Education
Learning objectives:
To understand what functions
schools perform to prepare us for
later life
What is the Purpose of
Education?
• Punctuality
• Life skills
• Responsibility
• Emotional support
• Prepares you for late...
What are the different roles of
education?
• Write a list of all the subjects that you
study and how it is going to help y...
Marxists Functionalists
Disagree Agree
Unfair Fair
Exploit Harmonious
Conflict Organic analogy
Capitalism Consensus
Social...
Functionalists are
very POSITIVE about
society and always see
the GOOD in everything.
They look at society on a MACRO scal...
Has a job to do
for society …
Agreement
The way people
are brought up
Knowing what is
right and wrong
Large Scale
Acceptab...
MARXISM
Marxists are
very NEGATIVE about the
society we live in and always see
the BAD in everything. Marxists
believe tha...
Disagreement
The Ruling Class
The Working
Class
A society based
on making
money
A society where
everyone is
equal
Bourgeoi...
Role of education according to
functionalists
• The institution play a positive role as a
whole
• Education is seen as per...
Role of education according to
Marxists
• They struggle between powerful and
less powerful groups
• They argue that the bo...
• Bourgeoisie- ruling class
• Proletariat- working class
• Meritocratic- to be fair
• Social mobility- as people move up a...
What are the different roles of
education?
• Economic
• Social control
• Selective
• Socialisation
• Political
Use the tex...
Exam style question:
• Write a paragraph explaining the most
important role of education in your
views. You need to includ...
What is the hidden curriculum?
• Aspect of the hidden curriculum:
• Hierarchy
• Competition
• Social control
• Gender role...
What is learned through the
formal and informal curriculum?
Formal learning
Informal learning or the
hidden curriculum
•Th...
Alternative types of schooling in
the UK
• Faith schools
• Independent schools
• Special schools
• Home schooling
• Gramma...
The changes in schooling
over the years
The 1944 Butler Education Act
• They believed that this system was
meritocratic
Grammar Secondary
technical
Secondary
mode...
• What is the hidden curriculum?
( 4 marks)
• Describe one change that the education
act in 1870 introduced ? (2 marks)
The tripartite system:
A fair test?
• THE 11+ EXAM MAY BE UNFAIR BECAUSE
THE CHILDREM WERE TOO YOUNG
• THE CHILDREN MAY HA...
1965- the start of the
comprehensive system
• All students regardless of their
academic ability, attended the same
kind of...
Knowledge check-Education acts
1870, 1944 and 1965
1. Name one change that the 1870 education act introduced
2. Why was th...
Task:
• Create a leaflet explaining the schooling
system now
You need to include:
• Dates
• examples of different schools:...
• Why would some sociologist suggest
that the role of education is to prepare
you for life in the work place (12 marks)
Functionalist Marxists
An agency of social control In favour of the bourgeoisie
Benefits society Institution that makes ou...
What types of schooling do we
have in the UK today?
• Behaviour schools
• Grammar schools
• Private tutor
• Home schooling...
Alternative types of schooling in
the UK
• Faith schools
• Independent
• Special schools
• Home schooling
Task: Give a def...
Education Reform Act 1988
Learning Objectives:
To understand the main changes
that occurred in 1988
Education Reform Act 1988
The 1988 Education Reform Act was passed by the New
Right (Conservative) government led by Marga...
What happened during 1988
• A series of changes rather than one big
policy
• Many changes are still in place today
• Inclu...
Marketisation
• Consumer choice has been applied to
education
• Parents have the choice to send their
children to differen...
• Schools want to attract middleclass
students, female, white and Indian
because they are statistically higher
graded stud...
League tables
• A league table shows how different
schools get different grades in one city.
They are used so that parents...
• Page 116 q
Lower disadvantaged students (F grade
students) don't get the help they need
as the teachers focus on the C/D grade
studen...
The education reform act...
One limitation and one strength
to the SATS
Task:
• Decide whether
these new reform
acts improved
education for
everyone or created
more inequalities
and explain in d...
IMPROVED EDUCATION
FOR EVERYONE
CREATED INEQUALITYS
SATS:
YOU CAN SEE HOW MUCH
YOU HAVE IMPROVED
YEARS LATER
SATS:
BECASUE...
1997 labour policy‟s
Tony Blair
Learning objectives:
Describe and asses educational
policy‟s since 1997
Task:
Read page 118 and 119 in your sociology
textbooks
Create a leaflet explaining the 4 main areas
that the labour party...
Michael Gove-
Educational secretary for
the current government
He makes decisions about
education and introduces
new polic...
1997 labour policy‟s
1. Name 2 ways in which labour tried to
raise standards towards education?
2. EMA and sure start were...
Policies from 2010
• In 2010, the current coalition
government was voted into power
• Since, a range of policies have been...
Marketisation and selection policies
• Funding formula:
same funds per pupil
• Exam league tables:
ranking of schools
• Co...
A-C economy (Gillborn and Youdell)
• Schools are forced to focus on pupils who will achieve
5 grades at A to C.
• Gillborn...
Competition and selection
• Schools are aiming to attract mc pupils
in order to improve/maintain ranking.
(Cream-skimming,...
Review of education policies
Learning objectives:
To be able to re-call the different education
policies
To be able to ans...
1870 1944 1965 1988 1997 2010
Key terms
•CTS,GMS,LMS
•Converter academies
•Marketisation
•Comprehensive
•Tripartite
•Compulsory schooling
for 5-11 years...
Education and Social Class
Learning objectives:
To be able to explain how social class is
judged
To be able to describe th...
What is social class?
• Social class is one way of describing a
persons position in society. This is
usually determined by...
How can social class effect‟s
achievement?
Homework:
• 7-10 bullet points explaining:
• “why do working class children
underperform”
• You need to give reasons and
e...
