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Great Plains Diesel Technologies Injector

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This presentation outlines the patented diesel fuel injector technologies from Great Plains Diesel Technologies

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Great Plains Diesel Technologies Injector

  1. 1. Very High Speed Rate Shaping Fuel Injector Charlie Bright, PE Jon Garza, PE Great Plains Diesel Technologies Ames, Iowa
  2. 2. Great Plains Diesel Technologies <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Improve diesel economy while reducing emissions via state-of-the-art injector </li></ul><ul><li>2008 Iowa corporation </li></ul><ul><li>40+ years engineering development experience </li></ul>
  3. 3. Problem 1 -- Clean Air versus Combustion Physics, Chemistry (*) Diesel Progress, April 2005, p28 US Heavy Duty Diesel Regulations (*) US 98 US 04 US 10 US 07 Lower Temp Less Time Higher Temp More Time “ Normal” Combustion Curve
  4. 4. Problem 2 -- Injector Capability versus Thermodynamics <ul><li>Rudolf Diesel, 1892 (1894 English Translation) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Motor ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest gas temperature should result from compression, not from burning fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Admit combustible” gradually , to maintain pressure while expanding by constant temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never possible before; fuel is dumped in imprecisely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency of 72-80% possible, close to Carnot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No radiator (!), no detonation shock noise </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Causes of Problems -- Injector Actuation Technologies <ul><li>Mechanical: Inflexible, slow, bulky, $$$ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Electronic” Solenoid: Slow, bang-bang </li></ul><ul><li>Piezoelectric: Choose speed or life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aging accelerated by high stress/strain, whether static or dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High voltage/temperature accelerate aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrodes tend to cause fatigue cracks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depolarizes when driven hard in reverse </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Compensation for Injector Technology Inadequacies <ul><li>Detuned, hotter engines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yet bigger radiators, more EGR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directly contradicts Rudolf Diesel’s thermo. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cluttered exhaust system treats effect instead of cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters, Catalysts, and/or Converters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various liquids, including fuel (!) , dumped directly into exhaust to reduce NOx, DPM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight, bulk, materials, flow losses, co$t </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ideal Diesel Fuel Injection <ul><li>OBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>Very short burn time of very small droplets that </li></ul><ul><li>have vaporized and mixed well with oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>under all engine speed / load conditions </li></ul><ul><li>ACCOMPLISHED BY </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple small injections (requires high speed) </li></ul><ul><li>AND / OR </li></ul><ul><li>Very high speed rate shaping </li></ul>
  8. 8. Proposed Actuation Technology <ul><li>Use latest generation Navy sonar driver </li></ul><ul><li>Alloy of terbium, dysprosium, and iron expands forcefully in a magnetic field </li></ul><ul><li>Terbium alloy can be driven very hard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetostrictive effect does not degrade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alloy does not fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be driven faster than piezoelectric </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Terbium Alloy Magnetostriction <ul><li>Tb 4f electron cloud oblate -- indestructible </li></ul><ul><li>Body force distributed uniformly </li></ul>N S N S N S N S N S Constant Compression Non-Contact Solenoid Coil N S N S N S N S
  10. 10. Terbium Alloy Maturity <ul><li>High Compressive Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navy sonar units in production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasonic unit tested for billions of cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasonic frequency demonstrates speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of cycles demonstrates no fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Early (but slow) Terbium Alloy Injectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit per US patent 6,298,829 raced in desert, driven cross-country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit per US patent 6,279,849 bench tested </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. United States Patent 7,255,290 <ul><li>Corrects slow speed of previous injectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key is high compression, few wire turns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First truly programmable injector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruptive technology </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Important Technical Details <ul><li>Terbium alloy unaffected by diesel oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct contact fuel cooling permissible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not contain lead </li></ul><ul><li>Will require custom electronic driver </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanically simple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low production cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Package size will fit existing envelopes </li></ul>
  13. 13. What Can Be Done With A Programmable Electronic Injector? <ul><li>Program engine to run lean, mean, or green </li></ul><ul><li>Rate shape closer to ideal for best combustion </li></ul><ul><li>Tune each cylinder individually while driving </li></ul><ul><li>Match fuel physical / heat content properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract maximum performance from biodiesel, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce noise, vibration, and harshness </li></ul><ul><li>Self diagnostics; engine/injector fault detection </li></ul><ul><li>Extend life and/or upgrade existing engines </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce / eliminate exhaust system clutter </li></ul>
