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If our history were a play, geography would be the stage
<ul><li>Humid continental </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest recorded temperature 42 degrees below zero </li></ul><ul><li>Highest was 111 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Four seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Nor’easters/blizzards </li></ul>
<ul><li>On 31 May 1889, the South Fork Dam near Johnstown broke after a heavy rainfall, and its rampaging waters killed 2,200 people and devastated the entire city in less than 10 minutes </li></ul>
<ul><li>• 2,209 people died. </li></ul><ul><li>• 99 entire families died, including 396 children • 124 women and 198 men were left widowed. • More than 750 victims were never identified and rest in the Plot of the Unknown in Grandview Cemetery </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies were found as far away as Cincinnati, and as late as 1911 • 1,600 homes were destroyed • $17 million in property damage was done • Four square miles of downtown Johnstown were completely destroyed • The pile of debris at the stone bridge covered 30 acres • The distance between the dam that failed and Johnstown was 14 miles. </li></ul><ul><li>• The dam was owned by the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club, an exclusive club that counted Andrew Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick among its members. </li></ul><ul><li>• The dam contained 20 million tons of water before it gave way, about the same amount of water as goes over Niagara Falls in 36 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>• Flood lines were found as high as 89 feet above river level • The great wave measured 35-40 feet high and hit Johnstown at 40 miles per hour • The force of the flood swept several locomotives weighing 170,000 pounds as far as 4,800 feet • $3,742,818.78 was collected for the Johnstown relief effort from within the U.S. and 18 foreign countries • The American Red Cross, led by Clara Barton and organized in 1881, arrived in Johnstown on June 5, 1889 - it was the first major peacetime disaster relief effort for the Red Cross. • Johnstown has suffered additional significant floods in its history, including in 1936 and 1977. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Destroyed 64,000 homes </li></ul><ul><li>Dumped over 13 inches of rain in some parts of the state </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding in Forty-Fort, outside of Wilkes-Barre, dug up 2500 caskets in the cemetery </li></ul><ul><li>Only 25 bodies could be identified </li></ul>Forty Forty Forty
<ul><li>Formed over 300 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Contain many natural resources such as anthracite (hard) coal, bituminous (soft) coal, limestone and slate </li></ul>Junction Fault separating the Appalachian Mountains and the Allegheny Plateau
260 MYA Late Permian 210 MYA Late Triassic 170 MYA Middle Triassic 115 MYA Early Cretaceous 75 MYA 40 MYA 3 MYA
COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND NATURAL RESOURCES, BUREAU OF TOPOGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGIC SURVEY Magnitude 5 earthquake hits Jamestown, PA September 25, 1998.
<ul><li>Philadelphia is a port city because ships can reach the Atlantic via the Delaware River </li></ul><ul><li>Pittsburgh is a port city because the Ohio River can transport goods down to the Mississippi and then into the Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Erie connects via the St. Lawrence River </li></ul>
Chesapeake Watershed Mississippi Watershed Ice Age forms the Great Lakes Erie Seaway
4 Seasons Humid Continental Nor’easters Natural Disasters Johnstown Flood Hurricane Agnes Port Cities Philly Erie Pittsburgh Appalachian Mts Watersheds Alleghenies Chesapeake Bay Mississippi Basin Lake Erie Seaway