Why don't working
class children
achieve as highly as
middle class
children?
They are
genetically
less
intelligent
They la...
Learning objectives:
To be able to describe what
is meant by material
deprivation and the
difference in parental values
in...
Key term alert!
• Material deprivation
A lack of basic necessities e.g.
Food/books/internet or the finance to
be able to a...
Task:
• Some sociologists (Douglas) argue that the
attitudes and values of working class
parents disadvantage their childr...
Learning objectives:
•To be able to describe what is
meant by cultural deprivation
•To be able to explain how they
can eff...
Last lesson recap
1. What is material deprivation?
2. Name two material factors that
may affect poorer pupils at school
3....
Key term alert!
Working class children may lack the “correct” values
and attitudes to do well
This may be because they hav...
How could this affect
achievement?
In your own words explain how either:
a) poorer language
Or
b) lack of educational ente...
COMPENSATORY
EDUCATION
http://www.youtube.c
om/watch?v=fwdL6gC
7kVQ
How is sesame street helping
disadvantaged children?
EXIT TICKET:
• WHICH HAS A LARGER IMPACT ON
THE ACHIVEMENT OF WORKING
CLASS STUDENTS?
MATERIAL DEPRIVATION
OR
CULTURAL DEP...
How might factors in school
effect achievement?
Learning objectives:
To examine the effects
of labelling, self-
fulfilling...
Labelling
Trouble
maker
Failure
Chatter
box
Teachers
unavoidably
make
judgements
about pupils but
they can often
affect
ed...
Getting you thinking...
No names
• Do teachers judge students?
• What do they judge them on?
• Is it positive/negative or ...
“The halo effect”
The teachers may judge children who are
well behaved and bright but be more
questioning about the good p...
Social class and labelling
1. How might working class children
be labelled by teachers?
2. What effect might this have?
Us...
• Setting is where whole classes of pupils are put
into different groups for particular subjects,
while streaming involves...
What is a self-fulfilling
prophecy?
1. A student is labelled by a teacher
2. The teacher treats them according to
their la...
Teacher labels student as a trouble maker
The teacher
labels the
student as a
trouble maker
The teacher
sends him out of
c...
Pygmalion in the classroom (1968)
The study was designed to test the theory of
the self fulfilling prophecy
• What did Ros...
How might school affect
achievement?(2)
Learning objectives:
To examine the effects of labelling,
self-fulfilling prophecy...
Recapping last lesson
1. What is labelling?
2. What is the self fulfilling prophecy?
3. What did Rosenthal and Jacobson fi...
STREAMING
This is where students are placed into ability
groups, they stay in this group for all lessons
Your task:
•Name ...
BENEFITS DISADVANTAGES
You are put into groups that best fit
your ability level
What if you had a bad day you took
the tes...
Counter-culture/ anti
school subculture
Counter-culture
• Hargreaves (1967) and Lacey (1970) have
suggested that one of the effects of
streaming is to lead to the...
Paul Willis: learning to labour
Homework:
• Create an advise booklet aimed at
parents to raise the achievement of
working class parents
• You must discuss...
Self fulfilling prophecy: Number these statements to
show in which order the process of self fulfilling
prophecies happen....
Pupils achieving five or more GCSE grades A*-C or equivalent, by year UK
Look at the graphs.
Do boys or girls do
better at...
Learning objectives:
To be able to describe different
patterns of achievement for
students by gender
To explain reasons fo...
TRUE FALSE
DEBATABLE
Statements:
1. All boys underachieve and all girls now achieve well at
school
2. Boys underachieve across the curriculum (...
TRUE FALSE
DEBATABLE
1. All boys underachieve and all girls now
achieve well at school
2. Boys underachieve across the
cur...
2004/5 2005/6 2006/7 2007/8
Males 52 54 57 60
Females 62 64 66 69
Percentage achieving A*-C grades at GCSE
Males Females
C...
WHY ARE GIRLS
OUTPERFORMING BOYS?
• Read the 4 reasons on page 130 and 131
• Decide which order you are going to
scale the...
Why are boys
underachieving?
Learning objectives:
To be able to describe different patterns of
achievement for students by...
Thinking time....
• On your post-it note, write a point why
you think boys are underachieving and
the reasons behind them
Task
1. Using the pages 134 and 135 in your
textbook sort the statements into ones
that you agree with the most and the
le...
• Your task for the next 15 minutes is to write
a letter to Mr. Gove explaining to him why
boys are generally failing and ...
HOMEWORK:
• You need to collect the gender of each
teacher you have and the number of
females and males in each of your
cl...
Gender differences and
subject choice
Subject Gender of most
students
Gender of the teacher
ART
SOCIOLOGY
TEXTILES
MUSIC
HISTORY
GEOGRAPHY
GERMAN
CREATE A TABLE...
TASK
• Page 132 in your textbooks
• What similarities and differences are
there between Walton high‟s results and
the nati...
Why are there such gender
differences in subject choice?
Influences outside of
school
Influences inside school
•Pressure f...
Test your knowledge
• Identify and explain 3 factors that
might be leading to females achieving
higher grades than males i...
Learning objectives:
To able to understand how ethnicity can affect
school achievement
To be able to identify patterns fro...
What are the main trends?
1. Which ethnicity group achieves the
highest number of A*- C grade?
2. Which ethnic group achie...
The underachievement of black
males
Trends discussed Reasons for black
underachievement
Strategies to
overcome this
issue
What are the main trends?
What factors occur in
school that could explain
the underachievement of
some ethnic minority
groups
• Teachers labelling students- self fulfilling
prophecy – reject label
• Anti school sub culture
• Racism
• Culture differ...
