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Introduction to computer hardware

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Introduction to computer hardware

  1. Hardware of Personal Computers Lesson 2
  2. Part 1: Introduction
  3. What are Basic Hardware of a Personal Computer? <ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>CPU (Microprocessor) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage (RAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion cards </li></ul><ul><li>Power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Optical disc drive </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary storage (Hard disk) </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul>
  4. What is a Hardware? <ul><li>Hardware is the general term that is used to describe physical artifacts of a technology. </li></ul>
  5. Classification of Hardware Input Devices 1 Processing Unit 2 Storage Devices 3 Output Devices 4
  6. Part 2: Input Devices
  7. What is a Input Device? <ul><li>A hardware mechanism that transforms information in the external world for consumption by a computer. </li></ul>
  8. Input Devices a device that analyzes images, printed text, or handwriting, or an object and converts it to a digital image Scanner a pointing device by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Mouse for the input of text and characters and also to control the operation of a computer Keyboard
  9. Input Devices a real-time camera (usually, though not always, a video camera) whose images can be accessed using the World Wide Web WebCam an electronic device used to capture and store photographs electronically in a digital format Digital Camera an acoustic to electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. Microphone
  10. Part 3: Processing Unit
  11. What is a Processing Unit? <ul><li>A central processing unit (CPU), is the component in a digital computer that interprets computer program instructions and processes data. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 major CPU manufacturers for personal computers. Intel http:// / AMD </li></ul>Intel Celern 2.66GHz CPU (Front) Intel Celern 2.66GHz CPU (Back)
  12. How fast is a CPU? <ul><li>When you choose a CPU, you should consider its speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of a CPU is determined by 2 main factors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of cache memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The higher the value , the faster the CPU will be. </li></ul>The clock frequency of a CPU
  13. What are Intel CPU Families for Desktop Computers? <ul><li>There are 3 Intel CPU families for desktop computers: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Core Processor </li></ul><ul><li>2. Pentium Processor </li></ul><ul><li>3. Celeron </li></ul>
  14. What are AMD CPU Families for Desktop Computers? <ul><li>There are 3 AMD CPU Families for Desktop Computers: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Athlon 64 FX,,30_118_9485_9488,00.html </li></ul><ul><li>2. Athlon 64 x 2 Dual – Core,,30_118_9485_13041,00.html </li></ul><ul><li>3. Athlon 64,,30_118_9485_9487,00.html </li></ul>
  15. TASK 1 (Individual work) <ul><li>In Lesson 1, you have learnt some searching skills for search engines, now you need to search the basic configurations and prices of the following CPUs. </li></ul><ul><li>Please complete TABLE 1 and post it in the Forum. </li></ul>
  16. TASK 1 (TABLE 1) AMD CPU Intel CPU Price (HK$) Cache Memory L2 (MB) Clock Frequency (GHz) Athlon 64 ADA 3200-CN Athlon 64 FX – 51/940 Celeron D356 Core 2 Due E6700 CPU Model
  17. TASK 2 (Group Work) <ul><li>You are divided into groups of 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the above CPU models, which are suitable for home PC or office PC used. </li></ul><ul><li>Give brief reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Please post your group discussion results in the Forum. </li></ul>
  18. What is a motherboard? <ul><li>A motherboard is the central circuit board making up a personal computer. </li></ul>A motherboard CPU RAM slot
  19. Motherboard <ul><li>A personal computer is built with the CPU, main memory, and other essential components on the motherboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Other components such as external storage, controllers for video display and sound, and peripheral devices are typically attached to the motherboard via edge connectors and cables. </li></ul><ul><li>In modern computers it is increasingly common to integrate these &quot;peripherals&quot; into the motherboard. </li></ul>
  20. What is a Video Card? <ul><li>A video card is to generate and output images to a display . </li></ul>
  21. A Video Card <ul><li>If the video card is integrated in the motherboard , it will use the computer RAM memory (lower throughput). If it is not integrated, the video card will have its own video memory which is called Video RAM or VRAM. </li></ul><ul><li>The VRAM capacity of most modern video cards range from 128 to 2048 MB (workstation graphics cards). </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006, the VRAM was based on DDR technology, standing out DDR2, GDDR3 and GDDR4. The memory clock rate is between 400 MHz and 1.6 GHz. </li></ul><ul><li>A very important element of the video memory is the Z-buffer, which manages the depth coordinates in 3D graphics. </li></ul>
  22. What is a Sound Card? <ul><li>A sound card is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Many computers have sound capabilities built in on the motherboard , while others require these expansion cards if audio capability is desired. </li></ul>A sound card
  23. Part 4: Storage Devices
  24. What are Types of Storage Devices? Storage Devices Primary Storage Secondary Storage Read-Only Memory (ROM) Random-Access Memory (RAM)
  25. What is Primary Storage? <ul><li>Primary storage is computer memory that is directly accessible to the CPU of a computer without the use of computer's input/output channels. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary storage is used to store data that is likely to be in active use. </li></ul>
