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BACK TO THE FUTURE    “THIN (AND SMALL) IS BEAUTIFUL”DOWNSCALING Li-ION BATTERY      TECHNOLOGY             MENACHEM NATHA...
Li-ION BATTERY TECHNOLOGY - THE TECHNOLOGY OF CHOICE                 IN MOST ADVANCED APPLICATIONSIn conventional Li-ion b...
BIG and SMALL                       200-250 mm                         9.5mmMercedes S400 HYBRID Sedan Li-                ...
Mercedes S400 HYBRID Sedan 120V Li-ion battery                                 Cylindrical Li-ion cells     Steel frame
WHERE THE EXISTING “SMALL” IS NOT SMALL ENOUGHRapidlly evolving world of autonomous “micro-systems” (MEMS)which need simil...
TWO DIMENSIONAL (2D) Li-ION THIN-FILM BATTERY (TFB)       Oak Ridge National Laboratories, USA, ca. 1991                  ...
Li-ION TFBCharacteristics:◦ All solid state construction◦ Can be operated at high and low temperatures (between -20° and 1...
2D-TFB COMMERCIALIZATIONINFINITE POWER SOLUTIONS - ca. $50 million investment, limitedcommercial salesCYMBET - ca. $50 mil...
CYMBET                       INFINITE POWER SOLUTIONSEnergy Harvesting Evaluation Module   IPS-EVAL-EH-01 EVALUATION KIT  ...
TEXAS INSTRUMENTS eZ430-RF2500-SEH SOLAR ENERGY          HARVESTING DEVELOPMENT KIT          http://www.ti.com/lit/ug/slau...
EXAMPLARY CYMBET POWERED MICROSYSTEM 2011 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference   Gregory Chen, Hassan Ghaed,...
THE MAJOR PROBLEM OF 2D-TFB TECHNOLOGY      Very small Capacity, Energy Density and Power            Density per Footprint...
THE (TAU) SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF LOW “PER        FOOTPRINT” PERFORMANCE OF 2D-TFBs                 GO FROM 2D TO 3DFor...
THE TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY Li-ION 3D-TFB TECHNOLOGY      Standard                                                    High Pow...
THE MAGIC OF TAU’s Li-ION 3D-TFBs       (now under further development by Honeycomb Microbattery Solutions)               ...
TAU / HONEYCOMB 3D-TFBs vs COMMERCIAL 2D-TFBs
3D-TFBs UNDER DEVELOPMENT (3-5 years)                              Present            HC                 Enhanced         ...
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF TAU 3D-TFB WITH CYMBET 2D-       TFBS IN A TI ez430-RF2500 DEVELOPMENT KIT
HONEYCOMB 3D-TFBS vs. QUALLION MINI-CYLINDRICAL                         BATTERIES                        QL00031          ...
SUMMARY- HONEYCOMB-3DMB PERFORMANCE                             Materials,            Operating    Capacity,   Energy,    ...
PATENTSUS6,197,450 (Priority date: October 22, 1998)7,527,897 (Priority Date: October 12, 2003)7,618,748 (Priority Date: M...
MAIN CLAIM IN REISSUEA thin-film micro-electrochemical energy storage cell (MEESC) in the form of amicrobattery, said micr...
CONCLUSIONS“Made in Israel” basic E-storage technology, vastly superior to state-of-the-art 2D thin film battery technolog...
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Menachem Nathan - Downscaling Li-Ion Battery Technology

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From The Event "Energy & eStorage", 11/9/11.

