Cloud computing in academic libraries


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  • Library services through cloud computing
    Share experience from WFU
    Relate examples from ALA session

  • Goals
    Examine definitions of CC, related technologies
    Use case studies to explore CC in libraries

  • Simple model
    Core service + changing needs + transformative CC = evolving view of ops
    Technology role = enhance, expand, or transform library services
    All library services use ‘technology’, question - how can CC change/improve/extend?

  • Data >> Content >> Services >> Experience
    We have lots of experience operating with metadata and content
    Gaining expertise in managing experienece
    Research / instruction
    ‘library as place’
    Peer-based collaboration, Embedded librarians, IT exploration

  • Information context
    Real-time virtual interactions, network based information discovery, conversation and document based communication
    If skype were a telecom, the would be largest
    Facebook’s popularity in US is mirrored in other sites around the world
    The web is increasingly a/v focused and enabled
    Libraries finding that students have new IL challenges - forget the web, think about research and evaluation in a mobile environment

  • IT roles
    Peer-to-peer communications have gone digital, emerging as a new model for professional interactions (facebook >> linkedin)
    69% of people had used online service or  stored online (pew internet trust)
    Digital information services (flickr, youtube) simplifying previously difficult IT serices
    Libraries seeking new roles - publishing, IR, act as learning partner

  • Cloud Computing
    Geoffrey Moore - IT analyst - Asserts that IT changes information discovery - “You can teach a computer to ignore the haystack and just find the needle” and that CC expands search to the network level
    cloud computing encourage decentralized communication, enables consumer-created services, creates opportunities for customized and directed services (Location, push, rewards).

  • Patron profiles
    Everyday, diverse, experience focus, socially enabled
    Driven by discipline - place, context, platform matter - customize experience
    Good news - cloud computing makes this easier
    Moore argues that the new IT model is consumer-created  (consumer >> enterprise) - cheetos ad

  • Defining the cloud
    Metered, Replicable, Service-focused, Subscription, scalable
    When we talk about CC we mean everything from GMail to TB of network disk space, we mean real-time, network based
    For most of us CC is equivalent to services offered on the Internet

  • Three related concepts for Internet enabled services
    Cloud computing - “the act of storing, accessing, and sharing data, applications, and computing power in cyberspace”
    NIST & Gartner definition more granular
    Web Service - “software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network” -  RSS feed,  iCal invite
    API - A specification for a web-service
    Our large CC service providers use all of these - Gmail, YouTube, Amazon

  • Granular definitions
    National institute of standards and technology (3 facets)
    Characteristics - on demand, networked, resource pooling, elastic, measured service
    Service models - Software, Platform, Infrastructure
    Deployment models - Public, Private, Hybird, Community
    Gartner - different, characteristic focused
    metered, scalable, shared, etc

  • Types
    service - delivered as an ‘end-user’ application - serialssolutions
    platform - space for hosting custom services - application hosting - duracloud
    Infrastructure - open capacity - servers, disks - amazon

  • Examples of CC
    Productivity, publishing, file storage, social networking, data/infrastructutre
    Talk through slides quickly

  • Case Studies
    Low-barrier - WFU examples
    Innovative products - Terrapod
    Large scale - Back office, search,
    Collaboration and pervasive use

  • Low-barrier solutions
    WFU move to GMail for students
    Google GCal, Gmail, Google Sites
    Transition from manual html to sites platform
    Rapid adoption
    Re-framed training in library
    Social stratification - facebook
    Answer question ‘what IT resources are needed to facilitate learning in non-traditional classrooms’ - video, social networking, community building
    Both examples - library worked as instruction and IT support, in SS as embedded librarians.
    New role for librarians to provide support for new media creation, management, and access

  • Multi-site, multi-media
    Anali Perry - Az state Univ
    short videos for instruction or news purposes
    ZSR library ‘toolkit’ videos
    Short videos hosted on YouTube, Vimeo, etc.  Use simple Embed tags to include in local sites
    Brings library into content creation, a little equipment positions library to support broad new area
    IT lab at ZSR
    By capitalizing on cloud services libraries can support new range of complex information activities
    By being aware of license, rights, and access issues libraries use core values

