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Why Libraries Virtualize


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keynote presentation to Midwest Library Cooperative Services

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Why Libraries Virtualize

  1. 1. “WHY LIBRARIES VIRTUALIZE” Understanding cloud computing adoption and impact Erik Mitchell Assistant Professor University of Maryland
  3. 3. “For me the most powerful aspect of cloudcomputing is that it enables libraries to stopdealing with technical issues that have nothing todo with their day-to-day missions and services” -- Roy Tennant (Getting Started with cloud Computing)
  4. 4. Wait. . . Dont libraries love technology?,
  5. 5. “Libraries to their benefit and detriment fetishized the book” --John Blyberg LITA Keynote 2011
  6. 6. Though a radically different kind of setting for ahome, the third place is remarkably similar to agood home in the psychological comfort andsupport that it extends…They are the heart of acommunity’s social vitality, the grassroots ofdemocracy . . .” -- Ray Oldenburg
  7. 7. What can we understand about cloud computingfrom another organization that also fetishizes thebook?
  8. 8. IT resources Core services 30% 30% Core services IT resources 70% 70%"In the old world you might have put 30% of your energy, dollars and timeinto building a great product or service and then you would put 70% of yourenergy, dollars and time into shouting about that service. In the new worldthat inverts. You better put the bulk of your time, energy and dollars intobuilding great a service." -- Jeff Bezos
  9. 9. The book is such a great technology because it disappears when you use it-- jeff bezos (Charlie Rose interview )
  10. 10. GROWTH OF THE KINDLE2008 2009 2010 2011 # of E-books in thousands Price of reader (actual cost)
  11. 11. WHY DO WE LOVE THE BOOK? “Instant-on” Fast text-rendering Easy to use Single-purpose No scaling No synchronization No version control
  12. 12. WHY DO WE LOVEOUR COMPUTERS? Multi-purpose Easy to change information Multi-media Fast storage and retrieval Expensive Steep learning curve Planned obsolescence
  13. 13. TWO GREAT TOOLS THAT GO GREAT TOGETHER On-Demand Multi-purpose Fast Interoperable Scalable Persistent Ubiquitous Cost conscious
  14. 14. But what about our right to forget?
  15. 15. . . . and our need for security
  16. 16. . . . and our right to privacy?
  18. 18. DataHosting Google AppsCommunicationMedia “For consumers, the cloud revolution has already happened”Devices -- Nicholas Carr
  19. 19. ELEMENTS OF THE CLOUDpay for what you use service-focused easy to replicate scalable
  20. 20. RELATED CONCEPTSCloud computing “is a phrase that is being used today todescribe the act of storing, accessing, and sharing data,applications, and computing power in cyberspace” - PewInternet TrustA Web service “is a software system designed to supportinteroperable machine-to-machine interaction over anetwork” - w3c.orgApplication programming interface (API) “is a specificationfor allowing programs to exchange data”
  21. 21. CLOUD COMPUTING TYPESSoftware as a Service “applications designed to beutilized by end-users without IT administrative overhead (e.g.Google Docs)”Platform as a Service “an IT environment configured toserve a distinct but customized purpose (e.g. web-hosting)”Infrastructure as a Service “an IT environment thatsupports a wide range of tools but comes with little pre-configured resources (e.g. Server and disk space)” NIST definition of cloud computing
  22. 22. CLOUD COMPUTING PLACESPrivate cloud An implementation of technology run for asingle organization (e.g Internal virtualization)Public cloud “an IT environment configured to support anumber of customers (e.g. Amazon EC2)”Community cloud “an IT environment restricted to aspecific community (e.g. Governmental, Education)” NIST definition of cloud computing
  23. 23. NIST Cloud Reference Standard -
  24. 24. AWS COMPONENTS cloudbestpractices-jvaria.pdf
  26. 26. SERVICE EXAMPLES { Approach Systems OpenURL resolver, Stats manager, SaaS research guides, online reference Integrated library system, Interlibrary loan,Service catalog PaaS copyright compliance systems Discovery, digital repository, archives IaaS management, website, digital storage, institutional repository Daas OpenURL database, single-search services