Task
• On the next few slides there are some
pictures of celebrities and famous
people
• If you no who the person is and h...
king
Henry
the 8th
Mother
Teresa
Nelson
Mandela
Rosa
parks
Margaret
Thatcher
Florence
nightingale
Mahatma
Ghandi
The ethnocentric curriculum
• “ethnocentric”- an attitude that gives
priority to the culture of the ethnic group
while dis...
TASK 1
• Your task for today is to complete the “
explaining ethnic differences in
achievement: school factors” sheet
• Yo...
• To be able to understand how home
factors can influence a students
achievement in school
• To be able to explain how soc...
Last lesson recap:
1. What is an “ethnocentric curriculum”?
2. How might a lack of ethnic minority
teachers cause the unde...
Minority ethnic pupils are more likely to
experience deprivation than white British
pupils, especially Pakistani, Banglade...
Home factors as explanations
• In your tables you have been given a
description of the home factors that may
explain the d...
Which factor is the most
significant?
School Factors Home Factors
Teacher labelling
Ethnocentric
curriculum
Lack of black
...
Which factor you think is the
most significant and why?
• In your exercise book explain which
factor is the most significa...
End of Unit
Revision
Guess The Key Term
• IN THE ENVELOP THERE ARE CARDS‟
WITH KEY TERMS WE HAVE LEARNT
OVER THE WHOLE EDUCATION
SYSTEM
• ONE P...
Vocational education or
„vocationalism‟
• Work related qualifications and training
- BTEC or Apprentices
• The point of th...
Can you think of one strength and one
weakness of these courses
VS
Functionalists or Marxists?
1. Education is meritocratic
2. Education socialises children into common
values
3. Education ...
End of Unit
Revision (2)
End of Unit Revision
• Complete the view of education sheet by
reading the statements and labelling them
a Marxist or Func...
Key term alert
Q) What is the difference between the
„formal‟ and the „hidden‟ curriculum?
• FORMAL IS TAUGHT IN SCHOOL AS...
Social class, gender and ethnicity
• MUST: Explain what
they mean (definition)
• SHOULD: Explain
which groups of people
it...
Education CAP Feedback
Learning objectives:
To be able to read feedback and
act upon it to improve your marks
and grade
1. Use plans to help you re-write the 12
mark question. Use your notes Ect. To
help
2. Ensure you have a detailed descript...
Question 7
• Intro: Describe the main trends in terms of ethnicity and
achievement
• P1: First reason for this difference ...
• (a) Explain what is meant by the term “self-
fulfilling prophecy” (2 marks).
• (b) Suggest three factors that occur insi...
PLAN YOUR ANSWER
(a) Explain what is meant by the term “hidden
curriculum” (2 marks). – 3 mins
(b) Suggest three functions...
Compare and Contrast
FUNCTIONALIST VIEWS ON THE
ROLE OF EDUCATION
MARXIST VIEWS ON THE ROLE
OF EDUCATION
How alike are the...
1. Spider diagrams, lists
2. Capture your readers attention – Ask a direct question
- Give a startling fact or statistic
-...
Exam questions
• Discuss how far sociologists would agree that
the situation in a pupil’s home is a more
important cause o...
Education
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Education

  1. 1. Education Learning objectives: To understand what functions schools perform to prepare us for later life
  2. 2. What is the Purpose of Education? • Punctuality • Life skills • Responsibility • Emotional support • Prepares you for later life • Community • Healthy living e.g.. PE • Options • Teaches us social norms and values • Qualifications • Access to computers • Hot food • Secondary socialisation • Work experience • Friends
  3. 3. What are the different roles of education? • Write a list of all the subjects that you study and how it is going to help you in later life
  4. 4. Marxists Functionalists Disagree Agree Unfair Fair Exploit Harmonious Conflict Organic analogy Capitalism Consensus Social class
  5. 5. Functionalists are very POSITIVE about society and always see the GOOD in everything. They look at society on a MACRO scale [this means that they look at society on a large scale]. They want to generalise their ideas to the whole of society. For example they look at what education does for society as a whole not just certain people in society. Functionalists also believe that society is based on CONSENSUS, this means agreement, i.e. we are all SOCIALISED [brought up] to agree on how to behave [known as NORMS] and what is right and wrong [known as VALUES]. Functionalists believe that each part of society has a FUNCTION [a job to do] to make sure that society runs smoothly and everything stays in harmony. For example education has a function to make sure people are educated to be good at the job they will get after education. FUNCTIONALISM
  6. 6. Has a job to do for society … Agreement The way people are brought up Knowing what is right and wrong Large Scale Acceptable behaviour Function Consensus Socialization Values Macro Norms MATCH UP THE DEFINITION WITH THE KEY TERM
  7. 7. MARXISM Marxists are very NEGATIVE about the society we live in and always see the BAD in everything. Marxists believe that society is dominated by the ruling class. They look at society on a MACRO scale [this means that they look at society on a large scale]. They want to generalise their ideas to the whole of society. For example they look at what education does for society as a whole not just certain people in society. Marxists also believe that society is based on CONFLICT, this means disagreement. The conflict is between the CLASSES – the WORKING CLASS[called the proletariat] are in conflict with the RULING CLASS [called the bourgeoisie] They are interested in CAPITALIST SOCIETIES e.g. Britain, Western Europe and the USA. These societies are based on some people wanting to make as much money as possible no matter how they treat people to get this. They believe that the ruling class make all the money as they exploit the working class and pay them low wages. Marxists believe that there will eventually be a REVOLUTION and the working class will realise they are being exploited and get rid of the ruling class and capitalism. A new society will be created where there will be no classes, no private property and everyone will be equal. This type of society is called COMMUNISM.