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Menachem Nathan - Downscaling Li-Ion Battery Technology

  1. 1. BACK TO THE FUTURE “THIN (AND SMALL) IS BEAUTIFUL”DOWNSCALING Li-ION BATTERY TECHNOLOGY MENACHEM NATHAN SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY With acknowledgement to my chief collaborators; Prof. Dina Golodnitsky, School of Chemistry, TAU Prof. Emanuel Peled, School of Chemistry, TAU MIT ENTERPRISE FORUM OF ISRAEL – 11 SEPTEMBER 2011
  2. 2. Li-ION BATTERY TECHNOLOGY - THE TECHNOLOGY OF CHOICE IN MOST ADVANCED APPLICATIONSIn conventional Li-ion batteries, the anode and cathode are “thick films” or “bulk” materials, i.e. with thickness of 0.1- 0.2 mm (100-200 micrometer) and more
  3. 3. BIG and SMALL 200-250 mm 9.5mmMercedes S400 HYBRID Sedan Li- Li coin cells ion batteryFirst Li-ion battery in a production vehicle - Smallest commercial coin cell 2010 9.5mm × 2.7mm
  4. 4. Mercedes S400 HYBRID Sedan 120V Li-ion battery Cylindrical Li-ion cells Steel frame
  5. 5. WHERE THE EXISTING “SMALL” IS NOT SMALL ENOUGHRapidlly evolving world of autonomous “micro-systems” (MEMS)which need similarly sized power sources (wireless sensor networks,“Smart dust” concepts).Small footprint requirements (e.g. in implantable autonomous micro-systems such as neural neurostimulators).Fast charge requirements (solar powered consumer electronics) .High energy/high power combined with small volume and/orfootprint
  6. 6. TWO DIMENSIONAL (2D) Li-ION THIN-FILM BATTERY (TFB) Oak Ridge National Laboratories, USA, ca. 1991 15 µm
  7. 7. Li-ION TFBCharacteristics:◦ All solid state construction◦ Can be operated at high and low temperatures (between -20° and 140° C C)◦ Capable to deliver high current densities due to thin electrolyte◦ Can be made in any shape or size - flexible substrate◦ Cost does not increase with reduction in size (constant $/cm2)◦ Completely safe under all operating conditions◦ Can be deposited directly onto chips or chip packages (unaffected by heating to 280°C)◦ Long (stable) cycle life
  8. 8. 2D-TFB COMMERCIALIZATIONINFINITE POWER SOLUTIONS - ca. $50 million investment, limitedcommercial salesCYMBET - ca. $50 million investment, limited commercial sales
  9. 9. CYMBET INFINITE POWER SOLUTIONSEnergy Harvesting Evaluation Module IPS-EVAL-EH-01 EVALUATION KIT (available commercially) (available commercially)
  10. 10. TEXAS INSTRUMENTS eZ430-RF2500-SEH SOLAR ENERGY HARVESTING DEVELOPMENT KIT http://www.ti.com/lit/ug/slau273c/slau273c.pdf Uses a pair of Cymbet 50µAh, 3.8V Enerchip TFBs
  11. 11. EXAMPLARY CYMBET POWERED MICROSYSTEM 2011 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Gregory Chen, Hassan Ghaed, Razi-ul Haque, Michael Wieckowski, Yejoong Kim, Gyouho Kim, David Fick, Daeyeon Kim, Mingoo Seok, Kensall Wise, David Blaauw, Dennis Sylvester University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Uses 1µAh, 3.8V “Enerchip” 2D-TFB from Cymbet
  12. 12. THE MAJOR PROBLEM OF 2D-TFB TECHNOLOGY Very small Capacity, Energy Density and Power Density per Footprint (square cm) 8 mm x 8 mm (0.64 cm2) 25.4 mm x 50.8 mm x 0.170 mm QFN SMT Package 13 cm2 50µAh, 3.8V 2.5mAh, 4VCapacity: 78 µAh/cm2 Capacity: 192 µAh/cm2
  13. 13. THE (TAU) SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF LOW “PER FOOTPRINT” PERFORMANCE OF 2D-TFBs GO FROM 2D TO 3DFor a typical substrate 0.5mm thick, through holes with d=50µm and s=10µm will provide an area gain of ca. 23
  14. 14. THE TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY Li-ION 3D-TFB TECHNOLOGY Standard High Power 300-1000µm Contact µ Contact 15-150µm 4-40µm µ Anode Electrolyte Cathode Substrate Substrate Current Collector
  15. 15. THE MAGIC OF TAU’s Li-ION 3D-TFBs (now under further development by Honeycomb Microbattery Solutions) Look thin but are thick… and vice versa: thin layers are employed to enable high power, w/o compromise on Safe and Eco- capacity – plenty of Friendly: active material •The 10m wall separation preventsGeometrical Area Gain thermal runaway enables Superior •Eliminates battery Performances in replacement – lasts theTerms of Energy and life of powered device Power Through holes – •Lead free, no allow cost effective hazardous or wet chemistry flammable materials fabrication: Manufacturing can be “fabless” and outsourced
