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Health101Chapter16

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Health101Chapter16

  1. 1. Infectious Illness• Identify agents and vectors involved in the spread of infectious disease.• Describe the process of infection and the role of the body’s immune system.• List and describe immune disorders.• Discuss prevention and treatments for colds and influenza.• Name and describe common infectious diseases.• Evaluate their personal infectious disease risk factors and strategies to decrease risk. Chapter Learning Objectives
  2. 2. Topics Of Focus For This Chapter Infectious Causes and spread Disease Common infectious diseases Process and immune Infection response Prevention Colds and flu Disorders Immune system disorders
  3. 3. Agents Of Infection Viruses Require our cells to reproduce Viral diseases: flu, herpes, hepatitis, HIV Fungi, Protozoa and Parasitic Worms Fungi release enzymes to digest cells (athlete’s foot) Protozoa release enzymes and toxins to destroy cells (giardiasis) Worms attack certain tissues or organs and compete with host for nutrients (schistosomiasis)
  4. 4. Agents Of Infection Bacteria Release enzymes to digest body cell or create toxins Bacterial Diseases: tuberculosis, scarlet fever, gonorrhea, diphtheria, tetanus
  5. 5. Four Vectors That Spread Infections Vector Method Touch, sexual contact, in 1. People air Animals & 2. Touch, ingestion, and bites Insects 3. Food Eating infected food Inadequate water 4. Water purification
  6. 6. Process of Infection
  7. 7. Role Of Immune System In Infection
  8. 8. T Cells B Cells Systemic Disease InflammationWhite Blood Cells Immune System’s Role In Infection
  9. 9. Allergies Are An Immune Disorder Hypersensitivity to substance in Defined environment or diet Reacts as if defending against germ Immune Creates IgE antibody to substance Process IgE causes histamine release when substance is encountered Oral medication Treatment Nasal spray Immunotherapy
  10. 10. Autoimmune Disorders Immune Immune system attacks body’s cells, Process tissues or organs Affect 3 times as many women as men Impact Top 10 killer and disabler of Americans Addison’s disease Crohn’s disease Examples Lupus erythematosus Multiple sclerosis
  11. 11. Prevention of Cold 1. Avoid people with colds Sneeze and cough into tissue, then throw 2. it away 3. Clean surfaces with disinfectant 4. Don’t touch nose, eyes or mouth 5. Wash hands often with soap and water 6. Dry hands thoroughly
  12. 12. Prevention of Influenza 1. Get vaccinated 2. Reduce time in crowded settings 3. Improve airflow in living space 4. Do not share eating dishes and utensils 5. Wash hands often with soap and water 6. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth 7. Stay in good general health
  13. 13. Meningitis Attacks membranes around brain and Disease spinal cord Droplet transmission Transmitted Sharing drinks, silverware, cigarettes, kissing, sneezing, coughing Vaccine protects against 4 of 5 strains Treatment If disease is contracted, emergency medical care required
  14. 14. Hepatitis A, B and C Disease Attacks the liver A – poor sanitation B – blood and bodily fluids incl. sweat Transmitted C – blood, illegal drug use, tattoos, body piercings Interferon for Hepatitis C Rest and high protein diet Treatment Avoidance of alcohol and drugs that stress liver
  15. 15. Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Virus in herpes family; Epstein-Barr can Disease cause mononucleosis in adolescents or young adulthood Transmitted Kissing or other close contact Rest as needed Treatment Avoid physical activity that could rupture the spleen
  16. 16. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Complex disorder causing profound Disease fatigue that does not improve with bed rest and may get worse with activity No known cure Treatment Combination of therapies can relieve symptoms
  17. 17. Herpes Gladiatorum Cluster of blisters on face, trunk or Disease extremities Skin to skin contact Transmitted Most common among wrestlers, judo players No treatment Treatment Avoid contact with others when lesions are present
  18. 18. Group A and B Strep Infection Disease Sore throat Antibiotics Untreated infection can cause rheumatic fever Treatment Untreated strep infection can cause shock syndrome requiring emergency medical treatment
  19. 19. Toxic Shock Syndrome Associated with use of tampons. Disease Caused by staph and strep bacteria releasing toxins into bloodstream Antibiotics If shock occurs: Treatment • Hospitalization • IV fluids and medications to raise blood pressure • Powerful antibiotics
  20. 20. MRSA—The Superbug Bacterial infection resistant to Disease antibiotics methicillin and penicillin Enter body through scrape, burn or Transmitte surgical incision d Through touch Treatment Appropriate antibiotics
  21. 21. Insect- and Animal-Borne Infections Spread through ticks Lyme Disease Treated with antibiotics West Nile Spread by infected mosquito Virus No specific treatment Virus spread from bird to human Avian through contact Influenza No specific treatment
  22. 22. SARS Virus Acute respiratory syndrome often Disease resulting in pneumonia Close face-to-face contact Transmitted Droplet from cough or sneeze Treatment No specific treatment
  23. 23. Disease Spread Through Bioterrorism Anthrax Spread through exposure to spores Inoculation prevents infection Small Pox No treatment Muscle paralyzing disease Botulism Treatment is anti-toxin Spread through blood or body fluids Tularemia of infected animal, bite of infected animal, contaminated water or air
  24. 24. Common Reproductive Tract Infections Bacterial Spread through sexual contact Vaginitis Treatment is antibiotic Spread through sexual contact Yeast Also caused by chemical imbalance Infection of vagina Treatment is antifungal medication Tricho- Spread through sexual contact moniasis Treatment is antibiotic
  25. 25. Urinary Tract Infections Usually caused by bacteria Disease Untreated, can lead to bladder or kidney infection and failure Pregnancy Bike riding Bubble bath, douches, diaphragm Risk Factors Urinary stones Enlargement of prostate Vaginitis Treatment Antibiotics

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