  26. What is ROM? <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Data stored in ROM cannot be modified . </li></ul><ul><li>ROM is a non-volatile storage . Data remains unchanged even after switching off the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. EPROM, EEPROM </li></ul>An EPROM
  27. What is RAM? <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) is a type of data storage used in computers. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes the form of integrated circuits that allow the stored data to be accessed in any order (random). </li></ul><ul><li>Data stored in RAM can be modified . </li></ul><ul><li>RAM is a volatile storage . Data will lose after switching off the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. DDRam, DDR-2 Ram </li></ul>Two 512 MB DDRam
  28. What is Secondary Storage? <ul><li>Secondary storage is computer memory that is not directly accessible to the CPU of a computer, requiring the use of computer's input/output channels. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to store data that is NOT in active use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually slower than primary storage but it always has higher storage capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>It is non-volatile. Data remains unchanged even after switching off the computer. </li></ul>
  29. Secondary Storage <ul><li>3.5” Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Data capacity: 1.44 MB </li></ul>
  30. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Hard Disk </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of disk rotation usually 7200 rpm </li></ul><ul><li>Data capacity : 80GB, 160GB, 250GB, 300GB etc </li></ul>A Hard disk
  31. Secondary Storage 650 650 650 Data capacity (MB) Read & write Read but write once Read only Data can be CD-RW CD-R CD-Rom
  32. Secondary Storage Single layer: 4.7 Double layer: 8.5 Single layer: 4.7 Double layer: 8.5 Single layer: 4.7 Double layer: 8.5 Data capacity (GB) Read & write Read but write once Read only Data can be DVD-RW /DVD+RW DVD-R /DVD+R DVD
  33. What are the Different Between DVD-R and DVD+R? <ul><li>The DVD-R format was developed by Pioneer in the autumn of 1997. It is supported by most DVD players, and is approved by the DVD Forum . </li></ul><ul><li>DVD+R was developed in 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>This format is a competing format to the DVD-R format, which is developed by the DVD Forum, it has not been approved by the DVD Forum, which claims that the DVD+R format is not an official DVD format. </li></ul>
  34. Secondary Storage A CD-R disk A CD-RW disk
  35. Secondary Storage A DVD-R disk A DVD+RW disk
  36. Secondary Storage <ul><li>USB flash drives </li></ul><ul><li>They are flash memory data storage devices integrated with a USB interface. </li></ul><ul><li>They are typically small, lightweight, removable and rewritable . </li></ul><ul><li>Data capacity: 512MB, 1GB, 2GB, 4GB, etc </li></ul>
  37. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Memory Cards </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. SD card, CF card, xD card, Microdrive, Memory Stick </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Data capacity: 512 MB, 1GB, 2GB, 4GB etc </li></ul>
  38. Various Types of Memory Cards Microdrive Memory Stick xD card CF Card SD Card SM Card
  39. Part 5: Output Devices
  40. What is a output device? <ul><li>Output devices include any hardware that translate information processed by the computer into a form that humans can understand . </li></ul>
  41. Output Devices <ul><li>A monitor is a piece of electrical equipment which displays texts and images. </li></ul><ul><li>It generated a temporary record because the record disappear when power off. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 major types of monitors: Cathode Ray Tube ( CRT ) and Liquid Crystal Display ( LCD ) </li></ul>A 14” LCD monitor.
  42. <ul><li>The performance parameters of a monitor are: </li></ul><ul><li>Luminance </li></ul><ul><li>Size, measured diagonally For CRT the viewable size is one inch smaller then the tube itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Dot pitch Describes the distance between pixels of the same color. In general, the lower the dot pitch (e.g. 0.24), the sharper the picture will appear. </li></ul>
  43. <ul><li>Response time The amount of time a pixel in an LCD monitor takes to go from active (black) to inactive (white) and back to active (black) again. It is measured in milliseconds (ms). Lower numbers mean faster transitions and therefore fewer visible image artifacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Refresh rate The number of times in a second that a display is illuminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Display resolution The number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. </li></ul>
  44. Output Devices <ul><li>A printer , produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper . </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 major types of printers. They are inject printer and laser printer . </li></ul><ul><li>The resolution of a printer is measured in dots per inch ( dpi ). The higher the value, the better the quality. </li></ul>
  45. Output Devices <ul><li>Inkjet printers operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. </li></ul><ul><li>They are the most common type of computer printer for the general consumer due to their low cost, high quality of output, capability of printing in vivid colour , and ease of use. </li></ul>
  46. Output Devices <ul><li>Laser printer </li></ul><ul><li>Laser printers employ a xerographic printing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Laser printers are available in both colour and black & white varieties. </li></ul>
  47. Task 3 (Group Work) <ul><li>You are divided into groups of 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the features (print speed, print volume per month, print resolution, printer price, print cost per page) of laser printers and inkjet printers. </li></ul><ul><li>Please post your group discussion results in the Forum. </li></ul>
  48. Output Devices <ul><li>A loudspeaker is an electromechanical transducer which converts an electrical signal into sound. </li></ul>