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  1. 1. Geography Origins Location Expansion Geographical Features
  2. 2. Origins <ul><li>Aenied is a poem written by an ancient roman poet, Virgil. It is about how Rome came to be. </li></ul><ul><li>The story is told that Aneas escaped from Troy and fled to Latium. There he married a Latin princess. </li></ul><ul><li>Another myth is about two decedents of Aneas, Romulus & Remus. They were twins and their jealous uncle put them in a basket and let them float down the Tiber river. </li></ul><ul><li>They were found by a she-wolf and then raised by a Shepard. The brothers disagreed on where they wanted their new city to be. During this quarrel Romulus killed Remus, then named his new city after him self as Rome. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Location <ul><li>The Tiber River is located on the Italian Peninsula, it cuts up the north western area. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanoes dotted the area of the Roman Empire; the ashes from the eruptions helped to create the fertile soil in the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanoes dotted the area of the Roman Empire; the ashes from the eruptions helped to create the fertile soil in the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe was overall the main location of the Roman Empire. The land that it controlled was today’s Italy, France England, Brittan, Egypt, Turkey, Israel, Tunisia, Greece, Spain and the three islands (Cosina, Sardina & Sicily.) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Expansion <ul><li>The Roman Empire expanded by the Punic Wars . The first Punic war started in 264 B.C.E. Rome took Sicily over but Carthage had it first and after a few fights they agreed to give it to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The second Punic war began when Hannibal left Spain with a large army and 40 elephants in 218 B.C.E. When he got to the peninsula he lost some of his army and half of his elephants in the Alps. Although he still won all of the battles. </li></ul><ul><li>During the time of the battles Rome was building a Navy. Then in 202 B.C.E. Hannibal went back to Carthage to help to help his people with the Roman army. </li></ul><ul><li>The third Punic war started in 149 B.C.E. The Romans sent their Navy to Carthage for any reason possible because they still thought of Carthage as a threat. They burned it and planted salt in the ground to make sure nothing could be cultivated there. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Geographical Features <ul><li>Rome, the city, had 7 hills. The hills were very fertile and surrounded the Tiber River (picture to the right). </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt was very dry and had sand dunes but, it also had a very wet and fertile strip by a river called the Nile. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain and Gaul were almost just alike. They both had hills countryside, rivers, lakes and, mountains. They also had very different seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Macedonia was like Italy. They were fertile, wet and, had many hills. Turkey was a little more dry but not like Egypt’s desert. It was mainly country side. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Religions Christianity Judaism Roman Gods Etruscan Mysticism
  7. 7. Christianity <ul><li>Christianity was brought to the empire by Paul who traveled all over Europe to tell people about Jesus. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus was known as “the teacher.” He taught life lessons and how one should live his or her life. </li></ul><ul><li>He caught on many followers and Judea began to worry about his power. The Roman government also thought Jesus of a threat. </li></ul><ul><li>When half of the Roman Empire came to becoming Christians the government responded. Nero the emperor at the time burned all Christians who did not agree to worship the Roman gods. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Judaism <ul><li>Jews believed in God. They thought that their one God was the eternal ruler of Earth and Heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>They had a tradition of baptism, the cleansing of the body in holy water. It was normally done by a priest when one is a small infant to a child. </li></ul><ul><li>They believe that when since they have faith in God he has made them the chosen people of Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>But, when they heard of Jesus saying so much about God the Jews got annoyed and didn’t want him to interfere with their religion. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Etruscan Mysticism <ul><li>Etruscans brought many ideas to Rome, one of which was Etruscan Mysticism. </li></ul><ul><li>The Etruscans still believed in their religion when they heard of the Roman gods. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans also kept true to their religion. Even though the Etruscan king tried to get them to learn it. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the Etruscan Mysticism rituals was called Augury. It was used to tell the future. They used certain priests and various methods to read their gods. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Roman Gods <ul><li>Most all of the Romans stuck to their own religion. They believed in many different gods. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman gods usually were named after planets or natural objects. Like the god Jupiter and the goddess Juno they were named after the planet Jupiter. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans believed that if they sacrifice an animal to the gods then they will bring good fortune to them. </li></ul><ul><li>The gods all had a job. Neptune- the god of seas- would control the tides, and Maia- the goddess of growth- controlled the growth of trees, and plants. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Achievements System of Laws Latin Language Development of Aqueduct Military Organization
  12. 12. System of Laws <ul><li>The twelve tables were the first system of laws in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>They were called the 12 tables because they were written on 12 tablets and each tablet had a different subject on it. </li></ul><ul><li>Then when Rome came to the tripartite government the senate voted on what laws should be passed. </li></ul><ul><li>Later the Romans added an Emporer to the tripartite government to make important decisions that the Senate will advise him on. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Latin Language <ul><li>Latin was the official language of the Roman Empire. We even use Latin roots in our American language. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans read, spoke, and wrote in Latin so that no one would get confuse with other languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers taught all of their Greek lessons in Latin like math, literature, science, and public speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>The Latin language was brought to the empire by the Etruscans who got the original Greek alphabet and made it their own. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Development of Aqueduct <ul><li>Augustus, the first ruler, had aqueducts made for the people. He also repaired old ones and made them better. </li></ul><ul><li>Aqueducts are water systems that carries water from lakes and springs to the empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Other rulers had aqueducts repaired and rebuilt when needed because the water they carried was Rome’s drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans also learned about the aqueducts from the Etruscans. We use aqueducts that are more advanced today too. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Military Organization <ul><li>Rome’s military was a strong force. It had many soldiers and strong armor. </li></ul><ul><li>The militaries’ weaponry consisted of spears, swords, and, crossbows. </li></ul><ul><li>The armor they wore covered their torso and head. But they didn’t cover the legs so the men would wear thick pants. </li></ul><ul><li>The army was divided into groups called legions. This way if the enemy was attacking from all sides it would be easier to break off and fight them. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Politics 12 Tables Monarchy Republican Form of Government Emperor
