Personal Sexuality• Explain the roles of hormones in sexual development.• Describe the anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems.• Identify women’s and men’s sexual health conditions.• List life behaviors of sexually healthy and responsible adults.• Define sexual orientation and give examples of sexual diversity.• Discuss the range of sexual behaviors practiced by American adults.• Describe the phases of sexual response. Chapter Learning Objectives
Genetic Sexual Differentiation• Gender refers to the psychological and sociological, as well as the physical, aspects of being male or female. You are born with a certain sexual identity based on your sexual anatomy and appearance; you, your parents, and society mold your gender identity.• Are You an X or a Y? • If a Y (or male) chromosome is present in the embryo, about seven weeks after conception, it signals the sex organs to develop the testes. • If the Y chromosome isn’t present, an embryo begins developing ovaries in the eighth week.
Hormones And Sexual Development Hormones are chemical messengers that arouse cells and organs Hormones influence how we look, feel, develop and behave
Sexual and Gender Identity• Androgyny includes: • those who are “positively androgynous”, combining positive attributes linked with both sexes, for example, feminine compassion and masculine independence • individuals who are “negatively androgynous” might show less desirable characteristics of each gender, such as feminine dependency and masculine assertiveness.
Main Events Of Menstrual Cycle Hypothalamus triggers pituitary to release FSH and LH FSH stimulates follicle development Follicle produces estrogen that triggers ovulation Estrogen and progesterone stimulate uterus to prepare for egg If egg is fertilized, pregnancy begins If egg is not fertilized, menstruation occurs
Premenstrual Syndrome Is Common Hormone deficiency or imbalance Causes Thyroid hormone abnormalities Stress •Mood changes • Digestive symptoms • Anxiety • Hot flashes Symptoms • Irritability • Insomnia • Forgetfulness • Water retention Exercise Calcium & vitamin D Treatment Diuretics Less caffeine SSRI
Premenstrual Dyphoric Disorder PMDD is not related to PMS Depression during last week of menstrual cycle Symptoms Cannot function at work, school or home SSRIs Treatment Birth control pill that stops ovulation
Menstrual Cramps Caused by overproduction of prostaglandins • Abdominal cramps and pain • Leg and back pain • Diarrhea • Tension • Water retention
Amenorrhea Absence of menstruation for 3 or Defined more consecutive months Loss of bone density Health Osteoporosis Effects Stress fractures
Toxic Shock Syndrome Bacterial infection in women who What use tampons • High fever • Rash – peeling of skin Symptoms • Dizziness • Very low blood pressure Antibiotics Treatment IV Immunoglobulin
Circumcision Removal of foreskin – skin covering the penis • Religious tradition • Reduces risk of HIV, herpes, and HPV in men and trichomonas in women • Lower risk of penis cancer Why? • Less risk of urinary tract infection in babies • Easier genital hygiene • Prevention of foreskin infections and retraction
Sexually Healthy Relationship• The World Health Organization defines sexual health as “the integration of the physical, emotional, intellectual, and social aspects of sexual being in ways that are positively enriching, and that enhance personality, communication, and love…Every person has a right to receive sexual information and to consider sexual relationships for pleasure as well as for procreation.”
Strategies For Saying ‘No’ To Sex Recognize your own values and feelings. Be direct. Just say no. Let your date know you feel uncomfortable if you’re feeling pressured. If you’re a woman, monitor your sexual signals. Communicate your feelings to your date sooner rather than later.
Sexual BehaviorAdolescent Sexuality•It’s not unusual for teenage boys toexperience frequent erections duringthe day and night, including nocturnalemissions, or wet dreams, duringwhich ejaculation occurs.•Masturbation is the primary form ofsexual expression for manyteenagers, especially boys•Kissing and Petting • Holding, touching, manual stimulation of the genitals, and oral sex•Fewer are having Sexual intercourse
Sexual Behavior Teen Sexual Activity • According to a national survey of 1,800 teenagers: • According to the CDC, the percentage of virgins among teens ages 15 to 19 has grown steadily in recent decades. • Teenagers are more likely to become sexually active if their mothers had their first birth as teenagers. The Sex Life of American Adults • However, one in five Americans has been celibate for at least a year, one in twenty engages in sex at least every other day. • Men report more sexual frequency than women. • The more sex a person has, the more often they report having a happy marriage or relationship
Sexual Behavior Across The Life-Span • Sexual exploration • Erections, wet dreams, masturbation • Kissing, petting, touching, oral sex • See sex as normal peer behavior • One-third report using condoms • Drinking increases sexual risk • Average frequency of sex is once weekly • Frequency of sex decreases with education level
Why People Have Sex Attraction to another person Physical pleasure Express love Feeling desired by the other person Escalating depth of relationship Curiosity or adventure Marking special occasion Mere opportunity ‘Just Happened’
Sexual Orientation Sexual or romantic attraction Heterosexual between opposite sexes Sexual, emotional, social Homosexual attraction to member of same sex Sexual attraction to both males Bisexual and females Many vary across life-span
Sexual Orientation Identify with the opposite gender than their birth gender Transgender Behavior as opposite gender for social pleasure rather than sexual gratification Feel trapped in body of wrong gender Transsexual May undergo gender reassignment surgery
Sexual Activity and TerminologyCelibacy Abstention from sexual activity; can be partial or complete, permanent or temporary.Abstinence Refraining from sexual intercourse.Masturbation Manual (or non-manual) self-stimulation of the genitals, often resulting in orgasm.Intercourse Sexual stimulation by means of entry of the penis into the vagina; coitus.