  14. 14. $ize of the Problem / Opportunity (*) Diesel Progress, June 2005, p26
  15. 15. North American Market Size <ul><li>$660,000,000 per year is the product of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual 1,100,000 truck and bus engines of 200 to 500 horsepower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of six cylinders requires an injector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$100 per injector sale price assumed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ignores retrofit and overseas markets </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores replacing intolerably inefficient gasoline engine </li></ul>
  16. 16. Competition -- Solenoid Injectors <ul><li>Sturman Industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current “electronic” injectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively slow --  200 µsec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bang-bang operation not proportional </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Competition -- Piezoelectric Injectors <ul><li>Bosch, Delphi, Denso, Siemens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have cost issues; precious metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life limited by fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High speed quickens fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life shortened by use, heat, vibration, exposure to diesel oil, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic P ZT ceramic contains lead (Pb) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Risks <ul><li>Terbium alloy from sole source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navy composition of matter patent expired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metallurgical expertise available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rare earth metals mostly from China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ore bodies exist elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chevron Mining, Rare Elements Resources -- US </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lynas, Arafura Resources -- Australia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Wester, Avalon Ventures -- Canada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disruptive technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market leadership opportunity </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Discrete Technical Tasks <ul><li>Simple but fast demonstrator </li></ul><ul><li>Match hydraulic design to terbium alloy char. </li></ul><ul><li>Detail design </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic source </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic interference suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Computer hardware and program </li></ul><ul><li>Terbium alloy customized for temperature </li></ul><ul><li>System integration (test test test) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Development Milestone 1 Engine Company Relationship <ul><li>Highest priority milestone </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing develops a relationship with an engine company, the real end user and customer.  Injector design will have details specific to particular engines. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Development Milestone 2A Bench Test <ul><li>Pick a target, set the requirements.  Object is to demonstrate proportional speed and flow rate.  Target is preferably related to Milestone 1 engine company. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulate, design, and fabricate a prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Run the bench test.  Measure speed and flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify required improvements </li></ul>
  22. 22. Development Milestone 2B Engine Test <ul><li>Modify the prototype design and fabricate a second prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Run the engine test.  Measure emissions and performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify required improvements </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Modify 2nd prototype and fabricate a pre-production model </li></ul><ul><li>Let EPA-approved lab (SwRI, etc.) run engine test with the sponsoring engine company to measure emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Fix any remaining design/performance problems and re-test as needed </li></ul>Development Milestone 2C EPA Test (Payoff Pitch)
  24. 24. Development Milestone 3 Terbium Alloy Metallurgy <ul><li>In-house terbium alloy capability avoids entanglements, dependencies </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust alloy proportions to meet expected engine temperature range </li></ul>
  25. 25. Development Milestone 4 Programmable Electrical Source <ul><li>Electrical demands of the injector will be unique, requiring development of a purpose-made power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Since the injector is programmable, a dedicated programmer will be necessary </li></ul>
  26. 26. Milestone Scheduling <ul><li>Milestones 1, 2, 3, and 4 can be executed simultaneously, in parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Milestones 2A, 2B, and 2C are sequential, in series </li></ul><ul><li>Begin production planning after 2B since basic design should not change much after that </li></ul>
  27. 27. Staff <ul><li>Attract and retain for 2 years: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal metallurgist; metallurgist; electro-mechanical engineer; hydro-mechanical engineer; drafter; electronics engineer; software engineer; electronics technician; lab mechanic; precision machinist; consultants for injector, magnetics, and electro-magnetics; manufacturing engineer; business manager; marketing and communications. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Facility <ul><li>Space for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab with engine load stand, instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metallurgical development lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic machine tooling to make some parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workbenches, mechanical and electronic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid-Iowa will be attractive to established rare-earth metallurgists </li></ul>
  29. 29. Summary <ul><li>Terbium alloy enables fast, robust, arbitrary waveform programmable injector </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanically simple, robust </li></ul><ul><li>Market probably larger than OEM diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Window of opportunity open now </li></ul>

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