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  1. 1. Alcohol• Identify reasons Americans choose to drink or abstain from drinking.• Describe the impact of alcohol misuse among college students.• Define a standard drink and binge drinking.• Identify factors that affect an individual’s BAC and response to alcohol.• Describe the symptoms of alcohol poisoning and steps taken to assist someone with it.• Define alcohol abuse, dependence, and alcoholism.• List the effects of alcohol on the body.• Evaluate their drinking habits and identify behaviors they can modify to reduce the risk.] Chapter Learning Objectives
  2. 2. Topics Of Focus For This Chapter Blood Alcohol Individual differences Content Abuse, dependence and Alcohol Use alcoholism Impact of use Alcohol Body effects Effects Alcohol poisoning
  3. 3. Reasons People Don’t Drink 31% of men and 18% of women reported no alcohol in last year • Drivers and boaters • Health conditions that worsen with alcohol Taking medication that is affected by alcohol • Antidepressants, antibiotics, muscle relaxers • History of alcoholism • Older and can’t tolerate alcohol
  4. 4. Avoid Drinking If: • Trying to get pregnant or are pregnant • Under 21 years old Planning to operate equipment or participate • in sports • History of alcoholism
  5. 5. Reasons People Drink To relax Heighten sense of masculinity or femininity Social ease Role models drink Advertising Relationship issues
  6. 6. Individuals With Drinking Problems These individuals usually drink for different reasons such as: Psychological factors Self-medication Childhood trauma Depression Inherited susceptibility
  7. 7. Impact Of Alcohol Misuse In College • Lowered GPA during first year Depression and anxiety among binge • drinkers Binge within 30 days prior to testing • affected spatial working memory • College drop-out after first year Death, injury, physical attacks and sexual • assaults
  8. 8. Binge Drinking Defined Pattern of drinking that Pattern of drinking that brings Blood Alcohol brings Blood Alcohol Concentration to Concentration to 0.08 gram-percent 0.08 gram-percent or higher or higher
  9. 9. Characteristics of College Binge-Drinkers Binge-drinkers are more-likely to be: Male White Under 24 years old In fraternity or sorority Practicing unprotected Involved in athletics sex Dissatisfied with body 4-year college attendee They are also likely to abuse other substances, put people at risk, miss class and fall behind in school
  10. 10. Why Do Students Binge Drink? Low price of alcohol Recreational Easy access to drinking alcohol at a young age Binge Drinking Men: 5+ alcoholic drinks Women: 4+ alcoholic drinks Parental Residing with acceptance binge drinkers of drinking Peer pressure and drinking games
  11. 11. Other High-Risk Drinking Caffeinated alcoholic beverages • The caffeine in these drinks may mask the depressant effects of alcohol, but it has no effect on the metabolism of alcohol by the liver and thus does not reduce breath alcohol concentrations or reduce alcohol-related risks. • Three times more likely to reach the breath alcohol levels associated with binge drinking than are those who do not report mixing alcohol with energy drinks. • Twice as likely as other drinkers to report being taken advantage of sexually, taking advantage of someone else sexually, and driving or getting into a car with a driver under the influence of alcohol.
  12. 12. Consequences of Drinking Atypical behavior Academic problems Risky sexual behavior Sexual assault Unintentional injury Consequences beyond college Illness and death
  13. 13. Alcohol and Academic Success
  14. 14. How to Prevent Drunk Driving• Designate a driver.• Never get behind the wheel if you have had two or more drinks within two hours.• Never let intoxicated friends drive home.
  15. 15. Changing Drinking Patterns on Campus• Social norms• Motivational enhancement• Challenge alcohol expectancy• Freshman education• E-interventions• Alcohol policies
  16. 16. Standard Drinks Alcohol Drink Definition Content One bottle or 12 ounces beer 5% can One glass 4-5 ounces table wine 12% One small 2.5 ounces fortified wine 20% glass One shot 1 ounce distilled spirits 50%
  17. 17. Standard Drinks
  18. 18. Blood Alcohol Content : BAC Measured from breath or urine samples Legal Limit Below 0.08 percent Pass Out Possible at 0.2% Coma Possible at 0.3% Death Possible over 0.4% Positive effects of alcohol can be felt at BAC of 0.05%
  19. 19. Many Factors Affect BAC • How much and how quickly you drink Women have fewer alcohol neutralizing • enzymes, so one drink has double the impact • People over 50 more sensitive Tylenol and ulcer medications interfere with • alcohol absorption • Race • Eating dilutes alcohol • Size – larger people get drunk more slowly
  20. 20. Alcohol Impairment Chart
  21. 21. Alcohol Impairment Chart
  22. 22. Alcohol Poisoning Mental confusion, stupor, coma, person cannot be roused Vomiting and seizures Signs Irregular breathing (10 sec between breaths) Less than 8 breaths/minute Hypothermia Alcohol poisoning is a medical emergency. Without treatment, breathing and heartbeat stop
  23. 23. Overview: Effects Of Alcohol
  24. 24. Body Systems Affected By Alcohol
  25. 25. Body Systems Affected By Alcohol
  26. 26. Race and Gender
  27. 27. Alcohol Abuse Defined
  28. 28. Diagnosing Alcohol Abuse One or more happening in 12-month period: Failure to fulfill major role obligations at • work, school or home Use of alcohol when it is physically • dangerous • Alcohol-related legal problems Continued use despite persistent or • recurring social or interpersonal problems exacerbated by alcohol
  29. 29. Alcohol Dependence
  30. 30. Tolerance and Withdrawal In Dependence Tolerance = 1 or more in 12 months Must drink more for desired effect, or less effect when drinking same amount Withdrawal = 3 or more in 12 months Autonomic hyperactivity Hand tremor Hallucinations Insomnia Agitation Illusions Anxiety Nausea or vomiting Grand Mal seizure
  31. 31. Diagnosing Alcohol Dependence Three or more happening in 12-month period: • Tolerance • Withdrawal and drinking to avoid withdrawal • Drinking more or over longer periods Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to • reduce drinking Significant amount of time spent acquiring, • drinking and recovering from alcohol • Characteristics of alcohol dependence
  32. 32. Alcoholism
  33. 33. Characteristics Of Alcoholism Three or more happening in 12-month period: Preoccupation with alcohol Great deal of time spent drinking. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up Continued use of alcohol despite adverse consequences Distorted thinking, most notably denial Consuming larger amounts of alcohol
  34. 34. Causes of Alcoholism Exact cause is not known; these factors play a role: • Genetics • Stress and traumatic experiences • Parental alcoholism • Drug abuse
  35. 35. Treatment For Alcoholism Detoxification First phase of treatment; gradual withdrawal of alcohol or treatment with valium or Ativan Medical Treatments Antianxiety and antidepressant medications Disulfiram (Antabuse) to deter drinking Residential/In-Patient Programs Demonstrated success, but expense reduces availability
  36. 36. Treatment For Alcoholism Outpatient Programs • 12-Step self-help programs • Moderation Training • Harm Reduction Therapy • Brief intervention
  37. 37. Responsible Drinking • Set a limit on the number of drinks consumed. • When you’re mixing a drink, measure the alcohol. • Alternate nonalcoholic and alcoholic drinks. • Drink slowly. • Eat before and while drinking. • Develop alternatives to drinking. • Avoid tasks requiring skilled reactions during or after drinking. • Don’t encourage or reinforce others’ irresponsible behavior.