  8. 8. Disagreement The Ruling Class The Working Class A society based on making money A society where everyone is equal Bourgeoisie Communism Capitalism Conflict Proletariat MATCH UP THE DEFINITION WITH THE KEY TERM
  9. 9. Role of education according to functionalists • The institution play a positive role as a whole • Education is seen as performing a beneficial role in society
  10. 10. Role of education according to Marxists • They struggle between powerful and less powerful groups • They argue that the bourgeoisie make the most out of education because they are well off
  11. 11. • Bourgeoisie- ruling class • Proletariat- working class • Meritocratic- to be fair • Social mobility- as people move up and down the social ladder • Social cohesion- everyone gets on well with each other (like glue) • Agency of social control- teaching obedience and punctuality Key term alert!
  12. 12. What are the different roles of education? • Economic • Social control • Selective • Socialisation • Political Use the textbook to find the definition and functionalist and Marxist view points on each
  13. 13. Exam style question: • Write a paragraph explaining the most important role of education in your views. You need to include: • A definition of the role • Your view • A Marxist and a functionalists view point
  14. 14. What is the hidden curriculum? • Aspect of the hidden curriculum: • Hierarchy • Competition • Social control • Gender roles • Lack of satisfaction For each aspect of the hidden curriculum you need to explain: •How this is informally taught in schools •Example from Walton High •How this prepares students for future word and the wider society
  15. 15. What is learned through the formal and informal curriculum? Formal learning Informal learning or the hidden curriculum •Things learnt through formal lessons •Things learnt as a part of the wider school life •Thing aren't explicitly taught
  16. 16. Alternative types of schooling in the UK • Faith schools • Independent schools • Special schools • Home schooling • Grammar schools Find out the definitions, advantages and disadvantage of each school using the text books
  17. 17. The changes in schooling over the years
  18. 18. The 1944 Butler Education Act • They believed that this system was meritocratic Grammar Secondary technical Secondary modern 20% of children 5-10% of children 75% of children GCSE O levels and A levels Less academic students Lower ability Preparing children for middle class roles Development of practical labour Different subjects
  19. 19. • What is the hidden curriculum? ( 4 marks) • Describe one change that the education act in 1870 introduced ? (2 marks)
  20. 20. The tripartite system: A fair test? • THE 11+ EXAM MAY BE UNFAIR BECAUSE THE CHILDREM WERE TOO YOUNG • THE CHILDREN MAY HAVE GOTTEN MORE INTELLIGENT AFTER THEY HAD FAILED • BETTER TEACHERS WILL BE GOING TO GRAMMAR SCHOOLS- MORE MONEY • CHILDREN GOT DEPRESSED IF THEY FAILED
  21. 21. 1965- the start of the comprehensive system • All students regardless of their academic ability, attended the same kind of school in their local catchment area Advantages: Disadvantages:
  22. 22. Knowledge check-Education acts 1870, 1944 and 1965 1. Name one change that the 1870 education act introduced 2. Why was the 1944 act introduced 3. In what way was it aiming at creating a “meritocratic” system? 4. What type of system was introduced in 1944 for secondary schools? 5. Name three types of schools 6. Which school had the highest percentage of students? 7. Name 2 reasons why this system wasn't meritocratic 8. What type of school was introduced in 1965? 9. What did this aim to do? 10. How might it have reproduced class inequality's?
  23. 23. Task: • Create a leaflet explaining the schooling system now You need to include: • Dates • examples of different schools: grammar private and public and explain • Different subject choices • Images and pictures and colour
  24. 24. • Why would some sociologist suggest that the role of education is to prepare you for life in the work place (12 marks)
  25. 25. Functionalist Marxists An agency of social control In favour of the bourgeoisie Benefits society Institution that makes our current exploitive system Socialises students The proletariat cant afford a higher level of education ( university) and will therefore be left in a working class job Decreases the chance for social mobility What do functionalists and Marxists believe about education ?
  26. 26. What types of schooling do we have in the UK today? • Behaviour schools • Grammar schools • Private tutor • Home schooling • Boarding schools • Special schools • Specialist schools • Single sex schools • Faith schools • Vocational collages- drama/ dance • Prep schools- primary- private
  27. 27. Alternative types of schooling in the UK • Faith schools • Independent • Special schools • Home schooling Task: Give a definition for each types of school and give at least three advantages and disadvantages.
  28. 28. Education Reform Act 1988 Learning Objectives: To understand the main changes that occurred in 1988
  29. 29. Education Reform Act 1988 The 1988 Education Reform Act was passed by the New Right (Conservative) government led by Margaret Thatcher. The main purpose of the Act was to centralise educational provision in the UK and bring about a standardisation of educational provision offered throughout the country, so that no matter where they lived young people all received equality of educational opportunities. It introduced the National Curriculum (NC), which all state-funded schools had to follow, and which laid down mandatory (compulsory) subjects that must be studied in the core areas of literacy, numeracy and science. Beyond this optional foundation, subjects were offered which schools had limited discretion in departing from. The 1988 Act also introduced SATs (Standard Attainment Tests) to be taken at the ages of 7, 11, 14 and 16, the end points of what became known as the four key stages of a centralised education system for the 4- to 16-year-old age group.
  30. 30. What happened during 1988 • A series of changes rather than one big policy • Many changes are still in place today • Includes: • Marketisation of schools • National curriculum • Increased competition • Introduced League tables
  31. 31. Marketisation • Consumer choice has been applied to education • Parents have the choice to send their children to different schools • Schools get money based on the amount of students they have If parents have a choice about where to send their children, what do schools need to do to ensure that their children get sent to their school?
  32. 32. • Schools want to attract middleclass students, female, white and Indian because they are statistically higher graded students. So they are more likely to get high grades. The more students they get the more money they receive from the government. If parents have a choice about where to send their children, what do schools need to do to ensure that their children get sent to their school?
