C. 13 Culture- Culture – Everything that the people in a society have learned and share through, traditions, pass on to children, and teach new members; this includes religion beliefs, political ideologies, values, customs foods, language, gender roles, sexuality, and many other aspects of everyday life. o Attitudes- A group of ideas, values, beliefs and feelings that predispose a person to react to a thing, a situation, another person or a group in a certain way o Norms- Internalized standards for behavior that support agreed-upon ways of doing things and what people expect of one another within a cultural group. o Folkways- The routine conventions of everyday life. o Mores- Norms that are central to the functioning of society. Organizational culture regulates behavior both implicitly and explicitly and it can direct people’s actions more effectively than standard of control systems. Hofstede’s GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) o Power Distance- The extent to which people in societies accept the idea that power is distributed un-equally. High: Focus on status and power, and leaders expect deference from their subordinates. Low: Favor participative decision making and egalitarian relationships o Uncertainty Avoidance- The degree to which people can tolerate unpredictable, ambiguous or uncertain situations. High: Structure and clear expectations Low: Do not value rules and procedures and accept ambiguity o Individualism/Collectivism- The degree to which people prefer to act in their own self- interest instead of acting on what is best for the group as a whole/ The degree to which people prefer to act as a member of a group in exchange for loyalty and the benefits of membership. High Collectivism: Allocates resources so that all members can participate in economic, social, and political process Low: Encourages self-interest o Masculinity/ Femininity (Assertiveness): The extent to which a society values achieving v. nurturing High Assertive: Encourages and regards toughness, a certain degree of forcefulness, and competitiveness. Low: Encourages gentleness and modesty. o Long-term/Short-term (Future Orientation)- A greater concern for the future and for values such as thrift, perseverance, and avoidance of shame/ Desire for gratification of personal needs, as well as a focus on tradition and meeting social obligations. High Future: Delay gratification Low: Do not values rules and procedures and accept ambiguity
GLOBE Project Dimension: o Gender Differentiation: The extent to which a society maximizes gender role differentiation and how much status and decision-making responsibility is given to a woman High: Grant one gender a higher status Low: More equal status of men and women o In-Group Collectivism: The extent to which members of a society take pride in being members of small groups within the society, such as families, close circles of friends, teams, and the organizations in which they work. High: Provide benefits for families or have structures encouraging groups to get together to socialize. Low: Emphasize on the importance of the nuclear family and more on allegiance to country o Performance Orientation: The degree to which a society rewards group members for performance improvements and excellence. High: Value training and development and believe in taking initiative Low: Uncomfortable with feedback o Humane Orientation: The degree to which a society encourages and rewards people for being fair, altruistic, generous, and kind to others High: Focus on human relations and sympathy Low: Motivated by material possessions Competing Values Framework- A model that shows how cultures can be measured along two axes: structure (stability v. flexibility) and focus (internal v. external). Clan Culture- Internal focus/ encourages flexibility Hierarchy Culture- Internal focus/ encourages stability and control Adhocracy Culture- External focus/ encourages flexibility Market Culture- External focus/ encourages stability and controlCompeting Values Framework CHART: P 469 Balanced Culture- A culture that has values linked to each of the culture domains of the competing values framework, and all of these values are perceived to be important and are held by organization members quite strongly. Strong Culture- Central values and norms shared by most Weak Culture- Values and norms shared by limited group, misalignment of employee goals with management goals. Edgar Schein’s Levels of Culture o Observable Artifacts: Dress code, language, interpersonal relations, technology, workspace and ceremonies o Values and Attitudes- Espoused Values: Explicit values that are preferred by an organization and communicated deliberately to the organization’s members.
