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  1. 1. Geography
  2. 2. Location of Rome <ul><li>Rome began in the center of the Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>It is located on the Italian Peninsula that stretches into the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome started on seven hills. One is called Palatine Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome at its height covered some of Southern Europe and the whole Mediterranean region. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Terrain <ul><li>Terrain in Rome was hilly, green, and valley-like. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome had fertile soil along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>The climate in Rome has mild winters and warm, dry summers. </li></ul><ul><li>In Northern Rome, there are several large plains that are fertile for farming. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Neighboring Countries <ul><li>When Rome first started, Rome’s surrounding countries were Spain, Carthage, and Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome had expanded and controlled Spain by 133 b.c. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome and Carthage were huge rivals. As Carthage grew, the two empires competed for power over the Western Mediterranean, sparking the First Punic War. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome was attacking Egypt continuously until the empress of Egypt, Cleopatra attacked back. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Geographical Features <ul><li>Rome at its height surrounded the Mediterranean Sea which helped establish trade routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Just north of the Italian Peninsula are the Alps Mountains which helped when Hannibal moved his army through them and lost many troops. </li></ul><ul><li>East of the Italian Peninsula is the Adriatic Sea, which Rome used to trade with Greece and Macedonia. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Religion
  7. 7. Etruscan Mysticism <ul><li>Etruscan Mysticism believed that gods gave signs through nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscans thought they could predict good harvests by observing bird flocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan Diviners read entrails of animals before performing burials. </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscans tried to interpret lightning before going into battle. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Christianity <ul><li>Christian artists did not make art or sculptures in sacred places such as a church. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians do not cremate the dead, they bury the dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians worshiped in house-churches as to not attract attention to other people. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians believed in one true God, so they didn’t believe in a deceased emperor as a god. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Rome’s Official Religion <ul><li>Usually, top officials on government also served as priests. </li></ul><ul><li>At important events such as a wedding, religious rituals were always conducted. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome worshiped many gods many of which were adopted from Greek and Etruscan practices. </li></ul><ul><li>The supreme gods of Rome’s religion were Jupiter, Juno, Mars, and Minerva. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Greek Mythology <ul><li>Romans adopted the concept of believing in multiple gods from the Greeks. </li></ul><ul><li>In Greek Mythology, there are twelve gods, each representing one thing. </li></ul><ul><li>The three supreme gods are Zeus, god of the sky, Poseidon, god of the sea, and Hades, god of the underworld. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Mythology says that there is an afterlife in the underworld. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Achievements
  12. 12. Development of Aqueducts <ul><li>Romans adopted the aqueduct from the Etruscans. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans used aqueducts to channel drinking water to the city. </li></ul><ul><li>The longest aqueduct Romans have ever built is fifty nine miles long. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans also use aqueducts to channel drinking water to citizens. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Network of Concrete Roads <ul><li>Approximately fifty thousand miles of roads were built all across Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans used roads to conveniently travel and move troops through the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans built milestones along roads which were like checkpoints to mark borderlines of cities </li></ul><ul><li>Americans have roads set up in a grid-like pattern to move through a city. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Military Organization <ul><li>Romans invented the legion, which is a unit of troops, usually 4,000 to 5,000 to enable troops to move over rough terrain. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans made ranks for the military, one is the Adscripticius, who filled the places of wounded or killed soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome did not have a strong navy until the First Punic War when they largely built a navy fleet. </li></ul><ul><li>The army of the late Roman Empire contained about 375,000 men </li></ul>
  15. 15. System of Laws <ul><li>Roman law was also applied in most of western Europe until the end of the eighteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Even today, many legal systems in Europe are similar to Rome’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Before the Twelve Tables, Roman private law only applied to Roman citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Roots of Roman law have been said to come from Etruscan religion. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Politics
  17. 17. Etruscan Kings <ul><li>Rome was originally ruled by Etruscan kings before the Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>A man named Romulus fought his brother, Remus for power over Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Romulus won the fight and named Rome after himself. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocrats became tired of Etruscan rule, so they revolted and established the Roman Republic. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Roman Republic <ul><li>The Republic was a democracy, which means the people voted for their leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Only patricians could be elected for a place in the Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>Later, the poor Romans made aristocrats agree that the poor could elect tribunes. </li></ul><ul><li>The tribunes could veto anything the Senate did that disadvantaged the poor. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Roman Empire <ul><li>The Empire was ruled by an emperor and citizens could not vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar was a great emperor living in the time of the Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>When an emperor named Trajan ruled, the Roman army conquered about 2,300,000 square miles of land. </li></ul><ul><li>The Empire had an autocratic government, which means the political power was held by one emperor. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Twelve Tables <ul><li>The Twelve Tables were the earliest creation of a code of law. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also the earliest piece of Roman literature to survive to this day. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, there were only ten tables created by ten men. </li></ul><ul><li>The plebeians weren’t satisfied, so another team of ten men added two more tables. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Economy
  22. 22. Farming <ul><li>Farmers in Rome worked on estates, which were usually owned by Patricians. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers were allowed to pay their taxes in wheat instead of money. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves or prisoners of war took farmers’ jobs because they worked for little or no money. </li></ul><ul><li>It usually only rains in the winter in Rome, so farmers had to store water for the summer. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Trade <ul><li>Rome used the Silk Road to receive silk from China. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome traded with Egypt to receive luxury items such as peacock feathers and perfumes </li></ul><ul><li>Above all, the trade of food was most vital for the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome received large amounts of mined metals from Britain and Spain </li></ul>
  24. 24. Coinage <ul><li>Roman coins often had a picture of the current emperor on them and said his greatest achievements. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans used coins to trade goods and buy from markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Coins were always made of gold, silver, bronze, and copper. </li></ul><ul><li>The coins were named aureus, denarius, sesterius, dupondius, and as. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Thermopolia <ul><li>A thermopolia was a place that sold hot food and cooked it quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Food of a thermopolia was usually a piece of meat, bread, and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>The food came in boxes for conveniently traveling with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor people went to thermopolias often because they own kitchens or grills. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Social Structure
  27. 27. Slaves <ul><li>Slaves often worked on farms because they worked for little or no money. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were usually prisoners of war or were bought at slave markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery was vital to Roman economy because it saved lots of money </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves also worked as servants for patrician families. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Plebeians <ul><li>Plebeians were the middle or working class of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>They usually lived in three or four story apartments. </li></ul><ul><li>Plebeian children followed their parents’ career. </li></ul><ul><li>Children went to school for two to three years to learn how to read, write, and do basic math. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Patricians <ul><li>Patricians were the wealthy class of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>They lived in large homes with indoor pools and guest rooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Patrician children had personal servants to play and wrestle with. </li></ul><ul><li>Patrician children went to school longer than plebeian children did. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Senate <ul><li>The Roman Senate always contained three hundred members. </li></ul><ul><li>Senate members were always patricians, never plebeians. </li></ul><ul><li>Senate members usually had participated in government before. </li></ul><ul><li>Senate members were elected and appointed for life. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conclusion I think the most important things I learned about in ancient Rome were trade, aqueducts, and concrete roads. Without trade, Rome wouldn’t have any way of receiving foreign goods. Aqueducts were very important because they were a way to transport drinking water to the people. Concrete roads were important because they were a convenient way to travel throughout the Roman Empire.