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  1. 1. Engineering Championship-Caliber Solutions For Championship-Proven Teams… The Olympic star-studded and Serial NCAA National Champions --Auburn’s Swim & Dive Team--
  2. 20. Auburn Swimming Team’s National Prowess… <ul><li>And from whom better to get advice on a </li></ul><ul><li>winning swimsuit than an actual </li></ul><ul><li>NCAA National Champion Swimmer Herself… </li></ul><ul><li>Alicia Jensen </li></ul>
  3. 21. PFENews
  4. 22. What to Look for… <ul><li>That’s What She Said… </li></ul><ul><li>How Tight it Fits </li></ul><ul><li>No Drag </li></ul><ul><li>Breathe Well </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain its shape </li></ul><ul><li>Have it Dry Fast </li></ul><ul><li>This is What an Engineer Says… </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticity Modulus? </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid Coefficient of Friction? </li></ul><ul><li>Weave Knit Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic/ Hydrophobic Water Absorption </li></ul>
  5. 23. Best of Both Worlds <ul><li>Define & Devise </li></ul><ul><li>To Inform & To Invent </li></ul><ul><li>Present & Future </li></ul><ul><li>What is done & What is Possible </li></ul><ul><li>Elastane & Nylon </li></ul><ul><li>Past & Present </li></ul>
  6. 24. Elastane <ul><li>Thrown Around as: Spandex, Lycra, Elaspan </li></ul><ul><li>A Polyurethane-polyurea copolymer invented by Joseph Shiver at DuPont in 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoplastic Elastomer (Think Rubber Band) </li></ul><ul><li>Versus Rubber? </li></ul>
  7. 25. The Magic Behind it All <ul><li>Tangle of Soft Segments ------->BONDED-------->Rigid Segments </li></ul><ul><li>Apply Pressure-->The tangle soft segments straightens out = 700% Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Release Pressure------>Straightened Soft Segments return to tangled state and are in close proximity of rigid segment. </li></ul><ul><li>-Think Recovery, No Creep, Instant Recovery- </li></ul><ul><li>Invisible…Sheathed with other Fiber: Nylon, Cotton, Polyester </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important: Take into Account Reaction with Chlorine in Pool Water </li></ul></ul>
  8. 26. The Perks <ul><li>Resistance to Abrasion, Body Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Colorfastness to Sea Water, Pool Water, and Sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>(NaCl, Cl, UV & pH 3-11) </li></ul><ul><li>Dries Fast and Can be Cleaned Easily and Often </li></ul><ul><li>X-Factor = Stretch & Resilience = In for the Long Haul </li></ul><ul><li>Get MORE for less </li></ul>
  9. 27. Behind the Scenes
  10. 28. USA Swimsuit Standards <ul><li>“ Type of material: The material used for swimsuits can be only Textile Fabric(s)&quot; defined for the purpose of these rules as material consisting of, natural and/or synthetic, individual and non consolidated yarns used to constitute a fabric by weaving, knitting, and/or braiding.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Surface treatment of the textile fabric: Any material added on to the surface of the textile fabric (e.g. coating, printing, impregnation) shall not close the original open mesh structure of the base textile fabric. The treated material shall further comply with all requirements in particular in regard to thickness, permeability and flexibility. This part of the rule does not apply to logos and labels. This applies to both the manufacturing level and the actual use of the swimsuit.” </li></ul>
  11. 29. USA Swimsuit Standards <ul><li>“ Flexibility: the material shall be flexible and soft-folding.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Regular flat material: The material shall be regular and flat. The material shall not form outstanding shapes or structures, such as scales.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Outside application: No outside application shall be added on the material.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 30. Fabric Structure <ul><li>1X1 Rib Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons to choose 1X1 Rib Structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticity comes from structure and type of yarn used in fabric: elastomer </li></ul><ul><li>1X1 Rib is more opaque and dense than plain weave </li></ul><ul><li>Can be woven in a rib knit, interlock rib, Swiss pique structure, or Warp Knit </li></ul>
  13. 31. Keeping it Together Interlock Rib Rib Knit Recall: Fiber used in knit has an Elastane Core sheathed with an outer layer of Nylon, Polyester, Cotton, etc. Warp Knitted
  14. 32. The Best of Both Worlds Meet Elastane…Meet Nylon 6,6
  15. 33. Nylon 6,6 in Swimwear <ul><li>Strong fiber- adding strength to the suit </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight fabric low density. </li></ul><ul><li>Good water repellency; quick drying properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Low surface tension with water. </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost and good availability. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy fiber production-cold drawing. </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of dyed fiber. Many colors available. </li></ul><ul><li>Good durability and abrasion qualities. </li></ul>
  16. 34. Properties Nylon has a ductile characteristic. High yield and elongation. Elongation at yield is 12.4%. Tensile at yield strength is 72.4 MPa. -Nylon
  17. 35. Structure of Nylon C 12 H 22 O 2 N 2 Nylon 6,6 has 12 carbons in the molecular repeating unit.
