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Tourism unit


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the tourism unit: hope this help! :)

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Tourism unit

  1. 1. Tourism Lo: To understand what tourism is and why it has grown.
  2. 2. What is tourism? • Tourism generally involves activities that require away from home for at least 1 night. This includes holidays,buissness trips. Also some scientists say that day trips are also counted as tourism.
  3. 3. Why has tourism grown? • People like to go on holiday because: • The weather • Leisure and recreation • Advertising • Cheaper and faster transport • Landmarks • Culture • Food Extension task: explain these points into more detail
  4. 4. Key terms: • Tourist: going somewhere different to do something for a day or overnight. • Domestic tourist: someone that travels in the same country. • International: go to a different country • Self catering: no food included • Travel agent: person that books your holiday for you.
  5. 5. The graph above shows the last 60 years of tourist growth, from just tens of millions in 1950 to 694 million in 2004. the other massive trend is the continued dominance of Europe as a destination, but also the massive growth in numbers to East Asia and the Americas.
  6. 6. Tourism has grown massively as an industry over the past century for a variety of reasons: • Advances in travel technology - There are a wider range of ways to travel as a tourist and these methods are widely available. You can be a tourist using a car, a boat and most importantly an airplane. Motorways have linked places together, whilst Budget airlines such as Easy jet and Ryan air have brought prices down and increased traffic volumes. • Holiday entitlement in many rich nations has increased over the past century. This means that people can take more holidays during the year and swells the number of tourists. • People have more disposable income now - this is income that people have to send on themselves. This is partly because of salary rises and partly because the price for essential goods such as food and clothing has fallen. Many families now have 2 income earners rather than one, they have fewer kids and often have a car. All of these factors increase the likelihood of people becoming tourists. • The availability and type of holiday has increased - mass tourism and package holidays have opened up markets to huge numbers of people. Extreme and ecological tourism are also becoming popular, further swelling the choice. • The Media - Extensive coverage of holiday types has increased the demand to travel. Most newspapers have a "holiday" section, whilst TV shows can show people the enormous choice on offer - shows such as Ray Mears and 71 degrees north can promote extreme tourism for example, whilst "Benidorm" promotes (???!) mass tourism. Gap years have also been pushed by the media and are popular.
  7. 7. Why has tourism grown? Expansion of choice Social and economic factors Technology/transport factors Better transport routes make it faster to travel to far away places. People are wealthier and have a greater disposable income so they can afford more holidays.
  8. 8. Tourist Environments LO: To understand and explain in detail what attracts tourists to some destinations.
  9. 9. What attracts tourists to some destinations? -Physical/Natural -Human Great wall of china/ man made Antarctica- climate/ weather Alton towers- man made
  10. 10. Exam practice: Describe the attractions of tourist environments. (4 marks- 8 lines) Model answer: Many people go on holiday in different locations. For example some people go to Antarctica to go skiing or snowboarding. People go to the coast Greece to relax. Also people like to go to some of the wonders of the world for example the Great Wall of China. Also cities attract tourists because its a man made attraction and it has interested the tourists.
  11. 11. Produce a compound line graph using the data opposite Fully label your graph Describe the patterns on your graph Explain those patterns
  12. 12. Exploration - a small number of tourists visit the area. The area is unspoilt and few tourist facilities exist. Involvement - local people start to provide some facilities for tourists. There starts to become a recognised tourist season. Development - the host country starts to develop and advertise the area. The area becomes recognised as a tourist destination. Consolidation - the area continues to attract tourists. The growth in tourist numbers may not be a fast as before. Some tensions develop between the host and the tourists. Stagnation - the facilities for the tourists may decline as they become old and run down. The numbers of tourists may decline too. Rejuvenation - investment and modernisation may occur which leads to improvements and visitor numbers may increase again. Decline - if the resort is not rejuvenated (stage 6) then it will go into decline. People lose their jobs related to tourism. The image of the area suffers. The Butler model is a generalisation, and so not all resorts will follow this process.
  13. 13. The economic importance of tourism
  14. 14. The economic importance of tourism varies from place to place but can be seen to make a significant contribution to many countries wealth. MEDCs benefit massively from tourism in terms of total wealth generated, even if the % of GDP that tourism generates is small. LEDCs are variable in their involvement in tourism but most see tourism as an extremely important way of getting money into their countries. Some LEDCs are reliant on tourism, and it can create more than 50% of GDP, more than exporting primary goods such as food stuffs or manufactured goods such as clothing. This can be problematic, as war, terrorism, or natural disasters could put people off visiting which would strip away a huge chunk of a countries income.
  15. 15. National parks in the UK LO: To understand what national parks are and how important they are.
  16. 16. What is a national park? • National parks have been created to protect Britain’s most spectacular scenery by limiting the amount and type of development that can take place. In addition, National Parks are there to offer the British people access to the countryside for recreational purposes. • There are 15 National Parks in the British Isles and they came into existence in 1951 following an act of Parliament (The 1949 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act). The first park created under this act was the Peak District National Park, which is surrounded by large towns and cities such as Liverpool and Manchester.