Sexual Activity and TerminologyNonpenetrative Sexual Activity (Outercourse) Outercourse includes kissing and hugging, but does not involve genital-to-genital, mouth-to-genital, or insertive anal sexual contact.Cunnilingus Sexual stimulation of a woman’s genitals by means of oral manipulation.Fellatio Sexual stimulation of a man’s genitals by means of oral stimulation.Anal Stimulation and Intercourse Because the anus has many nerve endings, it can produce intense erotic responses. An estimated 25 % of adults have experienced anal intercourse at least once.
Phases Of Sexual Response Stimulation causes male erection and female lubrication Excitement intensifies – penis increases in length, vagina swells 3-12 muscular contractions 4/5 second apart for up to 60 seconds • Return to non-excited state • Heart rate, blood pressure and breathing return to normal
Safer Sex The only 100% risk-free sexual choice is abstinence. Mutually faithful sexual relationship. Condom use to reduce the risk of STIs by 50- 80%. Discuss prior sexual history before engaging in sexual activity.
Sexual Concerns: Sexual DysfunctionSexual dysfunction is the inability to react emotionally and/or physically tosexual stimulation in a way expected of the average healthy person oraccording to one’s own standards.Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence) The key findings to erectile dysfunction include: Smoking. Men who smoke are twice as likely to develop ED than nonsmokers. Exercise. Men who exercise for 30 minutes a day are 41 % less likely to develop erectile dysfunction than sedentary men. Obesity. Overweight men are more likely to have ED even after age, diabetes, exercise, and other risk factors are taken into account. Alcohol. The effects of alcohol are complex. Cycling Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis have worked in 70% of the cases
Sexual Concerns: Sexual Dysfunction Orgasm Problems in Men • About 20 % of men complain of premature ejaculation, which is defined as ejaculating within 30 to 90 seconds of inserting the penis into the vagina, or after 10 to 15 thrusts. Female Sexual Dysfunction Four categories of dysfunctions which include: Sexual desire disorders Arousal disorders Orgasmic disorders Sexual pain disorders (Dyspareunia/Vaginismus)
Should You Consult with a Sex Therapist Consider the following: Is sex painful or physically uncomfortable? Are you having sex less and less frequently? Do you have a general fear of, or revulsion toward, sex? Is your sexual pleasure declining? Is your sexual desire diminishing? Are your sexual problems increases in frequency or persisting for longer periods?
Atypical BehaviorCharacteristics of a Sexual Addict Preoccupation with sex so intense and chronic that it interferes with a normal sexual relationship with a spouse or lover. Compulsion to have sex again and again within a short period of time, and to engage in sexual behavior that results in feelings of anxiety, depression, guilt, or shame. A great deal of time spent away from family or work, in order to look for sex partners or engage in sex. Use of sex to hide from troubles.
Sexual Deviations American Psychiatric Association Obtaining sexual pleasure from an inanimate object Fetishism or an asexual part of the body, such as the foot. Becoming sexually aroused by wearing the clothingTransvestitism of the opposite sex.Exhibitionism Exposing one’s genitals to an unwilling observer. Obtaining sexual gratification by observing people Voyeurism undressing or involved in sexual activity. Becoming sexually aroused by inflicting physical or Sadism psychological pain. Obtaining sexual gratification by suffering physical Masochism or psychological pain.
Being Sexually Responsible Communicate openly. Share responsibility in a sexual relationship. Respect sexual privacy. Do not sexually harass others. Be considerate. Be prepared. In sexual situations, always think ahead. Be aware of your own and your partner’s alcohol and drug intake. Be sure sexual activity is consensual.