  33. 33. League tables • A league table shows how different schools get different grades in one city. They are used so that parents can compare them to tell which school is best to send their children. • Value added score = measures the amount of progress a child makes
  34. 34. • Page 116 q
  35. 35. Lower disadvantaged students (F grade students) don't get the help they need as the teachers focus on the C/D grade students. Why is that?
  36. 36. The education reform act... One limitation and one strength to the SATS
  37. 37. Task: • Decide whether these new reform acts improved education for everyone or created more inequalities and explain in detail why • When you have finished write a paragraph long conclusion explaining your thoughts • SATS • League table • National curriculum • Marketisation
  38. 38. IMPROVED EDUCATION FOR EVERYONE CREATED INEQUALITYS SATS: YOU CAN SEE HOW MUCH YOU HAVE IMPROVED YEARS LATER SATS: BECASUE THE BOURGOURSIE CAN GET EXTRA TUTORING WHICH ISNT FAIR LEAGUE TABLES: CREATS COMPETTION BETWEEN SCHOOL TO SEE PROGRESS LEAGUE TABLES: SHOWS SCHOOLS THAT THAT ARE UNDER ACHEIVING MARKETISATION: MAKES SCHOOLS COMPETE FOR MONEY MARKETISATION: SCHOOLS CAN BE TOO PUSHY
  39. 39. 1997 labour policy‟s Tony Blair Learning objectives: Describe and asses educational policy‟s since 1997
  40. 40. Task: Read page 118 and 119 in your sociology textbooks Create a leaflet explaining the 4 main areas that the labour party addressed • Raising standards • Reducing inequalities • Promoting diversity • Choice in education
  41. 41. Michael Gove- Educational secretary for the current government He makes decisions about education and introduces new policies into the UK WHO IS THIS MAN?
  42. 42. 1997 labour policy‟s 1. Name 2 ways in which labour tried to raise standards towards education? 2. EMA and sure start were aimed to do what? 3. What happened to failing schools? 4. What is a “specialist school”?
  43. 43. Policies from 2010 • In 2010, the current coalition government was voted into power • Since, a range of policies have been introduced Free schools “converter schools” Changing from modular to linear GCSE‟S and A- LEVELS
  44. 44. Marketisation and selection policies • Funding formula: same funds per pupil • Exam league tables: ranking of schools • Competition: to attract pupils These changes have put schools under pressure in order to attract pupils and funding.
  45. 45. A-C economy (Gillborn and Youdell) • Schools are forced to focus on pupils who will achieve 5 grades at A to C. • Gillborn & Youdell blame system. • Sorting process is named after the medical procedures which need to be taken in an emergency: The Educational Triage System Triage Those who will pass anyway Borderline C/D pupils- Need extra help Hopeless cases Pupils
  46. 46. Competition and selection • Schools are aiming to attract mc pupils in order to improve/maintain ranking. (Cream-skimming, Will Bartlett) • School differences in performance spiral apart. (silt-shifting, Will Bartlett) Task: Find out what CVA is and how it works! What is PHCS‟ CVA?
  47. 47. Review of education policies Learning objectives: To be able to re-call the different education policies To be able to answer a 12 mark question correctly
  48. 48. 1870 1944 1965 1988 1997 2010
  49. 49. Key terms •CTS,GMS,LMS •Converter academies •Marketisation •Comprehensive •Tripartite •Compulsory schooling for 5-11 years •Secondary modern •Linear exams •Free schools •National curriculum •11+ •Catchment area •EMA •Funding on the bases of number of pupils •Secondary technical
  50. 50. Education and Social Class Learning objectives: To be able to explain how social class is judged To be able to describe the main trends
  51. 51. What is social class? • Social class is one way of describing a persons position in society. This is usually determined by looking at their occupation or their parents occupation. Middle class jobs: Working class jobs: Professional jobs Manual jobs List at least 5 jobs for each category of social class EXT: Is there a class under working class?
  52. 52. How can social class effect‟s achievement?
  53. 53. Homework: • 7-10 bullet points explaining: • “why do working class children underperform” • You need to give reasons and explanations for your points • Due: 20/01/14 – Monday
  54. 54. Why don't working class children achieve as highly as middle class children? They are genetically less intelligent They lack resources at home They cant afford to send their children to private school The teachers don't like them as much as the middle class children Some are from families who don't have any hope for their children The parents don't raise them properly Parents don't choose appropriate school‟s for their children Parents don't push them hard enough The statement that I agree with the most.......because.... The statement I agree with the least is ....... Because.......
  55. 55. Learning objectives: To be able to describe what is meant by material deprivation and the difference in parental values in middle and working class families
  56. 56. Key term alert! • Material deprivation A lack of basic necessities e.g. Food/books/internet or the finance to be able to afford them This usually affects poorer families
  57. 57. Task: • Some sociologists (Douglas) argue that the attitudes and values of working class parents disadvantage their children compared with middle class parents Using card sort: • In pairs organise your cards into “middle class values” and “working class values” • Then write a paragraph in your own words and give examples Working class parents emphasise on past and present whereas, middle class patents emphasise on future planning. E.g. spending money now and not saving it for when their children want to go to university
  58. 58. Learning objectives: •To be able to describe what is meant by cultural deprivation •To be able to explain how they can effect achiement in school •To be able to think critically about how much of an impact they have
  59. 59. Last lesson recap 1. What is material deprivation? 2. Name two material factors that may affect poorer pupils at school 3. Name one working class value and compare it to a middle class one
  60. 60. Key term alert! Working class children may lack the “correct” values and attitudes to do well This may be because they have been inadequately socialised by their parents This may disadvantage them because schools favour middle class culture
  61. 61. How could this affect achievement? In your own words explain how either: a) poorer language Or b) lack of educational entertainment ..... Could explain the under achievement of working class pupils Ext: can you count argue these policies?
