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  1. 1. Lowering Your Risk of STIs• Classify common STIs by transmission mode, symptoms, and treatments.• Discuss STI risk factors, calculate their risk, and identify behaviors they can modify to reduce their risk.• Recite the ABCs of safer sex, and explain some specific steps for safeguarding sexual health.• Identify criteria for receiving the HPV vaccination.• Discuss the incidence of HIV, strategies for reducing transmission, and treatments. Chapter Learning Objectives
  2. 2. STIs and Diseases• Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) • Refers to the presence of an infectious agent that can be passed from one sexual partner to another• Remember, STIs can: • Last a lifetime. • Put stress on relationships. • Cause serious medical complications. • Impair fertility. • Cause birth defects. • Lead to major illness and death.
  3. 3. Odds of acquiring a Odds of acquiring a Sexually Transmitted Sexually TransmittedInfection in your lifetime areInfection in your lifetime are 1 in 4 1 in 4 More Americans are More Americans are infected with STIs now infected with STIs now than at any other time in than at any other time in history. history.
  4. 4. Here Is How STIs Are Spread
  5. 5. How STIs spread
  6. 6. STIs on Campus• In U.S. roughly 50% of new STIs occur in young people under age 25.• 86 % of undergraduates are sexually active (recent survey). • Only 50 % report condom use the last time they had vaginal intercourse. • Only 27% report condom use the last time they had anal intercourse.• 67% have never been tested for HIV infection.
  7. 7. STI Risk Different For Men And Women Women Men More mucosal Less like to avoid error membranes exposed if partner is involved in to trauma during sex, protection so higher risk for STI After exposure, urinate Symptoms are and wash genitals with ‘silent’, so may not antibacterial soap know you have STI Ask for testing or it Ask for testing or it won’t be done won’t be done
  8. 8. STI Risk Is A Continuum Here are factors that put you at risk: • Feelings of invulnerability • Multiple partners • Failure to use condoms • Substance abuse Failure of partner to be notified and • treated
  9. 9. A Continuum ofRisk for Sexual Relationships
  10. 10. ABC’s Of Safer Sex A Abstain B Be faithful Use condoms and store them C properly
  11. 11. Human Papilloma (HPV) Description Complications A pathogen that causes  Increased risk of cancers genital warts and increases of the cervix, vulva, and the risk of cervical cancer. penis.  Enlargement and spread most common STI in the U.S. of warts leading to obstruction of the urethra, vagina, and anus. Risk Factors Multiple sex partners. Treatment Anal as well as vaginal  Not always required. intercourse.  Warts can be removed by Sex partners with a history freezing, cauterization, of HPV. chemicals, or surgical removal.
  12. 12. Human Papilloma (HPV) College-age women are among those at greatest risk of acquiring HPV infection. Various Studies: 10 – 40% of female students (mean age 20 to 22yrs) had positive HPV tests. College students’ awareness of HPV and their potential risk is very low. Male students were more likely than female students to think that only women could acquire HPV.
  13. 13. Genital Herpes Contagious even when no Danger symptoms Risk to infant during childbirth Lives in host for their lifetime Anitviral medications decrease transmission Treatment • Acyclovir • Valacydovir • Famcydovir
  14. 14. Herpes Description Detection • A condition caused by one of • Physical examination the herpes viruses and • Viral cultures characterized by lesions of the • Newly developed blood tests skin or mucous membranes. • Herpes simplex virus 2 is sexually transmitted and Treatment causes genital blisters and • The virus that causes herpes sores. never entirely goes away. • HSV reoccurrence often occurs during menstruation, times of stress or with sudden changes in body temperature. • Antiviral drugs: Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Famciclovir
  15. 15. Chlamydia Higher risk of HIV infection May lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Danger Babies exposed during birth can have pneumonia and eye infection Epididymitis which can cause sterility Treatment Antibiotics for both partners Many do not have symptoms Symptoms Painful urination and intercourse Cervical or rectal inflammation
  16. 16. Symptoms of Chlamydia - Women  Abdominal pain.  Abnormal vaginal discharge.  Cervical or rectal inflammation.  Low-grade fever.  Yellowish discharge from the cervix that may have a foul odor.  Vaginal bleeding after intercourse.  Bleeding between menstrual periods.  Painful intercourse.
  17. 17. Symptoms of Chlamydia - Men Pain or burning while urinating. Pus or watery or milky discharge from the penis. Swollen or tender testicles. Rectal inflammation.