Enacted Values: The values that are actually exhibited in an organization. o Basic Assumptions: The core beliefs that are deeply embedded in the organization and that are largely invisible (guide behavior). Myths- Exaggerated stories that are told and retold to communicate values and to emphasize norms. Hero- A legendary person who embodies the highest values of a culture. Socialization- The process of teaching new members about a culture. Taboos- Strong prohibitions against certain activities. Sacred Symbols- Things, people, and events which are untouchable and unquestionable within a culture (flag). Ethnography- The systematic study of human cultures. o Participant Observation: People observe and collaborate with one another to truly understand what is happening within their group or organization (co-inquiry). o Appreciate Inquiry: A process that explores people and the organizations strengths—in other words, everything that stimulates both people and the organization to become healthy and productive. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)-A federal commission created as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that handles complaints of discrimination against organizations. Equal Opportunity (EEO) Laws- Federal regulations that ensure that organizations provide equal opportunities for all people. Content on Culture not covered in the text (From PPT.): Organizations with a strong corporate culture based on a foundation of shared values outperformed other firms by a huge margin o Revenue grew more than 4 times faster o Rate of job creation was 7 times higher o Stock price grew twelve times as fast o Profit performance was 750% higher 50% of acquisitions fail Culture Types o Innovative - Apple o Customer Service – Amazon.com o Diversity – Marriott o Ethical - Starbucks o People – Southwest Airlines o Training - Disney o Cost –WalMartC. 1 & 2 Leadership- Chapter 1
Manager- An individual who makes plans; organizes and controls people, production, andservices; and who regulates or deploys resources. o Occupy themselves with the status quo and how they can work within these parameters. o Control resources o Informational, Interpersonal, and DecisionalLeader- A person who is out in front influencing and inspiring people. o Ask important questions about the organizations future: “where are we going?’ ”How do we get there?” o Create and provide resources through motivationTypes of followers: o Managing Up- A followership tool that enables followers to influence leaders. o Isolates- Followers who are nonresponsive or indifferent to leaders. o Bystanders- Followers who are not engaged o Participants- Followers who are actively engaged and make an effort to be supportive and have impact. o Activists- Followers who feel strongly about their organization and leaders and act accordingly. o Diehards- Followers who are passionate about an idea, a person, or both and will give all for them.All leaders need to be able to follow; followers need to be able to lead. Everyone needs to beable to lead, especially managers.Chapter 2Leadership is learned, to be o An effective leader: emotional and social competence o An influential leader: Power o A responsible leader: EthicsCompetencies- Capabilities or abilities that include both intent and action, and that can bedirectly linked to how well a person performs on a task or a job.5 Competencies: o Motives- Fuel action o Traits- physiological or psychologicalcharacteristics and/or a consistent way of responding to situations o Self-Concept- Values attitude, self-image o Knowledge- information at person disposal o Skills- Learned abilitiesEffective Leadership:Threshold Competencies- Necessary to perform a jobDifferentiating Competencies- Support outstanding performanceTechnical Competencies- Ppl who are adept at technical competencies are proficient in the useof tools and processes related to a specialized field.Cognitive Competencies- Ability to see the “big picture.”
Relational Competencies- Support the development of strong working relationships withcolleagues, direct reports, senior management, and customers.Competency Model- A set of competencies that are directly related to success in a job and aregrouped into job-relevant categories.Competency is directly related to social and emotional intelligence o Social and emotional intelligence- Competencies linked to self-awareness, self- management, social awareness, and relationship management that enable people to understand and manage emotions in social interaction. o Resonant organizations- Characterized by a powerful and positive culture in which people have a shared sense of excitement and commitment to mutual goals. o Resonant Leaders- Socially and emotionally intelligent, visionary people who lead and manage in ways that enable everyone to contribute their best. o Self-Awareness- The ability to notice and understand one’s emotions and their effects. o Limbic Resonance- Refers to how emotions are contagious and a powerful driver of our feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. o Self-awareness is the foundation of social and emotional intelligence.Influential Leadership:Power- Influence over through others. Getting people to do what one desires by changing howthose people think, feel or act.Understand how power in the organization is used. Organizational Politics- involve many things,including internal competition and the pursuit of personal goals at the expense of others in theorganization (promotions).Types of power o Legitimate Power- Right of one’s position in an organization, the office held or formal authority. o Reward Power- Giving or withholding rewards such as pay, promotions, time off, attractive projects, learning experiences and the like. o Coercive Power- The attempt to influence others through punishment o Expert Power- The ability to influence others through a combination of special knowledge and or skills. o Referent Power- Power that comes from personal characteristics that people value and want to emulate and that cause people to feel respect or admiration.Empowerment- Trusting employees to make decisions and to take responsibility for theirdecisions and actions (possible the most important way to wield power and share it). o Engagement, they have a voiceEmpowering organization do not micromanage o Micromanagement- The practice of overcoming others and their work, as well as paying far too much attention to details and how employees do their work.Empowerment Theories: o Theory X- The average employee is inclined to be lazy, without ambition, and irresponsible