  18. 36. Nylon: <ul><li>Density is 1.14g/cm 3 . Light weight fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>Low weight to strength ratio makes for ideal swimwear fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives fabric abrasion resistance due to high tenacity of fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>Readily available for manufacture use, at a low cost. </li></ul>
  19. 37. Water Absorption of Nylon <ul><li>Typically nylon is vulnerable to water absorption due to its H-bonding properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Water can be stored in the amorphous regions of nylon(up to 75% amorphous ). </li></ul><ul><li>However, when drawn into a fiber, crystallinity of nylon increase greatly- yielding a lower moisture uptake. </li></ul><ul><li>This will lead to a fabric with low moisture absorption. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less weight carried by the swimmer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker dry time in absence of moisture. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 38. It works great, but does it look great? Nylon fiber is commonly dyed with acid dyes in a batch process referred to as exhaust dyeing. Nylon fiber which has been made into fabric may be dyed in a jet-dyeing machine.
  21. 39. Downside to Acid Dyeing <ul><li>Care must be taken during the dyeing process to obtain a uniform distribution of dye on the fabric, referred to as leveling. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be corrected by raising heat slowly over time (1 to 2°F per minute) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The pH of the dye bath is a critical factor in dyeing nylon with acid dyes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be corrected by using a buffer, mild acids, and diester </li></ul></ul>
  22. 40. Jet Dyeing Machine <ul><li>Continuous loop of the fabric is circulated throughout the dye bath by impinging the dye bath liquor against the fabric in a venturi nozzle </li></ul>
  23. 41. Soda Bottles to Swimwear, the Future? <ul><li>Most lower performance, low cost swim suits are made from polyester fibers derived from PET plastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Often times the PET can come from recycled plastic containers such as soda bottles at a Braves game. </li></ul><ul><li>This recycled PET can be broken down, drawn to a fiber and made into a fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting in swimwear made from recycled soda bottles. </li></ul>
  24. 42. Process <ul><li>Step one is to collect recycled PET from vendors or municipal recycling locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Step two is sort the incoming plastic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PET form nonPET-meaning bottles from caps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorted into color; green keeps separate from clear. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step Three the plastic is crushed into small chips, heated in a vat, forced through spinnerets to form a fiber and collected on a spool. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the spool is used to weave new fabrics. </li></ul>
  25. 43. PET Repeating Unit
  26. 44. Head to Head
  27. 45. Recycled PET Facts <ul><li>Estimated that every meter of recycled polyester fabric of 80%PET, eight beverage containers are kept from landfills. </li></ul><ul><li>Products made form recycled PET have the same characteristic as virgin PET. </li></ul><ul><li>Fleece blankets are just as soft and jacks are just as warm. </li></ul>
  28. 46. Collected PET awaiting processing. Processed recycled PET into fiber spools Finished products made from recycled PET ready to hit the market!
  29. 47. Physio-Mechanical Aspects
  30. 48. Substance or Form?
  31. 49. Anticipation
  32. 50. <ul><li>“ You are educated. Your certification is in your degree. You may think of it as the ticket to the good life. Let me ask you to think of an alternative. Think of it as your ticket to change the world” </li></ul><ul><li>-Tom Brokaw </li></ul>
  33. 51. references <ul><li>  http :// </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http :// </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> fact/5000/5546.html </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Elaspan Fiber Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>DuPont Sorona </li></ul>