  • Integrated Use
    Jason Clark - Terrapod - a science vodcasting site for 10-18 year olds
    Show quick video
    Videos stored in, APIs and web-services used to extract data
    Site combines data, video, instruction, and research support
    Building this sort of site really only requires knowing how to use RSS and a little scripting
    Cloud computing allows you to focus on end-service not on technical details, allows you to capitalize on work of others

  • ILS, DAMS, ERMS, Enterprise Search
    OCLC - Webscale Managment Services - Building on ILL model, central service, central data - shift in market different from open source options (also available hosted)

  • Enterprise search - serials solutions summons, Ebsco integrated search
    Version 1 was facets, version 2 is content and format abstraction
    OCLC Worldcat - centralized bib records makes industry wide evolution realistic (FRBR)

  • DAMS
    Number of projects and consortiums using cloud solutions
    Look specifically at duracloud, initiative of DuraSpace partner organizations

  • DC -
    moves dspace into cloud
    Still open source but with data/access subscription model
    replicated across multiple cloud providers (Amazon, Microsoft, Rackspace)
    New set of simplified services for libraries
    Lowers cost-of-entry and TCO for complex Digtial library systems
  • Collaboration and pervasive use
    Inter-institutional - Terry-reese, ALA, International waters
    Resonated because of Digitalforsyth experience
    Cloud allows you to form partnerships without involving local IT resources, allows you to find neutral playing field
    Sometimes regulations help, sometimes provide unnecessary barriers

  • Chris Tonjes - DCPL
    Pervasive use - website, CMS, central desktop, digtial image archive
    Goal is to involve everyone in the library
    Training, service, support are sustainable - supporting special localized apps is not

  • Recap of case studies
    Saw a mix of uses SAAS, PAAS, IAAS
    How far you go depends on project
    Possible to turn ‘everything’ into a cloud
    Julian Clark - Lightning round - private cloud in your organization - ‘sometimes you just need a virtual machine’
    Issues are
    Technical - cpu, storage, network, expertise
    Organizational - staff time, project ownership, regulations
    Patron - what makes the best experience?

  • Talk briefly about implementation
  • Service catalog - WFU case study - decided that subscription computing was more attractive than ownership models
    Over course of 4 years moved everything - really focused for last 18 months
    some elements had steep learing curve -talking more about that at LITA
    Lynch pin - needed all new servers - looked at cost vs cloud

  • Hybrid models - Decided to move everything, used mix of models
    SAAS - help save staff time/expertise
    PAAS - When you want someone to manage the platform (ILS, ILL)
    IAAS - when you need customizabiltiy, scalability (Dspace, Vufind)

  • Managing complexity
    Expertise is an issue - the more you take on CC, the closer you come to an IT department

  • Outcomes
    New computing model
    When IT expertise was not held used SAAS or PAAS options (ILS)
    When local customization was needed, used IAAS
    What is your goal - more access, reduced cost, specilized staff time
    Outsource vs Crowdsource
    Large-scale outsourcing is realistic, but perhaps not ready yet
    It is ok to outsource to focus resources on differentating services
    Libraries arent that big - 5200 Transactions per second are manageble
    Experimentation, low-barrier solutions, short term - Look towards free SAAS options

  • Pros / cons
    Security, privacy, licenses
    Often providers have stronger security / privacy / redundancy SLAs than we require (amazon)
    Other times, they have not considered academic issues - important to read the Service Level Agreements
    Enhanced service
    Multi-platform support more common in SAAS solutions,
    Come at expense of customizability
    Is your environment right for cloud ( bandwidth, access - VPN)
    New IT model
    Subscription basis changes how libraries look at it
    Amazon Bezios quote - 70% into IT, 30% into innovation - should be flipped
    Current lack of diversity in maket, unequal service levels (Amazon still a clear leader in IAAS)
    Leveled playing field
    With new services smaller players can get into game
    Regardless new skills are required, systems are becoming more complex, moving into CC means all departments are effected
    IT - how to manage CC env.
    Content creators - how to publish / manage
    Administrators - how to allocate resources, plan, transition