  17. 17. Why are national parks so important? • Primarily National Parks are created to conserve the biodiversity found in natural areas, and provide habitats for permanent and migrating animals in the area. They are recognised nationally and internationally as being the most effective method of improving the conservation and biodiversity values of reserves. National Parks also protect cultural sites such as shell middens, scar trees and cave paintings from being damaged by human activities, and involve indigenous peoples by including their lands in indigenous protected areas (Figgis, Australia’s National Parks: Future Directions, 1999). That is not to say that the general community cannot continue to use and enjoy National Parks in the same way they enjoyed reserves. Many recreational activities are allowed in National Parks such as walking, camping, boating and canoeing, fishing and swimming. It is this recreational aspect of National Parks that make them particularly viable for tourism. National Parks receive 'top billing' in many tourist guides as places to visit and as such boost the economy of local areas. For example, the Grampians National Park contributed over $150 million to the regional economy. The increased popularity of National Parks also allows for more employment opportunities. It is not only the income generated by visitation that makes National Parks important to the economy but also a variety of potential ecosystem services. Ecosystem services benefits include catchment protection, water production, protection of soil stability, climatic controls, carbon sinks, genetic resources, pollination of economic species, habitat for economically important species such as insectivorous birds and the protection of hatcheries of commercial aquatic species (Beattie, Commercial Exploration of Biodiversity, 1995). Overall, National Parks are an important and valuable resource for scientists, educators and the community due to the variety of aesthetic, recreational and economic uses they offer.
  18. 18. What can you do in a national park? • Kayaking • Jet skiing • Boating • Rock climbing • horse riding • Walks • Cycling • Rowing • sailing
  19. 19. Your task: • You need to create a leaflet to try and attract more visitor to the lake district. • Or • You can create a news script on the new national park that has just opened. • (remember to add pictures, facts and websites)
  20. 20. Skills: proportional symbols LO: During this lesson I will understand how to calculate the radius of each of your proportional symbols. - I will be able to list the problems in the lake district.
  21. 21. Visitor days: • A visitor day is one visitor visiting a national park for one day. • Therefore if one person went on holiday to the lake district for a week this would be 7 visitor days. (1 x7 = 7) Answer Amount of days The number of people
  22. 22. Your task for today: • During this lesson you will be creating a map to display information using different sized shapes. The area of each shape will represent (be proportional to) the number of visitor days in each national park each year.
  23. 23. Alternative ways of presenting the same data: Methods used to present data. Advantages Disadvantages Proportional symbols map •The information is presented on a base map so you can see if there is a special pattern. •Some symbols can be very large and cover parts of the map making it more difficult to understand. Bar chart (graph) Pie chart Table Ect ..
  24. 24. Traffic problems: Honey pot sites: Pressure on property: Environmental issues: Over 89% of visitors come by car, often just for one day. Many roads are narrow and winding. Queues are a common problem , especially towards the end of the day when day trippers are heading home. Congestion and parking are also a serious problem. The lake district has both physical and cultural honey pot sites. Beauty spots, small shopping centres, and historic houses attract hundreds of visitors per day. Almost 20% of property in the lake district is either second hand or holiday let accommodation Water sports are not allowed on some lakes, but Windermere, the largest lake, has ferries and allows power boating , wind surfing and other faster and more damaging activities. The main issue is the wash from faster vehicles eroding the shore, fuel spills are not common, causing pollution.
  25. 25. Case study: Problems in the lake district:
  26. 26. Your task: You will be given a role card about someone who is experiencing problems in the lake district because of the increasing amount of visitors or tourists. You need to write a formal letter to the lake district national park authority to explain the problems they are experiencing (remember to stay in character) Hint: use the guidance on the back of the sheet.
  27. 27. Ways to improve the lake district Person A Person B Improving parking litter Erosion by boats Controlling footpath erosion Property prices Improving public transport
  28. 28. What are the problems?
  29. 29. Opinion scale: •Is tourism in the lake district a good thing? AgreeDisagree
  30. 30. As the number of each national park increases it is clear that there are different opinions about the effects of visitors (either posotive or negative) Task: write one positive and one negative speech bubble:
  31. 31. Mass tourism is it good or bad? Lo:To be able to evaluate the consequences of mass tourism destinations
  32. 32. Definiton of mass tourism: • Mass tourism refers to a large number of visitors, often on package holidays with accommodation and travel included.
  33. 33. Mass tourism - Kenya
  34. 34. You need to watch these two videos and complete the questions on your sheet.
  35. 35. What problems are shown in this picture?
  36. 36. Task: You need to read through this diary entry and underline or highlight the problems that Janis is making.
  37. 37. Card sort: Using the cards create a table the looks like this and fill it in : Benefits Costs Economic: Sociocultural: Environmental:
  38. 38. Problems with mass tourism in Kenya- safaris •Hot air balloons cast shadows over the land which scare the animals and therefore they don't mate. •Safari busses go off track to get closes to the animals for the tourists which can scare the animals. •The reef on the coast- people are touching the coral and anchors break the coral and the petrol will create a area were the coral cant survive. 23 24 22
  39. 39. Yellow stone National Park
  40. 40. Solutions: •Safari busses are kept to well defined tracks and are not allowed to go within 25 meters of animals. This is patrolled by wardens. The drivers are fined if caught breaking these rules. •The reef has now become a protection area. This has been put into place to prevent over fishing and damage to the coral base •There are a number of licensed operators that can enter the park for the purpose of educating tourists. •Three quarters of wildlife in Kenya can be found outside of national parks. A large amount of land outside of Kenya's park is owned by the masi tribe. They pay the masai tribe for the use of their land. •Tourists are asked to go on boats that have paddles and to not touch the reef has become a rule. What are the down sides to these rules?
  41. 41. Machu picchu
  42. 42. Grand canyon
  43. 43. Antarctica
  44. 44. Amazon rain forest
  45. 45. What do all of these pictures have in common? They are all extreme environments
  46. 46. What are extreme environments? Extreme environments are locations with particularly difficult environments where the development of tourism has only recently occurred due to the niche market
  47. 47. Create a facebook page for and animal in the Antartic, think about: What there doing? Who their with? Their friends? Advertisment
  48. 48. Tourism in the Himalayas