  27. 27. Client hardware Local Server IT Cloud Services 29% 1% 70%YEARLY IT EXPENDITURES
  29. 29. CASE STUDY: CONTENTMANAGEMENT SYSTEMS • Service options • SaaS ( • PaaS ( • IaaS ( • Traditional IT (no cloud)
  31. 31. CASE STUDY - THE ILS
  32. 32. WHAT LIBRARIES VIRTUALIZE50%38%25%13%0% ILS IT Infrastructure DAMS Research Guides Non-Virtualized Virtualize Outsource
  33. 33. WHAT LIBRARIES OUTSOURCE ILS Open URL 10%2% 17% 22% 5%20% 51% 8% 17% 48%Non-Virtualized Private Cloud Outsourced Public Cloud Not Supported
  34. 34. WHY LIBRARIES VIRTUALIZE "more control over environment""fast deployment, self-sufficient, cost-reductions""to move the least value-add procedures and functions out of the Libraryso library staff can do more interesting and strategic things.""Virtualization lets us quickly create prototypes, do test configurations,and do quick recoveries in case of problems.""Lower cost, deeper expertise, need for expanded services"“let vendor deal with publishers, metadata, etc.”
  35. 35. . . .AND WHY THEY DO NOT“no support for virtualized service by those providing it”Cost is the primary factor”“the ease of implementation given limited IT resources (staff, timeand money).“no virtualizing needed, full resources dedicated to single use”“Cost/benefit analysis for change. Lack of robust customizationoptions”“Small IT staff, nothing has been "virtualized" on campus”
  37. 37. 1. LIBRARIES ARE FORWARD-THINKING, SERVICE- ORIENTED INSTITUTIONSWithin five years, all library collections, systems, and services will bedriven into the cloud. . . -- Taiga provocative statements 2011
  38. 38. 2. LIBRARIES SERVE REAL USERS AND REAL INFORMATION NEEDS The future of cloud computing - Janna Anderson, Lee Rainie 2010
  39. 39. 3. LIBRARIES ARE A PUBLIC SERVICE AND NEED RESOURCES TO FILL THAT ROLE Funding and Priorities: The Library Resource Guide Benchmark Study on 2011 Library Spending Plans
  40. 40. 4. THERE IS ROOM TO USE CLOUD COMPUTING TO IMPROVE RESOURCES AND IMPROVE SERVICE Funding and Priorities: The Library Resource Guide Benchmark Study on 2011 Library Spending Plans
  41. 41. CONTRASTING VIEWS OF CLOUD SOLUTIONS Opportunities Challenges Network foundation adds Forward thinking service complexity Collaboration with partners is Serving actual patron needs key Sustainability, security,Finding new resources through connectivity, contingency plans efficiency savings are key
  42. 42. TRENDS AND CHALLENGES• Understandyour organizational capabilities, where are your available resources?• Rely on automation and economies of scale• Seekto consolidate services rather than fragment them• Organizational, financial, strategic impacts - Does CC strengthen your organization or weaken it?
  43. 43. EXPERTISE NEEDS to consider• Ability • Experiment with different technical, legal, operational service methods issues • Identify and launch a test• Abilityto combine service (blogs, community different technologies and forums, archival database) services • Connect with organizational• Flexibilityin service IT to explore cloud support, manage migration opportunities when cloud services change
  44. 44. ORGANIZATIONAL NEEDS to control some IT• Ability • Explore back-office solutions resources like Google calendar, docs and sites• Specificuse-cases of cloud computing enhance public • Consider cloud-based file service sharing systems (eg., dropbox, spideroak)•A willingness to explore alternative solutions • Explore cloud based tools to enhance public service
  45. 45. ADMINISTRATIVE NEEDS• Support for new IT models • Support a pilot project using and their impact on a technically simple cloud organizational structure tool• Support for cloud • Connect with community to subscription, SLA and explore needs, leverage privacy/security needs. cloud computing• Understanding of legal, • Provide safety nets - time, economic, and privacy issues training, support for staff
  46. 46. THANK YOU!The Tower and the Cloud - EC2 tutorials for libraries - http://erikmitchell.infoLibrary funding priorities - Studies - of cloud computing -,