  62. 62. COMPENSATORY EDUCATION http://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=fwdL6gC 7kVQ
  63. 63. How is sesame street helping disadvantaged children?
  64. 64. EXIT TICKET: • WHICH HAS A LARGER IMPACT ON THE ACHIVEMENT OF WORKING CLASS STUDENTS? MATERIAL DEPRIVATION OR CULTURAL DEPRIVATION ?
  65. 65. How might factors in school effect achievement? Learning objectives: To examine the effects of labelling, self- fulfilling prophecy and streaming on student achievement
  66. 66. Labelling Trouble maker Failure Chatter box Teachers unavoidably make judgements about pupils but they can often affect education achievement
  67. 67. Getting you thinking... No names • Do teachers judge students? • What do they judge them on? • Is it positive/negative or both? Discussion
  68. 68. “The halo effect” The teachers may judge children who are well behaved and bright but be more questioning about the good performance of the naughtier children Students might be typecast on early impressions e.g. appearance,manners,speach and homes
  69. 69. Social class and labelling 1. How might working class children be labelled by teachers? 2. What effect might this have? Use page 126 to help you answer the questions. Answer in full sentences
  70. 70. • Setting is where whole classes of pupils are put into different groups for particular subjects, while streaming involves grouping all students. • Being placed in a low steam or set may undermine pupil's confidence and discourage them from trying. Ball conducted a study and found top steam pupils were 'warmed up' by encouragement. On the other hand, lower- steam students were 'cooled out' and encouraged to follow more vocational subjects. Keddie found that teachers taught those in higher streams differently from those in lower streams. They were expected to behave better and do more work and teachers gave different educational knowledge.
  71. 71. What is a self-fulfilling prophecy? 1. A student is labelled by a teacher 2. The teacher treats them according to their label 3. The student begins to believe in their label 4. The label becomes a reality Next to these 4 stages, create an example of a negative self-fulfilling prophecy.
  72. 72. Teacher labels student as a trouble maker The teacher labels the student as a trouble maker The teacher sends him out of class all the time. Therefore he misses work The student then believe that he is a trouble maker, so he doesn't bother anymore The student messes around a lot in lessons and his label becomes reality
  73. 73. Pygmalion in the classroom (1968) The study was designed to test the theory of the self fulfilling prophecy • What did Rosenthal and Jacobson's study show? • Read the orange box on page 127 and complete the questions in full sentences
  74. 74. How might school affect achievement?(2) Learning objectives: To examine the effects of labelling, self-fulfilling prophecy, streaming and counter-culture on student achievement
  75. 75. Recapping last lesson 1. What is labelling? 2. What is the self fulfilling prophecy? 3. What did Rosenthal and Jacobson find?
  76. 76. STREAMING This is where students are placed into ability groups, they stay in this group for all lessons Your task: •Name at least 2 benefits of streaming •Name at least 2 disadvantages of streaming
  77. 77. BENEFITS DISADVANTAGES You are put into groups that best fit your ability level What if you had a bad day you took the test (ill) The work isn't too hard or too easy Might not be able to stretch yourself You aren't set back by other people Unlikely to move set You are all working at the same pace If you were in the bottom set you would be labelled as a failure, so you don't really pay attention, you therefore mess around and disturb others. Then your self fulfilling prophecy becomes a reality Little movement between groups Lower set- bad behaviour- working class children- less learning however in a higher set you have middle class children and more learning is evident Modern tripartite system
  78. 78. Counter-culture/ anti school subculture
  79. 79. Counter-culture • Hargreaves (1967) and Lacey (1970) have suggested that one of the effects of streaming is to lead to the development of “school subculture” How? What characteristics does an “anti school subculture” have?
  80. 80. Paul Willis: learning to labour
  81. 81. Homework: • Create an advise booklet aimed at parents to raise the achievement of working class parents • You must discuss advise regarding: • Material deprivation • Cultural deprivation • User friendly format and practical advise
  82. 82. Self fulfilling prophecy: Number these statements to show in which order the process of self fulfilling prophecies happen. A teacher gives the student a „label‟ based on their assumptions A teacher will treat the student according to the label they assign them (e.g.: assumption is that „bright students‟ will need more work, in the classroom, the student gets more challenging tasks or assumption is that student is „lazy‟, so teacher will not push the student as they believe they don‟t want to learn) The prophecy about the student comes true- this is a self fulfilling prophecy A teacher makes a prediction or assumption about how the student will behave or what grades they are capable of achieving
  83. 83. Pupils achieving five or more GCSE grades A*-C or equivalent, by year UK Look at the graphs. Do boys or girls do better at school?