  18. 18. Gonorrhea or ‘The Clap’ Urinary obstruction and sterility in men Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in women Danger Newborn infections Blood-borne infection Treatment Antibiotics for both partners Thick, yellow-white pus from penis Symptoms Pain and fever in women
  19. 19. Gonorrhea or ‘The Clap’Description • A sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. • Symptoms include thick, yellow-white pus from the penis. • Women are generally asymptomatic, but may experience discharge or burning on urination.Detection • Blood test • Microscopic analysis of male and female cultures
  20. 20. Syphilis Rates Are Increasing In US Urinary obstruction and sterility in men Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in women Danger Newborn infections Blood-borne infection Caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum and characterized by early sores, a Cause latent period, and a final period of life- threatening symptoms including brain damage and heart failure. Treatment Antibiotics for both partners
  21. 21. Stages of Syphilis InfectionPrimary Syphilis symptoms are chancresSecondary Syphilis is a rash, if any. Usuallyfrom one to twelve months after thechancres appear, the rash will appear.Latent Syphilis is irreversible damage tocentral nervous system and cardiovascularsystem, and there are no signs orsymptoms. Typically cannot be transmitted at this point but a mother can pass it to her unborn childTertiary Syphilis causes tissue and organdamage 10-20 years after beginning of LatentStage
  22. 22. Effect of STI: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Affects women – 10-20% experience enough scarring of fallopian tubes to cause infertility Half of cases have no symptoms Responsible for Danger • half of ectopic pregnancies • 15-30% of infertility cases Half of cases caused by gonorrhea Cause and chlamydia Treatment Antibiotics for woman and partner
  23. 23. Pubic Lice and Scabies Description Transmission Pubic lice (or “crabs”) are Sexual contact usually found in the pubic hair, Nude contact although they can migrate to any hairy areas of the body. Treatment Permethrin cream Lindane shampoo Scabies is caused by a mite that burrows under the skin.
  24. 24. Chancroid Infection of lymph glands with destruction of tissue Danger May increase susceptibility to HIV Symptom Soft, painful sore Treatment Antibiotics for both partners Keep genitals clean and wash after Prevention possible exposure
  25. 25. Trichomoniasis Is Curable Danger May increase susceptibility to HIV None, commonly Symptoms Discomfort during urination, intercourse or ejaculation Treatment Antibiotics for both partners
  26. 26. HIV Risk Highest For Four Groups Gay and Bisexual Men Only group with new infections on rise Black Americans Black men: rate 8 times that of white men Black women: rate 19 times that of white women Women Black women followed by Latina and then white Young People Account for 34% of new infections
  27. 27. Facts About HIV Transmission Casual contact does not spread HIV infection. Compared to other viruses, HIV is extremely difficult to get. HIV can live in the blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. Many chemicals can inactivate HIV. Do not share razor blades, toothbrushes, and blood contact with others. Teenage girls are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. Anal intercourse is an extremely risky behavior. Individuals are at a greater risk if they have an active sexual infection. Oral sex can lead to HIV infection.
  28. 28. Reducing Risk of HIV Transmission Sexual Practices Influence Risk All types of sex can result in infection: oral, • anal and vaginal Have fewer sexual partners and avoid high • risk partners • More susceptible when you have another STI • Teenage girls especially vulnerable • Use protection
  29. 29. Recognizing HIV Many experience a flu-like illness followed by no symptoms for weeks to years Swollen lymph nodes Fever, chills, night sweats Diarrhea and weight loss Coughing and shortness of breath Symptoms Persistent tiredness Skin sores Other infections such as pneumonia Blurred vision and headaches
  30. 30. Effects of HIV Susceptibility to cancers and tuberculosis Diminished mental function Impaired coordination Psychological problems Stroke and bone fractures
  31. 31. When AIDS Is Diagnosed AIDS diagnosis occurs when HIV severely compromises the immune system CD4+ counts less than 200 (800-1200 is normal) Recurrent pneumonia Cervical cancer Pulmonary tuberculosis Effects of AIDS Secondary infectious Neurological disease diseases Involuntary weight loss Kaposi’s sarcoma
  32. 32. Treatment of HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Decreases viral load, but does not eradicate virus Uses one of 250 combinations of medications Not available everywhere
  33. 33. Protecting Your Sexual Health Live It, Learn It Talk first. Stay sober. Be honest. Don’t feel you have to have sex.Respect everyone’s right to make his or her own personal decision. Be prepared for a sex emergency. Abstinence doesn’t mean less affection. Make your sexual health a priority.