The north & south in conflict alana rach

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  • The north & south in conflict alana rach

    1. 1. THE NORTH & SOUTH IN CONFLICT Rachel Walsh & Alana Candido Period: 12
    2. 2. MOUNTING TENSIONS- Slavery- Election of Abraham Lincoln- Secession- Fire-eaters/Abolitionists vs. Proslavery- Wilmot Proviso- Personal Liberty Laws- Uncle Tom’s Cabin & The Impending Crisis of the South- Harper’s Ferry- Freeport Doctrine- Kansas-Nebraska Act- Missouri Compromise- Compromise of 1850
    3. 3. EXPANSION IN TRANSPORTATIONTranscontinental RR: (May 10, 1869) completion of thefirst railroad spanning N. America *Impact: 1. Made tradeand transportation easier (could make a coast to coast journeyin a week that would normally take several months) 2.W.erners could ship their products to E.ern markets & vice-versa 3. United the two ‘sections’ of America (E & W) 4.Defined difference/boundary b/w N & S*Clipper Ships: greater speed and lower rates, dominatedAtlantic sealanes *Impact: allowed industrialist to widenmarkets*
    4. 4. Map of the Transcont. RR
    5. 5. INDUSTRIAL EXPANSIONReasons: 1. RRs 2. Clipper ships 3. CA gold rushWho? - North East b/c of trade, factories, andtechnologyEffects: 1. Provided the North with powerful leader tochallenge plantation owners in South 2. Made N.ernleaders dissatisfied with S.ern domination of politics
    6. 6. Factories
    7. 7. IMMIGRATIONGerman & Irish: Mostly immigrated from 1845-48. Camebecause of potato famine.Irish: Settled in North East, looked for jobs in factories.Germans: Became farmers in the upper Mississippi valleyISSUE: 1. opposition to religion (Roman Catholic) 2. politicalopposition (many became Democrats) 3. threatened by theinflux of immigrants taking places in jobs *where nativismstarted*
    8. 8. Political cartoon by nativists
    9. 9. BOOKSUncle Tom’s Cabin:By: Harriet Beecher Stowe (1852)Anti-slavery novel as a result of the Fugitive Slave ActStimulated sympathy for fugitive slavesAngered the South because of its portrayal of itThe Impending Crisis of the South:By: Hinton Helper (1857)Increased sectionalism and the sections dissension towards each other. Also said thatslavery ruined the South economicallyExtremely influential in the NorthSociology for the South:By: George Fitzhugh (1854)Defended slavery and the system on which it was based
    10. 10. Uncle Tom’s Cabin
    11. 11. OSTEND MANIFESTOBecause ---> 1) Polk wished to buy Cuba from Spain, but Spainrefused. 2) Then, filibustering expeditions were allowed to leaveNew Orleans in hope that they would spark a movement (whichwould add Cuba to the U.S.)HOWEVER, U.S. ship (Black Warrior) was seized for violatingCuba’s port regulations. Spain then apologizedBecause of disorder in Spain = U.S. ministers w/ England,France, & Spain to meet at Ostend, Belgium to create Cubanpolicy *asserted rt. for U.S. to seize Cuba if Spain would not sellit*
    12. 12. Political cartoon“Practical Dem.s carving out the principle”
    13. 13. CLAYTON-BULWER TREATYU.S. got permission from Colombia to build across theisthmus of Panama.BUT-- England got similar permission from Nicaragua.To avoid fighting = signed this treaty in 1850 *stated thatneither would seek exclusive control over any CentralAmerica canal. Triumph for U.S. but became unpopularafter the Civil War b/c it prevented building of canals*
    14. 14. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
    15. 15. SIGNIFICANT PEOPLEWilliam Walker - B/c of U.S. & Engl. rivalry, he wassent to organize a filibustering expedition (seized ctrl ofNicaragua) Ruled for 2 yrs. before being overthrownMatthew Perry - Japan refuses to trade after navalsquadron under Perry visits. Returns in 1854 to signcommercial treaty that gave the U.S. limited tradingprivileges
    16. 16. William Walker
    17. 17. Matthew Perry
    18. 18. ELECTIONS1852: Dem. - Franklin Pierce vs. Whig - WinfieldScott *Pierce was the darkhorse*1860: Dem.s - Stephen Douglas & John C. Breckinridgevs. Constitut. Union - John Bell vs. Rep. - AbrahamLincoln *Lincoln wanted emancipation*
    19. 19. Election of 1852
    20. 20. Election of 1860