  84. 84. Learning objectives: To be able to describe different patterns of achievement for students by gender To explain reasons for improvements in education for girls
  85. 85. TRUE FALSE DEBATABLE
  86. 86. Statements: 1. All boys underachieve and all girls now achieve well at school 2. Boys underachieve across the curriculum (all subjects) 3. Boys and girls have different learning styles 4. Boys prefer male teachers 5. Assessment practices(Coursework, exams etc.) have little impact on the differences between boys and girls 6. School curriculum doesn't meet boys interests 7. Single sex schools improve male achievement 8. Boys benefit from a competitive environment 9. Boys and girls are “naturally”/neurologically different and learn in different ways
  87. 87. TRUE FALSE DEBATABLE 1. All boys underachieve and all girls now achieve well at school 2. Boys underachieve across the curriculum (all subjects) 3. Boys and girls have different learning styles 4. Boys prefer male teachers 5. Assessment practices(Coursework, exams etc.) have little impact on the differences between boys and girls 6. School curriculum doesn't meet boys interests 8. Boys benefit from a competitive environment 7. Single sex schools improve male achievement 9. Boys and girls are “naturally”/neurologically different and learn in different ways
  88. 88. 2004/5 2005/6 2006/7 2007/8 Males 52 54 57 60 Females 62 64 66 69 Percentage achieving A*-C grades at GCSE Males Females Chemistry 73 77 Physics 68 76 Maths 78 83 History 72 77 Sociology 67 75 Art and design 71 80 English 73 75 Percentage achieving A-C grades at A-levels by subject (2005/6)Task: Write a sentence for each table explaining what it shows and use maths to explain your answer
  89. 89. WHY ARE GIRLS OUTPERFORMING BOYS? • Read the 4 reasons on page 130 and 131 • Decide which order you are going to scale them in( most convincing to least convincing) once you have ordered them next to each one summarise each one and how it has raised the attainment of girls. • Ext: to justify why you have put them in that order
  90. 90. Why are boys underachieving? Learning objectives: To be able to describe different patterns of achievement for students by gender To explain reasons for underachievement of boys in education
  91. 91. Thinking time.... • On your post-it note, write a point why you think boys are underachieving and the reasons behind them
  92. 92. Task 1. Using the pages 134 and 135 in your textbook sort the statements into ones that you agree with the most and the least 2. Write down the two statements you agree with the most and the two that you agree with the least 3. Justify your answer
  93. 93. • Your task for the next 15 minutes is to write a letter to Mr. Gove explaining to him why boys are generally failing and methods he could use to put in place to counteract the problems • Make sure you use the correct format to create the letter • Use key terms and numbers to support your answer •Low self esteem •Distractions •Less willing to do work •Lack of aspirations •Peer pressure •Crisis in masculinity •Anti school subculture •Lack of competition in school
  94. 94. HOMEWORK: • You need to collect the gender of each teacher you have and the number of females and males in each of your classes • EG. Sociology –Female Male = 5 Female = 19
  95. 95. Gender differences and subject choice
  96. 96. Subject Gender of most students Gender of the teacher ART SOCIOLOGY TEXTILES MUSIC HISTORY GEOGRAPHY GERMAN CREATE A TABLE LIKE THIS AND FILL IT IN WITH THE INFORMATION YOU COLLECTED FOR HOMEWORK AS A CLASS TOGETHER
  97. 97. TASK • Page 132 in your textbooks • What similarities and differences are there between Walton high‟s results and the national data? • Identify which subjects seem to be the most strongly dominated by males and which by females
  98. 98. Why are there such gender differences in subject choice? Influences outside of school Influences inside school •Pressure from parents •Media-stereotypes •Toys from a young age EG. Police car •Parents expectations •hobbies •Gender of the teacher •Peer pressure •Images in textbooks •Labelling by teachers •Domination of gender in the class room •The gender attached to the subject
  99. 99. Test your knowledge • Identify and explain 3 factors that might be leading to females achieving higher grades than males in school (6 marks) • Identify and explain 3 reasons why males and females choose different subjects at gcse and A-levels (6 marks)
  100. 100. Learning objectives: To able to understand how ethnicity can affect school achievement To be able to identify patterns from statistics to use in exam questions
  101. 101. What are the main trends? 1. Which ethnicity group achieves the highest number of A*- C grade? 2. Which ethnic group achieves the lowest? 3. What is the trend in terms of gender 4. What is the percentage gap between the highest and lowest achievers? 5. How can we explain these trends?
  102. 102. The underachievement of black males Trends discussed Reasons for black underachievement Strategies to overcome this issue
  103. 103. What are the main trends?
  104. 104. What factors occur in school that could explain the underachievement of some ethnic minority groups
  105. 105. • Teachers labelling students- self fulfilling prophecy – reject label • Anti school sub culture • Racism • Culture differences- cultural deprivation- schools focus on British culture in attitudes and festivals E.g. Christmas • Ethnicity of the teacher • Teachers favouring specific ethnic groups • Material deprivation can lead to bullying
  106. 106. Task • On the next few slides there are some pictures of celebrities and famous people • If you no who the person is and how that are famous then put your hand up • If not, it is ok • This task has to be done in absolute silence
  107. 107. king Henry the 8th
  108. 108. Mother Teresa
  109. 109. Nelson Mandela
  110. 110. Rosa parks
  111. 111. Margaret Thatcher
  112. 112. Florence nightingale
  113. 113. Mahatma Ghandi
  114. 114. The ethnocentric curriculum • “ethnocentric”- an attitude that gives priority to the culture of the ethnic group while disregarding others E.g. White British culture • The curriculum in the UK is tailored towards English language, literature, history, geography etc • This could negatively impact the self esteem of other ethnic minority children • However how does this explain Chinese students results?
  115. 115. TASK 1 • Your task for today is to complete the “ explaining ethnic differences in achievement: school factors” sheet • You must complete all the questions with *‟s next to them • For the first 3 questions use page 140 • For the rest of the questions use pages 142 and 143
  116. 116. • To be able to understand how home factors can influence a students achievement in school • To be able to explain how social class and cultural factors may influence the achievement of some ethnic groups • To be able to include all your ideas in an exam question
  117. 117. Last lesson recap: 1. What is an “ethnocentric curriculum”? 2. How might a lack of ethnic minority teachers cause the underachievement of students? 3. What is “institutional racism”?
  118. 118. Minority ethnic pupils are more likely to experience deprivation than white British pupils, especially Pakistani, Bangladeshi, black African pupils. For example 70% of Bangladeshi pupils and almost 60% of Pakistani and black African pupils live in the 20% most deprived post code areas compared to less than 20% of white British pupils Discuss how the information in the extract supports the idea that social class may be a key influence in explaining differences in achievement between different ethnic groups
  119. 119. Home factors as explanations • In your tables you have been given a description of the home factors that may explain the differences in achievement between ethnic groups • You have been given some of the explanations for arguments either for or against • Use page 138-139 to help complete the table • EXT: CAN YOU THINK OF ANY OTHER HOME FACTORS?