  17. 17. 12 Tables <ul><li>The twelve tables were written when the Plebians won a reform so all of the people would have the same rules. </li></ul><ul><li>The twelve tables had a different subject on each tablet. </li></ul><ul><li>There was 1)Courts & Trials 2)Trials 3)Debt 4)Family Rights 5)Leagal Guardians & Inheritance 6)Gaining Property 7)Land Rights 8)Unlawful Acts and Penalties 9)Government 10)Religion 11-12)Aditional Laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, after they were written the tablets were hung in the Forum for all to see and learn how to act upon them. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Monarchy <ul><li>When Rome started growing a group called the Etruscans took it over and brought a Monarchy to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>A monarchy is a single ruler who has complete control all of the military and people of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>During the rule of the Etruscans Rome grew little but learned very much. </li></ul><ul><li>The Etruscans ruled for a while until the Romans grew tired of their rein and rebelled. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Republican Form of Government <ul><li>The Roman republic was like our government today. </li></ul><ul><li>Their highest branch was the magistrates, he had two consuls, and a dictator who would take over if the ruler had to leave. That was similar to our Executive Branch </li></ul><ul><li>The middle branch was the Senate, our Senate does the same thing their Senate did. Pass laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Their last branch was the Assembly. They have judges that settle court issues like our Judicial Branch. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Emperors <ul><li>Augustus was the first emperor of the Roman Empire. He was like a king but had limited power and helpers. </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus lead the Empire to the Pax Romana. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors were usually replaced by heirs or someone the emperor had requested. </li></ul><ul><li>Some emperors were assassinated and there was war until the next emperor took power by force. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though the emperors had heirs or requests succession was always a problem through the rest of the empire’s rein over Europe. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Economy Inflation Currency Trade Wealthy & Poor
  22. 22. Inflation <ul><li>Most historians believe that Rome fell because of inflation. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation started when the Roman Empire stopped expanding because the flow of gold stopped. </li></ul><ul><li>That caused the coins to have less gold in them which made them worth much less. </li></ul><ul><li>To make up for the losses the merchants and traders raised the prices for all of their items. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the poor could not afford food or homes and the wealthy couldn’t afford exotic materials after that. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Currency <ul><li>Roman currency consisted of coins. The more gold that was in the coins the more valuable they were. </li></ul><ul><li>The coins had pictures and writings on hem that told the achievements of the past rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman coins were used throughout the empire so the people would not have to worry about the difference in currency’s. </li></ul><ul><li>But as Rome lost gold the coins had less gold in them and became less valuable. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Trade & Commerce <ul><li>Rome traded many items with Egypt, Spain, and Gaul. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt shipped wheat to Italy and Italy traded art, olive oil, wine and, pottery to Egypt, Gaul, Spain and Macedonia. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes Rome even got silk from as far as China. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome had a network of roads that helped them trade over land. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Wealthy & Poor <ul><li>The wealthy people of Rome lived in marble houses on hills outside the city of Rome. They were exquisite and full of gardens and fountains. </li></ul><ul><li>The wealthy had delicacies like stuffed parrot, cooked mice and, salted jellyfish. (picture to the right) </li></ul><ul><li>The poor lived in wooden apartment flats that could catch fire at any time. </li></ul><ul><li>The poor used stoves to cook and only had bread, water, cheese and maybe some meat. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Social Structures Patricians Plebeians Family Slaves
  27. 27. Patricians <ul><li>Patricians were the upper class of Rome in 506 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>They ran the government through the control of the Senate and acted as the leaders of social classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians took pride in being from noble families with famous ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>The patricians considered them more important and the plebians. That’s when they revolted. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Plebeians <ul><li>Plebians were the everyday people in the Roman society around the year 506 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Plebians made up 90% of the Roman population. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the Plebians were wealthy but most were regular artisans, workers and, farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Plebians did not like the patricians so they revolted for more rights. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Family <ul><li>The husband was always the head of his family unless he is dead. Then the eldest son or the wives father would take over. </li></ul><ul><li>The husband had complete control over the family. If the son had disgraced the family in some way the father could kill him if he wished. </li></ul><ul><li>The daughters would help around the house if they couldn’t afford school. </li></ul><ul><li>The husband always worked during the day and expected a clean house and dinner ready when he came home. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Slaves <ul><li>Slaves in the Roman Empire all got shipped from Africa and only worked for farmers and wealthy people. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were fed and clothed by their owners, some were nicer but others were cruel. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes though the slave’s owners were cruel and only gave them enough food and drink to live the bare minimum. They were worked and some times illegally beated or killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Other people were nicer to their slaves. They gave them a small room and clothing. But they were put to hard labor. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conclusion <ul><ul><li>The most important ideas I have learned about Rome are, politics, economy and, achievements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics were important to Rome because Rome needed a good government so the the empire wouldn’t fall apart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy was important to Rome because without gold or coins the people couldn’t buy food or clothing. Also without gold the Romans couldn’t have grown to become what it was. The soldiers needed to be paid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievements were important because without the development of aqueducts the Roman people wouldn’t have had water. </li></ul></ul>