  • Getting started
    Start small
    YouTube, cloud-based blog, website,
    Built-in services (embed, link, rss)
    Build skills
    Seek new media platforms, how to create content, how to publish/harvest content
    Assess suitability/sustainability
    Cloud vs local?
    What happens if it goes away?
    Alignment with academic/institutional goals
    Local IT requirements - DNS, VPN, Firewall
    Simple experiments - record, upload, extract
    More complex - Install a blog in a cloud env
    More complex - Launch a server on Amazon, turn the knobs
    Even the most complex item is done 100% in a web-browser now

  • Cloud computing in academic libraries

    1. 1. Cloud computing
    2. 2. “Grandpa’s up there somewhere.”
    3. 3. Wheaton College Norton, MA
    4. 4. Library services through cloud computing Case studies on services, platforms, and infrastructure Erik Mitchell, PhD Assistant Director for Technology Services Z. Smith Reynolds Library Wake Forest University
    5. 5. Goals Define cloud computing uses in information environments Case studies of cloud-based library services
    6. 6. Changing Transformative Core library + information + impact of cloud services needs computing = Evolving view of library services and operations
    7. 7. + = + Library services Data Services Library as place, content bibliographic, digital, access, content creation, technical, administrative, instruction, research, license, access, preservation preservation Content Experience Collections, subscriptions, Research, study support, peer- digital, print, publishing based collaboration, IT exploration
    8. 8. + = + Information context Skype has 521M Users 34% of skype calls use video Facebook has 471M Users iPhone /iPod Touch - 85M Users Facebook - most popular free iPhone app Mary Meeker - Atmosphere 2010
    9. 9. + = + New IT roles Increasing expectations for social networking and mobile services
    10. 10. + = + Cloud computing “the IT stack is changing from being data centric to cloud centric - you cannot do metadata analytics at scale in a data centric environment” Location-based service, transparent pricing, consumer discounts, immediate gratification, mobile push, branded apps, social rewards applications Geoffrey Moore- Atmosphere 2010
    11. 11. + = + Emerging profile Everyday use of cloud-based services Greater diversity: place, context, and platform Online experience driving service expectations Internet, broadband, mobile, video, communicative, social
    12. 12. Defining the cloud pay for what you uset t service-focussed easy to replicate t scalable
    13. 13. Related concepts Cloud computing “is a phrase that is being used today to describe the act of storing, accessing, and sharing data, applications, and computing power in cyberspace” - Pew Internet Trust A Web service “is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network” - Application programming interface (API) “is a specification for allowing programs to
    14. 14. Granular definitions “...a model for enabling convenient, on- demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources...rapidly provisioned and released...promotes availability...composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.” - NIST Service, scalable, shared, metered, Web- based - Gartner
    15. 15. Types of cloud computing services Applications that provide ‘end-user’ Software experiences - SerialsSolutions,, WorldCat Local An environment for delivering customized Platforms services - Site hosting, DuraSpace, Open infrastructure that can be used for any Infrastructure purpose, Amazon EC2, Microsoft Azure
    16. 16. Examples Productivity Google docs, Gmail,,, MS Office online Publishing, twitter, yammer, youtube File storage flickr, dropbox, Jungle Disk, Google docs Social networking facebook, flickr, MySpqce, foursquare, linkedin Data / Infrastructure Amazon EC2, Microsoft Azure, Rackspace
    17. 17. Productivity
    18. 18. Platforms and storage
    19. 19. Social networking
    20. 20. Datasets and capacity
    21. 21. Case studies Challenge Case study Finding low-barrier ways to WFU Google Docs serve information needs Producing innovative products Jason Clark - Montana & video in complex environments Solving large-scale library IT DuraSpace, OCLC APIs issues Oregon digtial library, DC Collaboration and pervasive use Public