o Theory Y- Workers are inherently ambitious, responsible, and industrious, and that they will work hard to help an org. reach its goal. o Theory Z- In org. with strong, relational cultures, employees have discretionary freedom in local decision making and are trusted to work autonomously. o Flat Org.-Encourage empowerment because they have few levels of hierarchy, which drives a need for more people to make decisions.Responsible Leader:Developing Values and EthicsEthics- Set of values and principles that guides the behavior of an individual or group. o Ethical Code- System of principles governing morality and acceptable conduct o Individual Ethics- Personal code of conduct when dealing with others. o Professional Ethics- Standards that outline appropriate conduct for a given prof. o Org. Ethics- Values and principles that an org. has chosen that guide the behavior of people within the org. and or what the stakeholders expect of that org. Stakeholder- Any constituent potentially impacted by an organization’s actions, either inside or outside the organization. o Societal Ethics- Principles and standards that guide members of the society in day-to- day behavior with one another.Values- Ideas that a person or group believes to be right or wrong, good or bad. o Terminal Values- Personal commitments we make to ourselves in relation to our life’s goals. o Instrumental Values- Preferred behaviors or ways of achieving our terminal goals.Laws often follow ethical violations (ex. bribery and fraud are illegal and unethical).Ethical Dilemmas- Situations in which it appears that acting ethically would prevent theachievement of an objective. Making ethical decisions should be practiced, if you make oneunethical decision it will lead to more. o Ethics are a personal decisionTrait Theories of LeadershipTraits- Enduring and distinguishing personal characteristics that may be inherited, learned, ordevelopedTrait Theories- Models that attempt to explain leadership effectiveness by articulation ofphysical, psychological, and social characteristics, as well as abilities, knowledge and expertise.Ohio State Study- Two major dimensions of leadership o Consideration- People-oriented behaviors such as respect, openness to employees’ ideas and concern for employee’s well-being. o Initiating Structure- Behaviors related to task and goal orientation, such as giving clear directions, monitoring employee’s performance, and planning and setting work schedule and deadlines.U of Michigan Study- Two dimensions of behavior o Production Oriented Behavior- Focuses on efficiency, cost, adhering to schedules, and meeting deadlines (job task and work procedures).
o This is less effective than, employee oriented behavior- supportive of employees, emphasized relationships, and focused on engaging employees through setting and assisting in the attainment of high-performance goals (see leadership grid p. 41) Contingency Approaches- Models and theories of leadership that take into account leader behavior and various aspects of the organizational situation and/or characteristics of followers. o Fiedler’s Contingency Approach- Leadership effectiveness is dependent on the characteristics of the leader and the characteristics of the situation. o Relationship-Oriented Leaders- Leaders who emphasize good relationships and being liked by employers. o Task-Oriented Leaders- Leaders who focus on accomplishments and seek to ensure that employees perform well on the job. o Situational Leadership Theory- Contingency model that links leader style with follower’s readiness for tasks (focuses on followers and their competencies). Telling Style: Appropriate when followers are unwilling or insecure, they need clear direction and close supervision Selling Style: App. When employees are unable to complete tasks, but they are willing and/or confident. Participating Style: Can be used when employees are able, but unwilling and insecure. Delegating Style: Can be used when employees are able, willing, or confident. o Path-goal Theory- The leader is responsible for motivating employees to attain goals. Can be: Directive, participative, supportive, or achievement oriented. o Leader Substitute Model- Certain characteristics of people or of the situation can make direct leadership unnecessary. Transformational Leaders- People who have social and emotional intelligence and who can inspire others to seek an extraordinary vision (they attend to people, individualized consideration) (also charismatic). o Attributes: Vision and articulation, sensitivity to the environment, sensitivity to people’s need, personal risk taking, and unconventional behavior. Transactional Leaders- People who follow a traditional approach to management in which leader and follower behavior is an instrumental exchange. Self-Aware Leader Qualities: o Authenticity- Genuine presentation of one’s thoughts, feelings, and benefits. o Inspire trust o Integrity- Steadfast holding to high moral principles and professional standards. o Courage- The willingness and ability to face fear, danger, uncertainty or pain without giving up whatever course of action one believes is necessary and right.Content on Leadership not covered in text (From PPT.): Transformational Leadership-
o Individualized Consideration – Invest in followers one-on-one and learn their needs and interests o Intellectual Stimulation – Challenge people to be creative and build a creative environment o Idealized Influence – Your personal leadership foundation of how you have lived your life based on how others see you o Inspirational Motivation – Creating shared values and shared vision with your followers Servant Leadership- o Cares about their team more than themselves o Gives of themselves so their team can be better o Spends time removing barriers for their team and giving them the tools, attention, and development they need to succeed o Encourages their team members to also become servant leaders for their peopleC. 4 Motivation- Motivation- The result of a complex set of psychological influences and external forces or conditions that cause a person to behave in a certain way while maintaining a certain level of effort and degree of persistence. Great leaders inspire and motivate us. What makes work meaningful? o Flow- A state of intense concentration and complete engagement in a task, along with full use of one’s talents to accomplish the task (passionately engaged). o Hope- A state of mind that includes optimism, an image of a future that is challenging but realistic, and a belief that we can do something to move towards that vision (help employees realize success and what’s possible—individualized consideration). o Resonant Environment- A work environment characterized by excitement, energy, optimism, efficacy and hope (positive emotions). The psychology of motivation o Intrinsic Motivation- An internal sense of satisfaction derived from the work itself and/or the desire to engage in activities even in the absence of external rewards in order to feel a sense of satisfaction, to use or improve one’s abilities, or to learn. Ex. Relatedness/Interesting, challenging, learning, empowered, ability to control environment, and contribute to others in a meaningful way o Extrinsic Motivation- Motivation that is the result of forces or attractions outside the self, such as material rewards, social status, or avoidance of unpleasant consequences. Ex.Grades, fame, social status, people’s approval, avoid being fired, pay and material rewards, and time off o Locus of Control- Our perception of the degree to which we have control over what happens in our lives. High: you believe you can impact your environment and fate. Low: you believe others and the environment have a great impact on you and the results of your efforts.
