Objectives Understand the health and fitness consequences of physical inactivity. Identify the major health problems in the U.S. Learn how to monitor daily physical activity. Learn the Federal Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Define wellness and list its dimensions. Define physical fitness and list health-related and skill-related components. State the differences among physical fitness, health promotion, and wellness. Distinguish between health fitness standards and physical fitness standards. Understand the benefits and significance of participating in a comprehensive wellness program. List key national health objectives for the year 2020.
Introduction Physical activity is no longer a natural part of our existence Advances in technology Automated society Sedentary Death Syndrome (SeDS) 2nd greatest threat to public health
Introduction The more we enjoyed the “good life” the greater the increase in Chronic diseases We need to increase physical activity Better health, longevity, quality of life, and well-being Prevention is the best medicine Basic factors that determine health Genetics, environment, our behavior
Life Expectancy Average life expectancy in the U.S. 75.6 years for men and 80.8 years for women Ranking: 38th in world Surprising given the U.S.’s excellent medical care system
Life Expectancy Factors influencing life expectancy in the U.S. Extremely poor health of certain groups. The obesity epidemic. The low level of daily physical activity. High incidence of tobacco use. High incidence of coronary heart disease. Fairly high levels of violence, notably homicides
Life Expectancy National Institute of Aging predicts… A decrease of as much as 5 years from the detrimental effects of increasing population obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report 32% of the U.S. adult population currently is obese.
Leading Health Problems in the United States Leading causes of death About 53 percent of all deaths are caused by cardiovascular disease and cancer. Nearly 80 percent of deaths could be prevented through a healthy lifestyle program Fig 1.4
Leading Causes of Death inthe United States in 2007
Leading Health Problems in the United States Cardiovascular system diseases 81.1 million people in the United States are afflicted with diseases of the cardiovascular system. 74.5 million with hypertension 17.6 million with coronary heart disease About 935,000 people have heart attacks each year, resulting in nearly 425,000 deaths. The estimated cost of cardiovascular disease in 2010 exceeded $503 billion.
Leading Health Problems in the United States Cancer Lung cancer is the most occurring, deadly cancer and #1 health fear of the American people. 87% of which is caused by tobacco use. Cancer is considered 80 percent lifestyle related. More than 30% of all cancer deaths are caused by smoking. Another 33% of all cancer deaths are related to nutrition, physical inactivity, and excessive body weight
Leading Health Problems in the United States Chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) Tobacco use is the greatest risk factor. Precautions to prevent CLRD: Consuming a low-fat, low-sodium, nutrient-dense diet (similar to a cardio- and cancer-protective diet). Staying physically active. Not smoking, and staying clear of cigarette smoke. Avoiding swimming pools for chlorine-vapor-sensitive individuals.
Leading Health Problems in the United States Accidents Many accidents are preventable. Most accidents stem from poor judgment and confused mental states, which occur when people are upset, not paying attention to the task at hand, or abusing alcohol or other drugs. Approximately 1.6 million car accidents each year are caused by drivers who are using cell phones or text messaging. Alcohol abuse is the number one cause of all accidents.
Leading Health Problems in the United States Leading risk factors (underlying causes of premature death) 83% of deaths before age 65 are preventable “Big Five” account for more than 60% of all deaths in the United States (Figure 1.5). Tobacco smoking High blood pressure Overweight and obesity Physical inactivity High blood glucose
Death From All CausesLifestyle-Related Risk Factors
Lifestyle as a Health Problem Prevention is the best medicine Factors affecting health and well-being Healthy choices made today influence future health
Physical Activity and Exercise Defined Physical activity any bodily movement produced by the skeletal muscles through the day. It requires low to moderate energy expenditure and produces progressive health benefits Examples? Exercise type of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness. It requires a high-intensity effort. Examples?
Importance of Increased Physical Activity Moderate physical activity Substantial benefits in health and well-being for the vast majority of people who are not physically active can be achieved through regular moderate physical activity Strive to accumulate at least 30 minutes of physical activity a minimum of five days or 150 Cal per week
Importance of Increased Physical Activity Moderate physical activity IOM and NAS recommendations Recommend 60 min of moderate-intensity physical activity every day to prevent weight gain 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendations Up to 60 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per day may be necessary to prevent weight gain
National Initiatives to Promote Healthy & Active Lifestyles Federal Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services) Complement Dietary Guidelines for Americans and supported by ACSM, AHA, and U.S. Surgeon General Adults 18–64 years of age: Moderate-intensity aerobic (cardiovascular) physical activity for a minimum of 2hours and 30 minutes (5 sessions of 30 minutes) each week or, Vigorous-intensity aerobic (cardiovascular) physical activity for a minimum of 1hour and 15 minutes (5 sessions of 15 minutes) each week or, A combination of moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity aerobic (cardiovascular) physical activity to total 5 sessions each week. Additional health benefits occur with up to 300 minutes of moderate- intensity physical activity or 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination. Muscle strengthening involving all major muscle groups for at least 2 days each week.
