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Group Dynamics & Counseling

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Group Dynamics & Counseling

  1. 1. What is a Group Process? It is the study of group interaction through extensive personal growth experience. A group may exist whenever two or more persons show some kind of interdependent relationship with one another. Group dynamics refers to forces that result from the interaction of group members. (Toseland, R. W. and Rivas, Robert, 2001).
  2. 2. Group has been defined as an organized system of two or more individuals who are interrelated so that the system performs a function, has a structured set of role relationships among its members, and has a set of norms that regulate the function of the group and that of its members.
  3. 3. Based on the definition, the interdependent criteria will be: 1. Performance of the Group 2. Objectives or Goals or Expectation 3. Structure of the Group – position and roles 4. Norms In the ‘80s, the term group dynamics was commonly applied to practical attempts to reduce intragroup and intergroup tension. In industrial setting in the ’70s, it is referred to the study of individual interaction in small groups.
  4. 4. The Individual and the Group Membership into groups may be forced (family) or not (gangs). Our membership in small groups provides us with our first taste of social interaction. The first and most immediate social experience of mankind is small-group experience. What really is a group? A sufficient definition is given by Shaw: a group is two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by the other(s).
  5. 5. Studies have produced several theories on why people join groups. The interpersonal attraction theory – holds that proximity contact, interaction, physical attractiveness, and similarity are variables that encourage group membership. The group activities theory – proposes that a person joins a group because he enjoys the things that the group members do.
  6. 6. Group goals theory – which holds that an individual joins a group because apart from enjoying its activities, he also values its goals and purposes. The membership theory – process that membership in a group is in itself already satisfying to an individual; some call it affiliation want.
  7. 7. Sharing makes it possible for people to get to know one another in a friendly and open atmosphere. Through group dynamics, people learn about themselves and others. When people see how similar they are in their weaknesses, it becomes easy for them to trust and therefore to communicate. Group Dynamics then is the fastest and least painful way of bringing about real changes in a community.
  8. 8. Variables Affecting Group Development 1. Leadership style and skills 2. Environment A. Physical Factors B. Space/Room C. Emotional Factors 3. Cohesiveness
  9. 9. Norms functions as the rules of the games and help in smooth interaction of the group. Two categories of norms: 1. Explicit norms – formal norms that all members are fully aware of and stated at the beginning of the group. 2. Implicit norms – informal norms, not formally stated but involve standard practice by members of the group which can elicit positive or negative reactions.
  10. 10. Enhancement of Self-esteem is Everyone’s Potential I am happy. I am sick. I am good. I am beautiful. I’m a loser. I’m a winner. I’m dumb. I’m fine. I’m okay. I am bad. I am clumsy. I’m a gossip monger. I’m neurotic. I am a bore. I’m a mess. I’m cool. I am successful. I’m a failure. I’m lovable. I’m sexy. I am sad. I’m smart. I am a good teacher. I am a good person. I’m a slow learner. I’m not okay. Your self-concept is composed of all the beliefs and attitudes you have about yourself.
  11. 11. On the Value of Self-Esteem Self-esteem refers to one’s own worth; how you feel and how you evaluate yourself and others. It gives you empowerment to be accountable and responsible for your decision and judgment. Self-efficacy is the belief that you can achieve what you set out to do in life. Self-respect is what you think and feel about yourself. Self- efficacy Self- respect Self- esteem
  12. 12. Group membership is affected by the following: 1. Satisfaction (reward) 2. Problems 3. Influence upon others (social pressure) 4. Each member influencing others (reciprocal or mutual control) 5. Cohesiveness 6. Compatibility 7. Norms 8. Morale 9. Social climate 10.Reference group
  13. 13. Purposes of Group Formation 1. Accidental or Voluntary 2. Task-oriented or Social Function Factors Affecting Group Activity 1. Size of the group 2. Threat reduction and degree of intimacy 3. Distributive leadership with focus of control on group activity 4. Goal formation 5. Flexibility 6. Consensus and degree of solidarity 7. Process awareness and continue evaluation
  14. 14. Self-awareness Model The objective of group dynamics is patterned after the graphic model of awareness in interpersonal relations.(Luft, 1970). It is called “Johari Window,” taken from Joe Luft and Harry Ingham of California, USA. Through analysis, the Johari Window allows us to see why others may respond to us differently from what we expect.
  15. 15. Once you become self-aware, only you can then learn to manage yourself. Able to:  Control disruptive moods  Think before acting  Find passion for work  Pursue goals with persistence “If you want to lead somebody, the first critical step is to lead yourself.” –Maz and Sims (1991)
  16. 16. Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson have suggested that other people respond to us in three distinct ways. These three responses include: confirmation, rejection, and disconfirmation. Confirmation occurs when others treat us in the manner consistent with our own notion of who we are. Rejection occurs when others treat us in a manner inconsistent with our self-definition. Disconfirmation occurs when others fail to respond in a neutral way.
  17. 17. Shown below are changes that may be applied to intergroup relations. Known to Self Known to others Not known to others Open area/public area Blind area Hidden area Unknown area Not known to Self
  18. 18. Known to Self Not known to Self Known to others Not known to others 1 2 3 4
  19. 19. Degree of Openness Quadrant 1. The area of free activity or openness. Quadrant 2. The blind area is where we can see things in ourselves of which we are unaware of. Quadrant 3. Repressed or hidden area. Quadrant 4. This is the area of the unknown where neither the individual nor others are aware of certain behavior that could influence interpersonal relationships.
  20. 20. What is Group Therapy? Group therapy is a powerful tool for growth and change. The power in group therapy lies in the unique opportunity to receive multiple perspectives, support, encouragement, and feedback from other individuals in safe and confidential environment. These interpersonal interactions can provide group members an opportunity to deepen their level of self-awareness and to learn how they relate to others. Group therapy can be a safe and supportive place to experiment with new ideas and ways of being.
  21. 21. Group therapy can help you:  Discover that you're not alone in your struggles, thoughts, and feelings  Learn from other students facing similar problems  Gain multiple perspectives on your concerns  Feel more connected to others as group cohesion develops  Become more aware of yourself through genuine feedback from others  Pick up new interpersonal skills that you can use in your daily life  Internalize the lessons you've learned by helping others in the group  Develop effective ways of building and maintaining relationships

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