Motivation and the Big 5 Dimensions of Personality- o Openness to experience, conscientiousness (self-discipline), extraversion, agreeableness and emotional stability.Motivational TheoriesMaslow’s Hierarchy of needs- People are motivated to satisfy physiological, then safety andsecurity, then love and belonging, then self-esteem, and finally self- actualization in that order.ERG Theory- People are motivated to satisfy need related to existence, relatedness, and growthand these needs can all be activated at the same time.Two-factor Theory- That motivators and hygiene factors affect job satisfaction, motivation, orjob dissatisfaction.Three-needs Theory- People are motivated by needs for achievement, affiliation, and power. o Need for Achievement (nAch)-The desire to engage in challenging and complex activities, meet and exceed personal goals, and to seek excellence. o Need for Affiliation (nAff)-The desire for warm, fulfilling, and close personal relationships. o Need for Power (nPow)-The desire to have influence, control, and responsibility, either directly or through social status. Personalized Power- A need for power that drives people to seek control through assertive or aggressive behavior, often for personal gain. Socialized Power- An expressed need for power that is based on a desire to support the welfare of others, a group, society, or the common good. Prosocial Behavior- Any behavior that seeks to protect the welfare of society or the common good.Equity Theory- Theory stating that an individual’s level of motivation is a result of comparingpersonal inputs and outcomes, and also comparing one’s efforts and rewards with others’efforts and rewards. o Can result in Cognitive Dissonance- A state of psychological stress arising from the attempt to process conflicting ideas, attitudes, or beliefs.Expectancy Theory- Motivation is affected by the relationships among effort and performance,performance and outcomes, and the perceived value of outcomes. o Effort- A person’s input. Does your effort lead to acceptable performance? o Performance- The extent to which a task or work is completed successfully. o Instrumentality- A person’s belief about the degree to which performance will result in realizing certain outcomes. o Valence- The value placed on outcomes (intrinsic or extrinsic). o Motivation=Valence x Expectancy x InstrumentalityGoal-setting Theory- People are motivated by the process of identifying and achieving goals,and that the characteristics of these goals will have an impact on motivation, performance &results.
SMART goals- Goals which are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Result-based, and Time- specific. Learning Theories Operant Conditioning Theory- Learning and behavior changes occur when behavior is reinforced and when behavior is not reinforced or is punished, it will eventually cease. o How it Works: Positive Reinforcement- Positive consequences following a desired behavior. Negative Reinforcement- Removal of a negative consequence following a desired behavior. Extinction- Withholding of consequence following a certain behavior. Punishment- Addition of a negative consequence following an undesired behavior. Social Learning Theory- People learnnew behaviors by observing others and that self- reinforcement and self-efficacy support learning and behavior change. Self-efficacy- The degree to which a person believes that he or she is capable of successfully performing a behavior, accomplishing a task, or achieving a goal. o Learning by observing: Observe Others Retain the Information Replicate the Behavior Demonstrate Motivation to RepeatIntegration of Theories Definitions- Individual Compensation- A plan in which compensation is determined by considering an individual’s performance. Group Compensation- Bases an individual’s compensation on the performance of a group or groups and or the org. as a whole. Merit-based Compensation- Compensation is determined by the level of performance of an individual or a group.Job Characteristic Model Definitions – Job Characteristic Model- Framework that states that people need certain qualities in their job to be intrinsically motivated and satisfied with their work. Job Enrichment- Building intrinsic motivators into the structure of a job. Job Enlargement- Combining several jobs into one larger job. Job Rotation- Moving employees from one job or one job site to another to increase satisfaction and productivity.Content on Motivation not covered in the text (From PPT.):Expectancy Theory in Short:
The goal (Performance) How hard to work to accomplish the goal (Effort) If I perform what outcome (reward) do I get (Instrumentality) How important is “what I get” (reward) for reaching my goal to me (Valence)GOOD LUCK and don’t forget to like our page! :https://www.facebook.com/#!/HRMoney?fref=ts