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Population Revision

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Population Revision

  1. 1. Population Revision <ul><li>In this revision power point you will find: </li></ul><ul><li>World Population Growth </li></ul><ul><li>The Demographic Transition Model </li></ul><ul><li>Malawi as an example of Population change </li></ul><ul><li>in an LEDC </li></ul><ul><li>Germany as an example of Population change </li></ul><ul><li>in an MEDC </li></ul><ul><li>What causes population to change? (The bath) </li></ul><ul><li>An example of an exam question to try. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Linear growth Exponential growth Cublic growth Today the world’s Pop’ growth Is exponential. What problems Will this result in?
  3. 4. Major population growth Is in LEDCs e.g. Malawi MEDCs have Low levels Of population growth Like UK, Germany, Japan.
  4. 5. Exponential Growth <ul><li>The World’s population is growing exponentially. </li></ul><ul><li>This means it is increasing by doubling </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Birth Rate (B.R.)= number of live births per 1000 population per year </li></ul><ul><li>Death Rate (D.R.) = number of deaths per 1000 population per year </li></ul><ul><li>B.R - D.R = Natural Rate of Increase or Decrease </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Significant increases in human population are almost inevitable, with projections ranging from a high of almost 12 billion by 2050, to a low of just under 8 billion. </li></ul>
  7. 10. How does population change?
  8. 11. MEDC example LEDC example
  9. 12. What factors can influence Birth Rate ? <ul><li>1) High Infant mortality = number of babies that die in first yr of life / 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>2) Years in formal education / qualifications More qualified = follow career and age of first born child is older = less time for children. </li></ul><ul><li>3)Need for child labour = food, money gained from children working for family. </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>4) Who will look after us in old age? = the state / private pension or my children. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Cost of Children = £120 thousand from birth to leaving home. Too expensive!! </li></ul>What factors can influence Birth Rate ?
  11. 14. LEDC example
  12. 18. Why is Malawi’s population growth rate 2.4% per year? <ul><li>High Infant mortality(75/1000). Many babies die in first yr of life so parents have many children to ensure survival. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a consequence of: </li></ul><ul><li>Living Standards are low. HDI (Human Development Index) score is low. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to clean water poor </li></ul><ul><li>Diet / nutrition poor </li></ul><ul><li>Access to health care poor </li></ul><ul><li>1 doctor per 3000 people </li></ul><ul><li>All mean lower life expectancy = 49 </li></ul><ul><li>Parents also view children as </li></ul><ul><li>providing: </li></ul><ul><li>Children = security </li></ul><ul><li>Source of income and look after parent s when old. </li></ul><ul><li>Children will earn money in labour intensive jobs requiring low skills level because: </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy rate low= 40% </li></ul>
  13. 19. MEDC example
  14. 20. Germany’s Population <ul><li>Growth rate is minus 0.044%; </li></ul><ul><li>Birth rate is 8.18 births per 1000 population; </li></ul><ul><li>Death rate is 10.8 deaths per 1000 population; </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy is 76.11 years for male and 82.26 years for female;. </li></ul>
  15. 21. Vastly decreased Birth rate Larger 5 of middle Aged who will Become old age More older women Due to World War 2 Real concerns about future size of the working population
  16. 22. Dependen t Dependen t Productive Working age group
  17. 23. Total pop Will reduce but the number Of workers will too…… …… ..what does This mean?
  18. 24. Why is the Birth Rate in Germany so Low? <ul><li>The expense of raising children…too costly. </li></ul><ul><li>Many women deciding to concentrate on their careers before starting a family. </li></ul><ul><li>Womens’ average age of first born child is in mid-30s; means fewer babies being born. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents deciding to have fewer children to focus their love and attention on one child. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent health care means infant mortality is very low (7/1000) so less need to have many babies. </li></ul>
  19. 25. Problem & Advantages of an ageing Population <ul><li>Lower birth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of people with health care needs = costly . </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer working people. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater demand for retirement/ care homes . </li></ul><ul><li>Less income for Government </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger demand on state pensions </li></ul><ul><li>More ‘grey’ spending </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. holidays. </li></ul><ul><li>More ‘experience’ to tap. </li></ul><ul><li>Child caring grandparents. </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger pool of part time workers. </li></ul>Problems Advantages
  20. 26. Problems ahead for Germany <ul><li>Less tax revenue for Government </li></ul><ul><li>More older aged people who will need looking after. </li></ul><ul><li>More care homes </li></ul><ul><li>Increased demand on hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Companies will struggle to have enough employees and may look to locate elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>A large demand on pensions </li></ul><ul><li>Will the state afford or </li></ul><ul><li>Will private pensions cover the Cost? </li></ul>

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