    21. 21. POLITICSFree Soil party: 3rd party active from 1848-52, formed byanti-slavery Whigs/Dem.s, support from NY *opposed spreadof slavery*Know-Nothing party: 3rd party active from 1845-55,formed by nativists/xenophobics, anti-Catholic, violentRepublicans: founded in 1854 by N.ern st.s, consisted ofanti-slavery ppl, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soil, formed b/copposition to Kansas-Neb. Act/ opposition to Dem.sPopular Sovereignty: The people rule themselves by votingand then the majority wins and is enacted
    22. 22. Political cartoon“The great Republican Reform party calling on their candidate”
    23. 23. ECONOMYPanic of 1857Cause: 1) decline in internat’l economy but expansionin US economy 2) failure of Ohio Life Insur. & Trust Co.Effects: 1) businesses close 2) workers laid off 3) RR =hard times
    24. 24. Political cartoon“The Panic of 1857”
    25. 25. COURT CASESCommonwealth v. Hunt: (1842) CJ Lemuel Shawruled that unions were legal and had rt. to strikeDred Scott: (1857) Scott (Missouri slave) sued forfreedom b/c he said since he had moved to a free land bythe Missouri Comp., he was free *CJ Taney ruled hecouldn’t sue b/c he was not a citizen, he was property*
    26. 26. Newspaper with the Dred Scott ruling
    27. 27. SLAVERY North SouthTrying to halt expansion Supported slaveryof slavery to newly because they had aacquired Western “need” for it (lg.territories, had a growing plantations exportingnumber of abolitionists, goods such as cotton anddidn’t need to use slave tobacco)labor (lg. factories andmore industrializedbusiness such as textiles)
    28. 28. Map of free & slave states
    29. 29. SLAVERYFugitive Slave Act: Denied alleged fugitives rt. to trial by jury, didnot allow them to testify, slave was returned to slavery, &commissioners = collect $10 if ruled for slaveholder/only $5 if ruledfor fugitive *reminded N.erners that slavery was a nat’l problem*This = defiance by 1) Underground RR 2) Mobs to rescue slaves 3)Personal Liberty LawsHarper’s Ferry: (1859) WV; Abolitionist John Brown attempted tostart an armed slave revolt *Fail - brought down by Gen. Lee &Marines*Wilmot Proviso: (1846) By David Wilmot; Tried to ban slavery inany territories acquired from Mexico (Mex. Cess. from the Mex-AmWar)
    30. 30. Marines fighting at Harper’s Ferry
    31. 31. SLAVERY CONT.Kansas-Nebraska Act: By Stephen A. Douglas = 1) organizedlands of the West into 2 territories (Kansas & Nebraska) Onedeemed slave st./the other free 2)Missouri Comp. was repealed w/settlers deciding if they did/didn’t want slaves *Led to violence AKA“Bleeding Kansas”*Lincoln-Douglas Debates: (1858) about the issue of slavery’sexpansion into new territories *Lincoln - insisted the US could notkeep going with 1/2 slave 1/2 free states...Douglas - preferredpopular sovereignty*Freeport Doctrine: Ppl of any territory could keep slavery out byrefusing to enact “black codes” & other laws necessary for its survival(Popular sovr.)
    32. 32. Stephen Douglas
    33. 33. AND CONT.Lecompton Constitution: rejected pro-slaverydocument urging Kansas’ admission to the unionCompromise of 1850: 1) CA = free st. 2) TXsurrendered claims to NM 3) NM & UT = decide bypop. sov. 4) no Wilmot Proviso 5) stronger Fug. Slave ActSumner-Brooks Affair: Senate floor - CharlesSumner made speech denouncing the South & calls outAndrew Brooks (SC). Brooks beats Sumner over the headw/ crane & cripples him
    34. 34. Map of the Comp. of 1850
    35. 35. THE SOUTH...Society: Very proper with rules, agrarian/slavery based,slow on industrializationKing Cotton: Cotton = 57% of US exports...thoughtthey could be self-sufficient and support their owneconomy w/ thisFire-eaters: extremist pro-slavery politicians...urged theConfederate St.s of Amer.
    36. 36. King Cotton advertisement
    37. 37. SECESSION?WHY?Lincoln’s ElectionKing CottonSlavery debateConfederate States of America: (1861-65) 11 statesseceded from the Union and became an independentgovernment; prez. = Jefferson Davis *US is being tornapart!*
    38. 38. Confederate flag
    39. 39. THE WAR BEGINS...Fort Sumter: (1861) SC demands that the US evacuatethe ft., wouldn’t so = siege. Union surrenders/Confed.wins *1st battle of the Civil War*Repressible or irrepressible?WHY?
    40. 40. The war begins...
    41. 41. BIBLIOGRAPHYBillington, Ray Allen. American History Before 1877.Totowa: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1968.Boyer, Paul, Clifford Clark, Joseph Kett, Neal Salisbury,Harvard Sitkoff, and Nancy Woloch, ed. EnduringVisison. 4th. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, Print.Miss Connolly :)

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