Lesson 1 - Why Does the Poverty Problem Occur? (1D)


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  • Background In the 1960s and 1970s, labour intersive industries in Hong Kong developed prosperously. Workers with low education and skills also had good prospects. In the 1980s, China carried out economic reforms and many production lines in Hong Kong moved to the mainland. A large number of workers became unemployed. Since 1990s, the service industry and IT industry have developed rapidly. The Hong Kong economy has gradually transformed into a knowledge-based economy. As a result, many workers became long-term unemployed or had a great reduction in income. They have become ‘marginal workers’.
  • Lesson 1 - Why Does the Poverty Problem Occur? (1D)

    1. 1. Miss Choi, Angel Teaching period: 14/3 – 6/5 E-mail:angelchoi909@hotmail.com RM 210 Facebook: Missws Choi
    2. 2. 2.2 Why does the poverty problem occur? <ul><li>Lesson 1 </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Why does the poverty problem occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal factors </li></ul><ul><li>Social factors </li></ul>
    4. 4. Personal factors <ul><li>Personal factors can make a person unable to work </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. 1) the person may have health problem, </li></ul><ul><li>2) have lost working ability, or </li></ul><ul><li>3) need to look after his family. </li></ul><ul><li>If these problems are solved, he can return to the labour force. </li></ul><ul><li>Remain poor because </li></ul><ul><li> low work ability </li></ul><ul><li> poor work, etc… </li></ul>
    5. 5. Social factors <ul><li>Economic restructuring ( 經濟轉型 ) since the 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Many labour intensive ( 勞力密集 ) manufacturing industries have moved to the Pearl River Delta region ( 珠江三角洲 ). </li></ul><ul><li>The number of jobs ↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Low-skilled workers have become unemployed ( 失業 ) </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Some low-skilled workers changed to find low-skilled jobs in the service industry. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. cleansing workers, waiters </li></ul><ul><li>Low income </li></ul><ul><li>A number of enterprises ( 企業 ) hire low-skilled workers in forms of casual ( 臨時 ), part-time and contract ( 合約 ) jobs. </li></ul><ul><li> Unstable income </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Low-skilled workers usually lack bargaining power ( 議價能力 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Hourly salary is often low </li></ul><ul><li>Working poverty ( 在職貧窮 ) </li></ul><ul><li>HK has been gradually developing a knowledge-based economy ( 知識型經濟 ). </li></ul><ul><li>The demand for workers with low education and skill levels ↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployed ( 失業 ) or underemployed ( 就業不足 ) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Marginal workers ( 邊緣勞工 ) <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to people who engage in jobs of poor nature (e.g. low-skilled jobs, offensive jobs 厭惡性工作 ), received low wages, lack labour protection, have unstable working hours and can easily lost their jobs. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Marginal workers ( 邊緣勞工 ) <ul><li>These worker are socially rejected because of their age, sex, race and health condition and so they cannot find stable jobs. </li></ul><ul><li> They are often unemployed, underemployed, and engage in low paying jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Skilled and unskilled middle-aged men and women, the disabled and new arrivals </li></ul>
    10. 10. Marginal workers ( 邊緣勞工 ) <ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Long working hours : some of them work more than 50 hours a week </li></ul><ul><li>Low wages : Most of them receive less than HK$4,500 a month </li></ul><ul><li>Poor working conditions : Usually perform offensive jobs including cleaning public toilets and collecting waste </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable posts : Usually employed by short-term contracts  may immediate dismissed ( 解僱 ) without compensation ( 賠償 ) </li></ul><ul><li>No holidays : may have to work 7 days a week </li></ul>
    11. 11. Next Lesson <ul><li>Take a look at Activity 4 (p.56-57) </li></ul><ul><li>Check the dictionary </li></ul>