Chapter 2Your Psychological and Spiritual Well-Being•Identify the characteristics of emotionally healthy persons.•List and give examples of the three major areas of positive psychology.•Name the two pillars of authentic happiness.•Contrast characteristics of optimistic and pessimistic individuals.•Discuss the health benefits of spirituality.•Identify ways to enrich one’s spiritual life.•Explain the relationship between gratitude and positive psychology.•Describe four ways that sleep affects daytime well-being. Chapter Learning Objectives
Topics Of Focus For This Chapter Emotional Characteristics Health Spiritual Benefits and how to enrich Health spiritual life Positive Areas of study and how to Psychology practice positive psychology Disorders and strategies to Sleep improve sleep
Psychological Well-Being Emotional Mental Health Health Ability to express Ability to perceive reality as it and acknowledge one’s is, to respond to its challenges,feelings and moods and exhibit and to develop rationaladaptability and compassion for strategies for living. others. Culture Set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices of a group that are internalized by an individual within the group.
Emotionally Healthy People Demonstrate: Determination and effort to be • healthy • Flexibility and adaptability Sense of meaning and affirmation of • life Understanding that self is not the • center of universe
Emotionally Healthy People Demonstrate: • Compassion for others Ability to be unselfish when relating • to others Depth and satisfaction with intimate • relationships Sense of control that enables health- • enhancing choices and decisions
Major Focuses Of Positive Psychology Focus Area Examples Hope Positive Emotions Trust Wisdom Positive Traits Courage Positive Strong Families Institutions Democracy
Components Of Positive Psychology AUTONOMY SELF-COMPASSION EMOTIONAL HUMOR INTELLIGENCE Positive KNOW MOODS Psychology YOURSELF OPTIMISM YOUR NEEDS HAPPINESS SELF-ESTEEM
Self-Compassion Maintains Well-Being Three components: Treating oneself kindly in the face of 1 perceived inadequacy. Recognizing that such discomfort is an 2 unavoidable part of the human experience. Face painful thoughts and manage 3 disappointments by quelling self-pity and melodrama.
Emotional Intelligence Influences Success What is Emotional Intelligence? Ability to monitor and use emotions to guide thinking and actions Health Benefits of Emotional Intelligence Less prone to stress, depression and anxiety Heal more quickly from serious illness Emotional Intelligence has a greater influence on personal and professional success than IQ
Emotional Intelligence Can Be Learned Emotional Competencies That Benefit Students • Focus on clear, manageable goals • Identify emotions • Understand emotions • Avoid relying on ‘gut’ feelings
Personality as a predictor• Two Traits: • Conscientiousness. • Associated with fewer risky behaviors. • Extraversion. • Associated with more risky behaviors. Personality is not destiny. When recognized, specific steps can be taken to safeguard your health.
Two Pillars Of Authentic Happiness Happiness encompasses living a meaningful life, utilizing your gifts and time, and living with thought and purpose Engagement with family, work or a 1 passionate pursuit Finding meaning from some higher 2 purpose
Practice Optimism Over Pessimism Protects from disease Optimism Allows adaptation in adversity Reduces depression Response to adversity may involve destructive behaviors Pessimism Avoid taking steps to improve outcomes
Feelings come and Go in Minutes • A mood is a more sustained emotional state that colors our view of the world for hours or days. • The most effective way to banish a sad or bad mood is by changing what caused it in the first place.
Practicing Positive Psychology Self-Compassion Emotional intelligence Know Yourself Meet your needs Self-Esteem Happiness Optimism Moods Use Humor Humor Autonomy
Look on the Light Side • Humor, which enables us to express fears and negative feelings without causing distress to ourselves or others, is one of the healthiest ways of coping with life’s ups and downs.
Practicing Positive Psychology Self-Compassion Emotional intelligence Know Yourself Meet your needs Self-Esteem Happiness Optimism Moods Humor Autonomy Practice Autonomy
Autonomy Is Independence Autonomous individuals feel that they are in control Decisions are based on personal values Decisions are not based on external influences or opinions
Spiritual Health – Identify Your Life Purpose Ability to identify life purpose Spiritual Health Experience fulfillment in achieving full potential Belief in higher power Spirituality Creates strong sense of purpose Acts as guide in life decisions
Spirituality Enhances Physical Health Change the brain May slow aging and decrease Prayer psychological symptoms and Meditation May increase feelings of compassion, security and love Going to Decreases risk of dying Church
PrayingPrayer may foster a state ofpeace and calm that could lead tobeneficial changes in thecardiovascular and immunesystems and alter the brain.Membership in a faith communityprovides an identity as well assupport.
Find Wisdom Through Spiritual Intelligence Does not require a belief in God Focuses on finding wisdom within Spiritual the person Intelligence Creates inner peace so you can listen to yourself Capacity to sense, understand and tap into the highest parts of Definition ourselves, others and the world around us
Clarifying Your Values • Values are the criteria by which you evaluate things, people, events, and yourself; they represent what’s most important to you. • Carefully consider the consequences of each choice. • Choose freely from among all of the options. • Publicly affirm your values by sharing them with others. • Act out your values.
Seven Ways To Enhance Spiritual Life 1. Sit quietly 2. Create small moments of silence 3. Go outside 4. Try less ‘cerebral’ activities 5. Ask questions 6. Trust your feelings 7. Develop a spiritual practice
Gratitude Is A Trait Worth Developing Gratitude is a significant dimension of Positive Psychology – it increases optimism and improves sleep and health ‘Habitual focusing on and Definition appreciating the positive aspects of life’ Practicing • Keep gratitude journal Gratitude • Look for times to be thankful
Sleep Affects Your Daytime Well-being Lack of sleep can affect every aspect of a student’s life and causes: • Daytime sleepiness • Decreased level of attention • Impaired memory • Impaired decision making
What Happens When We Sleep? Stage 1 • A twilight zone between full wakefulness and sleep. • Brain produces small, irregular, rapid electrical waves. • Muscles of the body relax, and breathing is smooth and even. Stage 2 • Larger brain waves with occasional bursts of electrical activity. • Eyes unresponsive and bodily functions slow. Stage 3 and 4 • Most profound state of unconsciousness . • Brain produces slower, larger waves. • “Delta” or slow-wave sleep. REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep • Vivid dreaming. • Brain waves resemble those of waking more than quiet sleep. These stages are repeated four or five times a night
Sleep Problems Are Common Practice these strategies to improve your sleep • Have regular times to sleep • Create a pre-sleep ritual • Avoid caffeine in the afternoon • Don’t smoke • Try 30 minute naps during the day
Insomnia Is A Sleep Disorder Chronic difficulty falling and staying asleep Lack of sleep affects daytime About functioning May be caused by anxiety or depression disorders Therapy Treatment Medication
How Much Sleep Do You Need? Normal sleep times • There is no concrete formula to say how much sleep we need; varies from 5 to 10 hours Average sleep time • 7 1/2 hours Discover your sleep needs by keeping a sleep journal • Record your wake time every morning. • Vary your bedtime. • Monitor your body’s signals (grogginess, stamina, etc.).
Sleeping Pills Over-the-counter medications • Antihistamines • May help for occasional sleepiness. Dietary supplements • Most common hormone is melatonin. • May help some people fall asleep and stay asleep. Prescription medications • Newest: nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic medications (Lunesta/Ambien/Sonata) Benzodiazepines • More likely to cause headaches or drowsiness the next day (Halcion/Restoril)