• passive audience • very
little information gathering (generalized) 1.0 • mass messages • silos of data (where there is any) • interactive audience • a great deal of information gathering 2.0 • mass messages (but targeted) • silos of data • interactive audience • information/data gathered by all parties 3.0 • personalized messages • citizen-centric • transportable data
Current issues with signals •
noise wins over signal - as more content is produced, it gets harder and harder to wade through the messages • lack of trust - what is truth? who has a stake in it? • data silos - nobody is sharing important information that could help people discover the right messages • data ownership - who owns the data? where does it go? can I access it? can I bring it with me? I don’t want another silo.
customer-controlled + relationships (VRM) VRM
intends to improve markets and their mechanisms by giving customers tools to have more control over their buying decisions so that they are no longer at the mercy of the vendors and other parties on the supply side of the marketplace. Project VRM at Harvard: http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/projectvrm/ Main_Page customer driven loyalty/relationships measured (with permission) active users
VRM good for business &
government: • much better understanding of market (real-time, accurate to behavior data); ability to collect data as preferences change (long range relationships) • 100% opt-in of customers/citizens increases attention and trust as well as all- around accountability • focus on innovation • discourages monopolies (allowing for more businesses to grow); no more ‘too big to fail’ • citizen/customer information isn’t locked into silos; redundant systems make way for interconnected systems
VRM good for customers/citizens •
personal needs served better • healthy competition means that customers get treated better and companies work harder to win attention • no more ﬁlling in forms over and over and over again • convenient • autonomy - identity travels with the individual - authentication is opt-in • two way handshake means much fewer mistakes/less fraud & identity theft/ smoother transactions
VRM good for countries •
decrease in overhead associated with paperwork and missing information • more democratic; decreases the power of lobbyists and interest groups, giving a more representative idea of the country • reduction in fraud and identity theft also reduces the costs everyone bears, which was 7 cents of every dollar spent in 2006 • accounting for intangible wealth and costs (social, informational, health, etc) driving the GDP • citizen-driven encourages engaged, informed citizens (ﬁlters set up personally help the right information get through)  http://www.sas.com/news/analysts/mercator_fraud_1208.pdf
VRM building blocks • PERSONAL:
portable identities (controlled by the individual) • Identity • Ofﬁcial (validated by ofﬁcial/state entities) • Social (validated by social interaction) • Preferences • Authorization • GENERAL: standardized data
“Ofﬁcial” Identity “Social” Identity Identity
• • Birth Certiﬁcate Driver’s License • Social Network & Connections • Insurance Records • Followers/ • Health Care Card Audience • Health Records • Published Works • Credit Records • Authority • Passport • Inﬂuence • Nexus Card • Attention • Social Security • Trust Number • Nicknames • Education • Marriage Records • Images • Birth Records • Notable • Work History contributions • Published Works • Social History (ISBN) • Volunteerism • Address (& history) • Activity on SN’s, • Phone number (& blogs history • etc. • etc. Veriﬁed by two-way Veriﬁed by Social handshake Ofﬁcial Agencies Connections
The makeup of a person’s
identity is more than what’s on paper. It also includes their social currency. Q: how can we validate social currency? OpenID.net + OpenSocial?
Preferences Music played • •
Music shared • Movies/television watched • Movies/television shared • Purchase history • Returns • Price range • Payment type • Articles read • Articles shared • Articles bookmarked • Articles linked to • Search history • People paid attention to (connection/ read/shared/conversations/etc) • Subjects paid attention to • Books read • Books liked/shared • Places traveled to • Airlines frequented • Hotels frequented • Jobs searched • etc.
Our preferences are what we
produce ourselves, explicitly, through choice or voice, or implicitly, through lack of attention. Taste data can be recorded actively or passively. Q: our preferences are what are truly stuck in silos, but shouldn’t necessarily be tied to our identities (only need to be validated by one person - me). What incentives can we give to free our taste data? hTaste? OpenTaste?
Authorization • Birth Certiﬁcate •
Social Network • Driver’s License & Connections • Insurance • Followers/ Records Audience • Health Care Card • Published Works • Health Records • Authority • Credit Records • Inﬂuence • Passport • Attention • Nexus Card • Trust • Social Security • Nickname(s) + preferences Number • Images • Marriage Records • Notable • Birth Records community • Work History contributions • Published Works • Social History (ISBN) • Password • Address • etc. • Phone • etc.
The biggest issue around authorization
is education. There is a high risk of fraud and this is a complicated subject. Confusion will limit adoption. Q: how do we educate the public about authorization as well as put in anti-fraud protections without making it too complicated? OAuth?
In order for this transfer
to occur smoothly, the data needs to be standardized. Q: can we agree on standards as a community (grassroots efforts, not top- down)? Microformats? RSS? XML?
International implications (mobile) • KENYA
- Safaricom’s M-Pesa: "Within two weeks of the launch over ten thousand account holders were registered and more than $100,000 had been transferred" Michael Joseph Safaricom CEO • UGANDA - Cell phone credit transfers (Ethan Zuckerman) • FrontlineSMS:Credit - free and open source phone modules (DC) • IRAN - The ‘Green Revolution’ transmitted worldwide via mobile phones (using mobile phones to gather/protest/report goes back to 1999) • Worldwide, we are seeing citizens disintermediate systems with cell phones (economically and politically) to creatively get things done. Imagine what they can do with more powerful tools...
Future international visions (and questions)
• Is the ‘digital divide’ an issue when we jump from mobile to 2018 versions of technology that will be part of our bodies? (presumably inexpensive and intuitive - eliminating both the economic and knowledge gap - Compaine (2001)) • With portable reputations, law abiding, hard working, community contributing citizens from all over the world can move about freely - will the idea of borders change with this mobility? If so, what will they look like? • As we are able to seamlessly integrate our interactions in the ofﬂine world with the online world (becoming ‘One world’ as Kevin Kelly, Wired.com, says), how can we prevent science ﬁction like Total Recall, Enemy of the State, Minority Report, etc (all representing worlds where citizens and governments are at war) from happening? A: 100% opt-in (like a driver’s license or a passport)
Where credit is due: •
Doc Searls (founder), Christopher Carﬁ (vrm diagram), Judi Clark, Joe Andrieu, Elias Bizannes, Elliot Noss, Kaliya Hamlin, Bart Stevens + everyone who works on the VRM project that I lurk in daily: http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/projectvrm/ Main_Page • The OpenID.net foundation, OAuth.net and the many people who have contributed to and been part of the discussion around these important projects. • Scott Kveton for inviting my former agency, Citizen Agency, to help form the early ramblings on Open Taste (no longer online) • Microformats.org, the W3C and Tim Berners-Lee for all of their thinking around the semantic web and standardized data. • Alistair Croll, who I discussed this with at length and who pointed me in smart directions so I could come to this conclusion. • Alexandra Samuel who recommended that I speak here. HUGE thanks!