  16. 16. TAU / HONEYCOMB 3D-TFBs vs COMMERCIAL 2D-TFBs
  17. 17. 3D-TFBs UNDER DEVELOPMENT (3-5 years) Present HC Enhanced HC Samples Next Gen performance AG=23 (MCP, AG=30)Voltage 2 2.5-3 2.5-3Capacity (mAh/cm2) 2-2.5 10 15(2)Areal Energy Density 4-5 30 45mWh/cm2Volumetric Energy 80-100 600 900Density Wh/L(2)Power mW/cm2 40-50 (1) 50-80 (1) 800 (1) (1) 30 sec pulses. Much higher power can be achieved for short (msec) Pulse discharge (2) Excluding Package – may add ~0.2mm in each dimension (3) Charge / Recharge cycles - >1,000
  18. 18. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF TAU 3D-TFB WITH CYMBET 2D- TFBS IN A TI ez430-RF2500 DEVELOPMENT KIT
  19. 19. HONEYCOMB 3D-TFBS vs. QUALLION MINI-CYLINDRICAL BATTERIES QL00031 HC Gen 1 HC Enhanced (3.6V, 3mAh, (AG=23) Next Gen performance 15mA cont., 0.08cc, d=2.9mm, AG=23 (MCP, h=11mm) AG=30)Voltage 3.6 2 2.5-3 2.5-3Volumetric Capacity 37.5 93 150 186(mAh/cm3)Volumetric Energy 135 186 429 557Density Wh/L(2)Current per volume 187.5 320 >320 ~4,000(mA/cc)Volumetric Power 675 643 929 11,500density (mW/cc)Nominal Capacity 3 (2) 5.2 8.4 10.5(mAh/cm3) (1)Discharge current 15 18 >18 224(mA) (1) (1) For the same size and shape as QL00031 (2) Requires recharging every 3 days
  20. 20. SUMMARY- HONEYCOMB-3DMB PERFORMANCE Materials, Operating Capacity, Energy, Power,Item Configuration cathode voltage, V mAh/cm2 mWh/cm2 mW/cm2 thickness1 HC Present Hi- 2-3 micron CuS 2.0 2.0-2.5 4-5 (40-50)* Energy cathode, (AG=10) PVDF-based membrane2 HC Future Hi- 3-5 micron CuS 2.0 3.0-5.0 10-12 (40-50)* Energy – 1st series cathode (AG=10) PVDF-based or new membrane3 HC Future Hi- 3-5 micron mixed 2-3 5-10 20-30 (50-80)* Energy – 2nd chalcogenide and/or series V2O5 cathode (AG > 20) PVDF-based or new membrane4 HC Hi-Power 2-4 micron modified 2-3.4 5-8 10-30 500-1000* Pulse Discharge- cathode 3rd series PVDF-based or new (AG > 20) membrane Graphite or lithium alloy – based anode5 HC Hi-Power 2-4 micron all 2-3.4 4-8 10-30 100-300 Continuous modified cathode, Discharge- 4th membrane and series anode materials (AG > 20) Typical 2D 2-4 0.1-0.3 0.25-1.0 0.7-27 Microbatteries
  21. 21. PATENTSUS6,197,450 (Priority date: October 22, 1998)7,527,897 (Priority Date: October 12, 2003)7,618,748 (Priority Date: March 13, 2006)RE 41578 (reissue of ‘450)RE 42073 (reissue of ‘450)RE 42273 (reissue of ‘450)Application No. 20060032046 (Priority Date: October 17, 2002)Application No. 12/859,297Non-US (Priority date – same as the US equivalent):EP Patent 1145348 (‘450 equivalent)EP Patent 1994592 (‘748 equivalent)Japanese patent 4555378 (‘748 equivalent)German Patent AT224587T (‘450 equivalent)Chinese Patent ZL 200480037093.X (‘897 equivalent)Chinese Patent ZL200780008458.X (‘748 equivalent)
  22. 22. MAIN CLAIM IN REISSUEA thin-film micro-electrochemical energy storage cell (MEESC) in the form of amicrobattery, said microbattery comprising:a) a substrate having two surfaces and including a plurality of throughcavities of arbitrary shape, said cavities characterized by having an aspect ratiogreater than 1 and extending between said two surfaces;b) a thin layer anode;c) a thin layer cathode; andd) an electrolyte intermediate to said anode and cathode layers; wherein said anode layer, said cathode layer, and said electrolyteintermediate to said anode and cathode layers, are deposited over said twosurfaces and throughout the inner surface of said cavities.
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONS“Made in Israel” basic E-storage technology, vastly superior to state-of-the-art 2D thin film battery technologies.Technology scalable to Si wafer-size batteries (mobile consumerelectronics?) and to much larger plastic based substrates.The TFB field is in its infancy – real applications are 3-5 years away.Existing Applications (in development):◦ Solar energy harvesting◦ Implantable medical devices◦ Wireless sensor networks
  24. 24. THANK YOU

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