità di lavoro in rapporto a un certo compenso, i diritti, i privilegi e obblighi tra l'individuo e l'organizzazione, Schein, 1980). L'autorità legittima invece è il diritto che ha una persona di decisione e di comando su altri ed è sancita o approvata dai partecipanti dell'organizzazione ed è radicata nel contratto psicologico e, attraverso questo, un capo può attendersi che un collaboratore accondiscenda alle richieste dell'organizzazione.
  10. 10. Il potere può essere definito come l'abilità a influenzare la condotta degli altri e a resistere alle influenze indesiderate messe in atto nei propri confronti (McMurray, 1975). Fonti e tipi di Potere (French e Raven, 1959) 1)Potere di posizione; 2) Potere di competenza; 3) Potere del carisma; 4) Potere di coercizione; 5) Potere di riconoscimento. Il potere è una forza che può essere usata per ottenere acquiescenza, ma è differente dall'autorità legittima, perché non è sancito dal contratto psicologico (Pfeffer, 1981; Kramer e Neale, 1998).
  11. 11. Per molti autori, oggi, la natura della leadership è propriamente relazionale e basata sulla fiducia nei collaboratori e il leader democratico favorisce le relazioni interpersonali e ogni membro ha un ruolo importante nel raggiungimento degli obiettivi. Kelley R. (1994), parla di follower che oggi hanno il coraggio di essere onesti con sé stessi e sacrificano le ricompense sociali, come status, denaro e fama per la realizzazione personale e trovare il proprio significato della vita. Covey (2003) parla del concetto di umanizzazione del leader, di una “leadership dei principi” fatta da azioni virtuose. Per Quaglino (2004), la leadership è costruire relazioni di fiducia ricordando che l’obiettivo finale della leadership è quello di generare nuovi leader. Parla di motivazione, empowerment e si concentra sugli aspetti di fiducia e credibilità.

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