Importance of vaccination


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Importance of vaccination

  1. 1. The Importance of Immunization By: Misty Moser ADNS and Cynthia Hill ADNS
  2. 2. What is a Vaccine? A substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or several diseases (Merriam-Webster)
  3. 3. Basically, a vaccine is a substance used to prevent the spread of disease, usually using a killed or weakened form of the disease.
  4. 4. How Do Vaccines Work? <ul><li>First, a little about the immune system: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antigens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are foreign invaders, such as bacteria, that enter the body </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the immune system detects the antigens, it begins to produce protein substances called antibodies to fight the antigens. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are produced and help the immune system to activate much faster. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These cells have a long life span and the ability to remember intruders. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These are stockpiled so they are available to fight off the disease should you be exposed again. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How Do Vaccines Work? <ul><li>So... </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The vaccine introduces a weakened or dead form of the antigen, or foreign invader. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The antigen isn't strong enough to produce symptoms, but is strong enough for the immune system to produce antibodies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The immune system then stock piles these antibodies for future defense. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now it's armed and ready should it be exposed to the disease. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Credit:
  7. 7. Spreading the Disease!!! <ul><li>You can be contagious BEFORE you have any signs or symptoms of the disease! </li></ul><ul><li>Some diseases, such as tetanus, are not spread from person to person, but are found in the dirt! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Safety of Vaccination Risk vs Benefit
  9. 9. <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Side Effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain at injection site, muscle aches, rash, fever are normal and should not cause alarm. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Nearly 90% of adverse events following vaccinations are categorized as non-serious.” (CDC) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rare serious side effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are allergic reactions to ingredients and not reactions to the antigen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of deadly and debilitating diseases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps child from suffering through a preventable illness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less doctor visits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No hospitalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less time off work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herd Immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those who are vaccinated keep it from spreading. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Herd Immunity “ When a critical portion of a community is immunized against a contagious disease, most members of the community are protected against that disease because there is little opportunity for an outbreak.” - NIAID
  11. 11. Credit: NIAID Healthy, unimmunized Healthy, immunized Unimmunized, Sick and contagious
  12. 12. Testing and Monitoring <ul><li>Before vaccines are licensed, the FDA requires testing to ensure safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Once a vaccine is in use, the FDA and CDC monitor it's adverse events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System or VAERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If an adverse reaction is experienced, it can be reported to VAERS, any hint of a problem with the vaccine prompts further investigation by the CDC and FDA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research will be performed to investigate the vaccine and see what action needs to be taken </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Controversy It is true vaccines are not 100% effective...
  14. 14. Mumps out break in NY and NJ in 2009 77% of those who contracted it were immunized!!!
  15. 15. But wait! <ul><li>Let's look at the math... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, if we have... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population of 1,000 people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>According to the World Health Organization 95% of people are vaccinated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>950 people vaccinated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 people not vaccinated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Out of this 1,000 total population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100 people contract mumps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>77 vaccinated contracted it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>23 unvaccinated contracted it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Population as a Whole <ul><li>Immunized Population (950 people) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 77 contracted mumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That's about 8% of those immunized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Unimmunized Population (50 people) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>23 contracted mumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That 46% of that part of the population!!!! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Let's Put it in Perspective <ul><li>Taking that same 1,000 people, imagine it the other way around... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>950 unimmunized (95%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>437 people would get the mumps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 immunized (5%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 would get the mumps </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Vaccines and Autism <ul><li>Two different types of Mercury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methylmercury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found in fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to accumulate in the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is tied to developmental delays and neurological impairment in babies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethylmercury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not accumulate in the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was used in vaccines as a preservative to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, mandated by the FDA to be removed from all vaccines, except the flu vaccine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccines must be free of ethylmercury or only contain trace amounts (less that one microgram). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Despite removal, autism rates continue to climb. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Why Get Vaccinated? The Importance of Immunization
  20. 20. Communicable Diseases <ul><li>Measle, Mumps, Rubella - MMR </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken Pox - Varicella </li></ul><ul><li>Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (aka Whooping Cough) - DtaP </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis (A and B) – HepA, HepB </li></ul><ul><li>Polio – IPV </li></ul><ul><li>Rotavirus – RV </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumoccocal – PCV </li></ul><ul><li>Haemophilus influenzae B- Hib </li></ul>
  21. 21. Measles Mumps Rubella (German Measles
  22. 22. Chicken Pox Diptheria Tetanus Whooping cough
  23. 23. Hepatitis A Liver cancer caused by Hepatitis B
  24. 24. Polio Rotavirus Pneumoccocal HiB
  25. 25. If Everyone Else is Doing It, Why Should I? <ul><li>Won't herd immunity protect me anyway? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technically, yes it does help the community as a whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But what if everyone thought this way? Then no one would be immunized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of exposure to those who also think this way and don't get vaccinated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everyone can get vaccinated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to those who aren't </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. “ An ounce of prevention...” <ul><li>PREVENTION!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the key to public health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease is easier to prevent than treat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” - Ben Franklin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. More Information
  28. 28. Sources: