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  1. 1. Managing Your Weight • List the factors that have contributed to the increase in overweight and obesity, in the United States. • Discuss factors that may influence body image. • Define overweight and obesity. • Identify the main health risks of excess weight. • Assess dietary, exercise, and psychological approaches to weight loss. • Identify and describe the symptoms, health consequences, and treatments associated with eating disorders. • List three specific behavior changes that they could incorporate into daily life to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight. Chapter Learning
  2. 2. Global Epidemic • Five percent of the U.S. population is morbidly obese. • Obesity rates of young adults between 20-39 have tripled in the last three decades • Obesity at age 20 can cut 20 years off a person’s life
  3. 3. America’s Weight Increase 68% of AND 17% of adults children
  4. 4. Ethnic Disparities
  5. 5. Multiple Reasons For Weight Gain Added calories Bigger portions Fast food Physical inactivity Passive entertainment Genetics Childhood development Emotional influences Social networks Marriage and Children
  6. 6. Supersized Portions
  7. 7. Environment Influences Weight Overweight seek out relationships with others who are overweight Social Network Studies find that when one person becomes obese, friends are more likely to become obese The less money you make, the more Income likely you are to be overweight Race Minorities at higher risk for obesity
  8. 8. Body Image Is Influenced By Media The gap between reality and the media’s portrayal of ‘ideal’ is growing Overestimate their weight Compare weight to others more Women frequently than men Less satisfied with body throughout life Underestimate their weight Men Image has a greater effect on men between ages of 30 and 50
  9. 9. Boost Your Body Image Walk with more bounce in your step. Focus on the parts of your body that you like. Treat yourself with the respect that you would like to receive from others. Work with hand weights. Do not put off special plans. Change your posture and you will look and feel better.
  10. 10. Understanding Weight Problems Calories  Measure of the amount of energy that can be derived from food.  Influenced by gender, age, body-frame size, weight, percentage of body fat, and basal metabolic rate.  Basal Metabolic Rate  Number of calories needed to sustain your body at rest.  Use to estimate your recommended caloric intake. Remember, regardless of whether you consume carbohydrates, protein, or fat, if you take in more calories than your body requires, your body will convert the excess to fat.
  11. 11. Defining Overweight And Obese Body-Mass Index (BMI) is one measure of weight related health related risks Category BMI Health risks begin at Overweight 25+ BMI of 25 and increase Obese 30+ as BMI rises Class 1 30-34.9 Risk of dying of weight- Class 2 35-39.9 related problems Class 3 40+ begins at BMI of 30
  12. 12. How To Gain Weight Some adolescents and young adults are too thin and need to gain weight Add more variety to your foods Eat more frequently by having small meals Choose some calorie-rich foods Drink juice instead of soda Use a meal replacement as a snack Exercise regularly
  13. 13. Holding the Line on College Weight Gain(from Health on a Budget, pg 204) Plan Meals Take Advantage of Physical Don’t Linger Activity Programs Eat at “Home” Plan Alternative Behaviors
  14. 14. Obesity Kills The effects of obesity on health are the equivalent of 20 years of aging Type 2 diabetes Disease Cancer Links Heart disease and stroke Emotional Guilt Toll Depression Social Women less likely to marry, earn Effects less, lower college graduation rate
  15. 15. Health Dangers Of Excess Weight
  16. 16. Major Diseases Linked to Obesity Type 2 Diabetes  Reducing risks: Lose weight and increase physical activity to help control blood sugar levels. Heart Disease and Stroke  Reducing risks: Lose 5-15% of your weight to lower blood pressure and lower cholesterol. Cancer  Reducing risks: Losing weight can may prevent as many as 1 of every 6 cancer deaths.
  17. 17. Why We Overeat Hunger The physiological drive to consume food A desire for food, stimulated by anticipated hunger, physiological changes within the Appetite brain and body, the availability of food, and other environmental and psychological factors. Satiety Feeling of fullness after eating
  18. 18. Hormones Regulate Appetite Produced by fat cells Leptin Slows metabolism Reduced by exercise Ghrelin Released before meals Stimulates appetite Serotonin produces satiety Others Peptides from digestive tract It can take as long as 20 minutes to get these signals, so eat slowly
  19. 19. The Key To Weight Loss Is Simple Consume Less and Exercise But, keeping weight off is not simple
  20. 20. Designing a DietYour Strategies for Change pg 209 Avoid “bad” fats, including trans-fatty acids and partially hydrogenated fats Consume “good” fats, such as omega-3 fatty acids everyday Eat fewer “bad” carbohydrates, such as sugar and white flour Eat more “good” carbs, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, and unrefined grains like whole-wheat flour and brown rice Opt for quality over quantity. Exercise more. Eliminate sweetened soft drinks and drink water instead
  21. 21. Weight Loss Diets High-Carbohydrate, Low Fat Eat fewer calories without eating less food Low-Carbohydrate, High-Protein Eat fewer carbohydrates without eating fewer calories Modified Carbohydrate Focus on ‘good carbs’ and resist ‘bad carbs’
  22. 22. More Weight Loss Diets Low-Calorie Nothing forbidden, just limit amount eaten Low-Carbohydrate Low caloric intake based on proportioning food types Be willing to try different diets. No one diet works for everyone.
  23. 23. Avoid Diet Traps Very low-calorie diets Diet pills • Talk to your doctor first Diet foods • Often high in sugar Yo-yo syndrome (fig. 7.3) • On-again, off-again low-calorie dieting • Use exercise to curb weight gain when increasing calories
  24. 24. Weight Cycling Effect of Repeated Dieting
  25. 25. Physical Activity Health Benefits 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day Weight Gain Prevention 60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day Weight Loss Maintenance 60-90 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day Children and Teenagers 60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day Benefits Helps maintain a healthy weight by increasing energy expenditure, building muscle tissue and burning off fat stores; stimulates the immune system; and reduces the risk for several chronic diseases
  26. 26. Recognize And Stop Emotional Eating Three Steps To Curb Emotional Eating 1. Know your triggers • Record your feelings and eating behaviors in a journal. Put your body in charge, not your emotions 2. • Avoid getting so hungry and feeling so deprived that you become desperate and panicky. 3. Focus intensity of your emotions •Rate the on your feelings
  27. 27. Characteristics of Maintaining Weight Loss Personal responsibility for change. Weight loss winners 1. develop an internal locus of control Exercise. Registry members report an hour of moderate 2. physical activity almost every day. Monitoring. About 44 percent of registry members count 3. calories, and almost all keep track of their food intake in some way. Vigilance. Successful losers keep tabs on their weight 4. and size. Breakfast. A morning meal improves concentration and 5. problem-solving ability, boosts energy levels, and helps control weight.
  28. 28. Treatment For Severe Obesity Xenical (orlistat) Drug Alli (over the counter orlistat) Therapy Meridia (sibutramine) Gastric Bypass • Permanent bypass of stomach • Permanent weight loss common Surgery Banding • Makes stomach size smaller • Adjustable • More likely to regain weight
  29. 29. Unhealthy Eating Behaviors Preoccupied with food and weight Extreme Dieting At risk for anorexia nervosa Compulsive Food addiction Overeating Eat fast and eat a lot Eat large amount of food in short time Binge Binge at least twice a week for 6 Eating months Eat until over-full
  30. 30. Who Is At Risk For Eating Disorders? Eating disorders affect an estimated 5 to 10 million women and 1 million men Many male and female athletes are vulnerable to eating disorders Factors that increase risk • Preoccupation with thin body • Perfectionism • Excessive cautiousness
  31. 31. Four Risk Factors For Adolescent Girls Most likely to have an eating disorder if all four factors are present: 1. High BMI 2. Menarche before 6th grade 3. Extreme concern with weight or shape 4. Teasing by peers
  32. 32. Eating Disorder - Anorexia Nervosa 1. Restricting Two Types 2. Binge eating/purging Refusal to maintain normal body weight Intense fear of gaining weight Features Distorted body image – feeling fat when emaciated Absence of three menstrual cycles
  33. 33. Eating Disorder - Anorexia Nervosa Complex interaction of factors Causes Personal loss Perfectionist personality Brain changes • Abnormal cortisol, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine levels Effects Menstrual cycle stops Adolescents do not have normal sexual maturation Heart irregularities
  34. 34. Eating Disorder - Anorexia Nervosa Medical therapy for re-feeding Treatment Multiple types of therapy Possibly antidepressant medication Most people can return to normal weight Outcome Return to normal eating behaviors takes a long time
  35. 35. Medical Complications of Weight Loss fromAnorexia Nervosa
  36. 36. Eating Disorder – Bulimia Nervosa 1. Purging Two 2. Non-purging Types Rigid diet that lasted from several weeks to a year or more Causes Obesity in adolescence Recovery from anorexia Depression
  37. 37. Characteristics Of Bulimia Nervosa Repeated binge eating Feeling lack of control over eating Regular reliance on self-induced vomiting, laxative or diuretics Strict dieting, fasting, vigorous exercise Two bingeing episodes/week for at least 3 months Preoccupation with body shape and weight
  38. 38. Eating Disorder – Bulimia Nervosa Damage to teeth and gums Dehydration Effects Electrolyte imbalances Cardiac arrhythmia and death Treatment Cognitive-behavioral therapy Recovery takes years Outcome May have episodes of normal eating interspersed with bingeing
  39. 39. Medical Complications Related to Purging•Abnormal levels of crucial chemicals.•Inflammation of the salivary glands.•Erosion of the esophagus and stomach.•Severe abdominal pain.•Erosion and decay of dental enamel, particularly of front teeth.•Fatigue and weakness.•Seizures.
  40. 40. Do You Have An Eating Disorder? Do you make yourself sick because you feel uncomfortably full? Do you worry you have lost control over how much you eat? Have you recently lost more then 14 pounds in a three- month period? Do you believe yourself to be fat when others say you are too thin? Would you say that food dominates your life? Score one point for every “yes.” A score of two or more is a likely indication of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.
  41. 41. Taking Control of Your Weight  Be realistic.  Recognize that there are no quick fixes.  Note your progress.  Adopt the 90 percent rule.  Look for joy and meaning beyond your food life.  Try, try again. It helps to throw this out and use Body Composition or other methods to determine body fatness