National Initiatives to Promote Healthy & Active Lifestyles Federal Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services) Adults 65+ years of age: Follow the younger adult guidelines. Be as physically active as abilities allow, if not possible to follow younger adult guidelines. Do exercises that improve balance. Children 6+ years of age and adolescents: Moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 1hour each day. Vigorous-intensity physical activity at least 3 times each week. Muscle and bone strengthening activities at least 3 times each week. Pregnant/postpartum women: Moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity at least 2 hours and 30 minutes each week. Those already active can exercise as their condition allows
National Initiatives to Promote Healthy & Active Lifestyles National health objectives for 2020 Increase quality of years Eliminate health disparities Important points Personal responsibility Health benefits for all Health promotion and disease prevention Objectives are summarized in Figure 1.7 Unfortunately, none of the goals to increase participation in physical activity and fitness currently are being met
Monitoring Daily Physical Activity U.S. adults are not sufficiently physically active men take about 6,000 steps per day Women take about 5,300 steps per day 24% report no leisure activity; 14% are completely inactive Pedometers are a good way to determine activity level They are inexpensive but verify its accuracy Lab 1A
Prevalence of RecommendedPhysical Activity in the U. S.
Wellness Lower risk for disease Physical fitness alone is not always sufficient to lower the risk for disease and ensure better health Primordial prevention focuses on reducing the chance of experiencing symptoms of disease by modifying known disease risk factors
Wellness Wellness is a constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy; with the goal to achieve highest potential for well-being Personal choice
Seven Dimensions of Wellness Dimensions are frequently interrelated Physical wellness Most commonly associated with being healthy Physically well individuals are physically active, exercise regularly, eat a well-balanced diet, maintain recommended body weight, get sufficient sleep, practice safe sex, minimize exposure to environmental contaminants, avoid harmful drugs, and seek medical care and exams as needed
Seven Dimensions of Wellness Emotional wellness Express emotions, adjust to change, cope with stress, and enjoy life Brings with it certain stability, an ability to look both success and failure squarely in the face and keep moving along a predetermined course Happiness is the goal
Seven Dimensions of Wellness Mental wellness Referred to as intellectual wellness. Brings with it vision and promise. Makes you open-minded and accepting of others Social wellness Concern for others and interest in humanity Honest and loyal; concern for oneself Fuels a positive self-image
Seven Dimensions of Wellness Environmental wellness Effects of our surroundings on our well-being Health is negatively affected when we live in a polluted, toxic, unkind, and unsafe environment Occupational wellness “Ideal” job – growth and contribution Encourages collaboration and interaction among coworkers, which fosters a sense of teamwork and support
Seven Dimensions of Wellness Spiritual wellness Provides a unifying power that integrates all dimensions of wellness. Provides a sense of meaning and direction in life and a relationship to a higher being. Studies have linked prayer, as long as they are sincere, to positive health outcomes Altruism seems to enhance health and longevity.
Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity Because of increased participation in wellness programs, cardiovascular disease dropped 26 percent from 1960 to 2000. Inverse relationship between physical activity and premature mortality Harvard alumni study Aerobics Research Institute study Dose-response relationship between physical activity and health Vigorous activity/Longer duration are preferred
Types of Physical Fitness Health-related fitness Ability to perform activities of daily living without undue fatigue and is conducive to a low risk of premature hypokinetic diseases
Types of Physical Fitness Skill-related fitness Successful sports and motor skill performance May not be as crucial to better health
Fitness Standards: Health Vs. Physical Fitness Health fitness standards Minimum fitness standards for disease prevention Achieving O2 consumption capacities of 35 & 32.5 mL/kg/min (men and women, respectively) Significant health benefits improve with moderate physical activity As shown through metabolic profile
Fitness Standards: Health Vs. Physical Fitness Physical fitness standards Higher than health fitness standards; exist to indicate an ability to perform vigorous daily tasks More intense exercise program required Independence throughout life Which program is best?
Health and Fitness BenefitsBased on Lifestyle & PA
Benefits of a Comprehensive Wellness Program Health benefits (listed on page 21) Improves personal appearance. Makes people feel good about themselves. Economic benefits Health care costs in the U.S. Scientific evidence now links participation in fitness and wellness programs to better health and also to lower medical costs and higher job productivity
Health Care Expenditures for Selected Countries % GDP National economy Health care costs in the U.S. rose from $12 billion in 1950 to $2.3 trillion in 2008 (Figure 1.15), or about 16 percent of GDP Highest of the developed countries
Health Care Expenditure Per Capita for Selected Countries National economy An estimated 30 percent of the costs are created by 1 percent of the people. An estimated 97 percent of the costs are used up by 50 percent of the people
Assessment of Resting Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Heart rate Computed by counting your pulse for 1min Training reduces resting heart rate
Assessment of Resting Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Blood pressure Measured with a sphygmomanometer and stethescope Systolic – pressure of blood during heart contraction Diastolic – pressure in arteries during relaxation Mean blood pressure
Real Life Stories Critical Thinking Questions 1. Identify positive lifestyle factors that were in Jim’s favor as he entered college and the subsequent choices and environmental factors that negatively impacted his health and well-being. What changes did he adopt to correct this situation? How do you think you can prevent similar challenges in your life? 2. What are your expectations for the fitness and wellness course you are taking? What benefits do you hope to obtain from the class, other than a passing grade? 3. What level of investment of time and energy are lifelong health and fitness benefits worth to you? 4. In addition to regular exercise such as jogging or working out at a gym, what are some ways you can incorporate additional physical activity into your daily life?