  120. 120. Which factor is the most significant? School Factors Home Factors Teacher labelling Ethnocentric curriculum Lack of black teachers Subculture Institutional racism Social class Cultural differences e.g. languages spoken at home Parental expectations
  121. 121. Which factor you think is the most significant and why? • In your exercise book explain which factor is the most significant. Try to include examples to support your argument
  122. 122. End of Unit Revision
  123. 123. Guess The Key Term • IN THE ENVELOP THERE ARE CARDS‟ WITH KEY TERMS WE HAVE LEARNT OVER THE WHOLE EDUCATION SYSTEM • ONE PERSON FROM EACH TEAM WILL TRY AND EXPLAIN THE DEFINITION IN ONE MINUTE. THE TEAM WITH THE MOST CORRECT GUESSES WINNS!!
  124. 124. Vocational education or „vocationalism‟ • Work related qualifications and training - BTEC or Apprentices • The point of these is to aim to provide skills directly needed for a certain job
  125. 125. Can you think of one strength and one weakness of these courses VS
  126. 126. Functionalists or Marxists? 1. Education is meritocratic 2. Education socialises children into common values 3. Education disadvantages working class children 4. Education enables social mobility 5. Education encourages social cohesion 6. Education prepares working class pupils for working class jobs 7. The hidden curriculum reinforces hidden ruling class values
  127. 127. End of Unit Revision (2)
  128. 128. End of Unit Revision • Complete the view of education sheet by reading the statements and labelling them a Marxist or Functionalists statement with a F or M. Or you can colour code them. • You second task is to go no the back of the sheet we used last week and write in only ten words a generalised summary of Functionalists and Marxists perspectives on education
  129. 129. Key term alert Q) What is the difference between the „formal‟ and the „hidden‟ curriculum? • FORMAL IS TAUGHT IN SCHOOL AS A LESSON ON YOUR TIMETABE • THE HIDDEN CURRICULAM IS TAUGHT OUTSIDE OF LESSONS • Can you think of any examples? • Punctuality, hierarchy, uniform, obedience
  130. 130. Social class, gender and ethnicity • MUST: Explain what they mean (definition) • SHOULD: Explain which groups of people it could effect the most (working class boys, Chinese students) • COULD: suggest ways in which they could be tackled (policies etc) 1. Material deprivation 2. Cultural deprivation 3. Negative labelling 4. Self fulfilling prophecy 5. Streaming 6. Anti school subculture 7. Feminist movement 8. Ethnocentric curriculum
  131. 131. Education CAP Feedback Learning objectives: To be able to read feedback and act upon it to improve your marks and grade
  132. 132. 1. Use plans to help you re-write the 12 mark question. Use your notes Ect. To help 2. Ensure you have a detailed description of „vocationalism‟- use guidelines form the mark scheme and the text book to help you 3. Choose one of the 5 mark question and create an answer that would get full marks- read my comments and ask others around you for help Education CAP Feedback and Improvements
  133. 133. Question 7 • Intro: Describe the main trends in terms of ethnicity and achievement • P1: First reason for this difference is... This effects some ethnic minorities because... (However... Counter argument) • P3: However a students social class also effects achievement because.... This affects students results negatively because... • P4: Gender also has a large impact on educational achievement. For example.... This negatively impacts students... (However... Counter argument) Conclusion:...
  134. 134. • (a) Explain what is meant by the term “self- fulfilling prophecy” (2 marks). • (b) Suggest three factors that occur inside schools that affect the role of education (6 marks). • (c) Outline the contribution of labelling theory to our understanding of the role of education (12 marks).
  135. 135. PLAN YOUR ANSWER (a) Explain what is meant by the term “hidden curriculum” (2 marks). – 3 mins (b) Suggest three functions that education may perform for individuals and/or society. (6 marks). – 7 mins (c) Outline some of the ways education contributes to cultural reproduction (12 marks). - 15 mins (d) Compare Functionalist perspectives on the role of education with a Marxist Perspective (20 marks). - 35 mins
  136. 136. Compare and Contrast FUNCTIONALIST VIEWS ON THE ROLE OF EDUCATION MARXIST VIEWS ON THE ROLE OF EDUCATION How alike are these? How different are these? With regard to? With regard to? With regard to? With regard to? Conclusion
  137. 137. 1. Spider diagrams, lists 2. Capture your readers attention – Ask a direct question - Give a startling fact or statistic - Give an emphatic statement of opinion - Explain what you are going to say 3. This is the main body of your essay. This is where you 'say it' that is, you develop the points raised in your introduction. So, if your introduction is well structured, and relevant all that remains for you to do is to write a paragraph on each of the points raised that are relevant to the title. Check that the final sentence or two of each paragraph relates back to the title, and/or your premise. The final sentence of one paragraph should lead onto the opening sentence of the next paragraph. In this way your material is kept relevant and the developments flow on to your conclusion. Some link words/phrases will help here For example, 'On the other hand, positivist perspectives on crime statistics argue that they are factual and measure actual behaviour.' 4. This is where your essay structure comes full circle by returning briefly to the points raised in your introduction and development. It could contain a recapitulation of the arguments and possibly come down upon the side of your premise. For example 'It follows from the above evidence that, far from being factual, as positivists suggest, crime statistics are actually ideological and conceal the activities of the older, white, male, ruling classes. Consequently this adds to false consciousness and greater social control over the proletariat'. NB: Remember - your conclusion is the last thing the examiner reads before giving you your mark!
  138. 138. Exam questions • Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the situation in a pupil’s home is a more important cause of educational under- achievement than the type of school he or she attends. (12 marks) • Discuss how far sociologists would agree that a pupil’s social class is the most important influence on his or her educational achievements. (12 marks)

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