    22. 22. Low-barrier solutions Social Stratification in the Deep South 2009 << WFU Google Sites Giz Womack - Wake Forest
    23. 23. Multi-site, multi-media YouTube videos LibGuides Embedded media Simple APIs Anali Perry - Arizona State Univeristy
    24. 24. Integrated use A science based video site 10 - 18 year olds - Cloud services, APIs Jason Clark - University of Montana
    25. 25. Integrated use A science based video site 10 - 18 year olds - Cloud services, APIs Jason Clark - University of Montana
    26. 26. Solving large-scale library IT issues Integrated library systems Enterprise search Digital asset management systems Electronic resource management systems
    27. 27. Back-office Webscale Management Services Cloud-based ILS developed by OCLC Circulation, acquisitions, cataloging, search Cloud-based services, data, collaboration Webscale management services
    28. 28. Search
    29. 29. Digital access and preservation Lots of copies keep stuff safe Peer-based archive using LOCKSS Replicated content, administration Cooperative planning and action Data visualization 27 Partners, Preservation, Access Cloud based Dspace, Fedora
    30. 30. DuraCloud Cloud-based Replicated storage and application servers Mediated, simple, automatically redundant Open source and cloud- based DuraCloud Architecture
    31. 31. Inter-institutional collaboration “ For shared development projects and services, cloud based services offer libraries and their partners the opportunity to move outside the organization bureaucracy and into International waters, where projects are able to function unencumbered… ” Terry Reese - Oregon State University
    32. 32. Pervasive use “Technology is everyone’s job – we can spend more time training and consulting, less time supporting apps!”, Central Desktop, Digital Image Archive, Google Docs, Chris Tonjes - DC Public Library
    33. 33. Case studies Challenge Case study Finding low-barrier ways to WFU Google Docs serve information needs Producing innovative products Jason Clark - Montana & video in complex environments Solving large-scale library IT DuraSpace, OCLC APIs issues Oregon digtial library, DC Collaboration and pervasive use Public
    34. 34. Implementation Should, how, why would you - “move your library IT to the cloud?”
    35. 35. Choose a solution { Approach Systems OpenURL resolver, Stats SaaS manager, research guides, online reference Service catalog Integrated library system, PaaS Interlibrary loan, copyright compliance systems Discovery, digital repository, archives management, IaaS website, digital storage, institutional repository
    36. 36. Hybrid models Amazon EC2 Infrastructure, Server images, backup processes, Amazon S3 monitoring, service deployment, code Data archiving, system management backups, file system SaaS operations Hosted end-point services, data Amazon EBS subscriptions, 100% outsourced options Server disks, application PaaS and data storage, platform for EC2 systems Custom configurations, single purpose applications (ILS), proprietary systems
    37. 37. Managing complexity install configure EC2 services secure backup document deploy monitor Server images administer upgrade remove
    38. 38. Outcomes New computing model - mix of IT and end- user focus Outsource or crowdsource? Worldwide, libraries have 5265 transactions per second. This is manageable on a handful of servers - Andrew Pace, OCLC
    39. 39. pros / cons Pro Con Provider security measures Privacy, security, license exceed library needs Default support for multi- Bandwidth, accessibility platform services Opportunity to migrate IT to Lack of diversity in market subscription model Levels playing field for New skills, added complexity creators / contributors
    40. 40. Getting started Start small - Record and upload a YouTube video, embed it in a libguide Build your skills - Seek out ‘new’ media platforms, find out how to create new content, how to post it, and how to bring it back into your site Assess suitability - For any project, ask yourself if you are better in a cloud or localized environment (factors are cost, access, sustainability, expertise) Experiment - The most complex services are available in a browser-based interface now. Launch a server, try an API, experiment with a new platform
    41. 41. Thank you