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What is a Group Process?
It is the study of group interaction through
extensive personal growth experience. A
group may exist whenever two or more
persons show some kind of interdependent
relationship with one another. Group
dynamics refers to forces that result from the
interaction of group members. (Toseland, R.
W. and Rivas, Robert, 2001).
Group has been defined as an organized
system of two or more individuals who are
interrelated so that the system performs a
function, has a structured set of role
relationships among its members, and has a
set of norms that regulate the function of
the group and that of its members.
Based on the definition, the interdependent
criteria will be:
1. Performance of the Group
2. Objectives or Goals or Expectation
3. Structure of the Group – position and
In the ‘80s, the term group dynamics was
commonly applied to practical attempts to
reduce intragroup and intergroup tension.
In industrial setting in the ’70s, it is referred
to the study of individual interaction in
The Individual and the Group
Membership into groups may be forced
(family) or not (gangs). Our membership in
small groups provides us with our first taste
of social interaction. The first and most
immediate social experience of mankind is
What really is a group? A sufficient
definition is given by Shaw: a group is two or
more persons who are interacting with one
another in such a manner that each person
influences and is influenced by the other(s).
Studies have produced several theories on
why people join groups.
The interpersonal attraction theory – holds
that proximity contact, interaction, physical
attractiveness, and similarity are variables
that encourage group membership.
The group activities theory – proposes that a
person joins a group because he enjoys the
things that the group members do.
Group goals theory – which holds that an
individual joins a group because apart from
enjoying its activities, he also values its goals
The membership theory – process that
membership in a group is in itself already
satisfying to an individual; some call it
Sharing makes it possible for people to get
to know one another in a friendly and open
atmosphere. Through group dynamics,
people learn about themselves and others.
When people see how similar they are in
their weaknesses, it becomes easy for
them to trust and therefore to
Group Dynamics then is the fastest and
least painful way of bringing about real
changes in a community.
Variables Affecting Group
1. Leadership style and skills
A. Physical Factors
C. Emotional Factors
Norms functions as the rules of the games
and help in smooth interaction of the group.
Two categories of norms:
1. Explicit norms – formal norms that all
members are fully aware of and stated at
the beginning of the group.
2. Implicit norms – informal norms, not
formally stated but involve standard
practice by members of the group which
can elicit positive or negative reactions.
Enhancement of Self-esteem is
I am happy. I am sick. I am good. I am
beautiful. I’m a loser. I’m a winner. I’m dumb.
I’m fine. I’m okay. I am bad. I am clumsy. I’m a
gossip monger. I’m neurotic. I am a bore. I’m
a mess. I’m cool. I am successful. I’m a failure.
I’m lovable. I’m sexy. I am sad. I’m smart. I
am a good teacher. I am a good person. I’m a
slow learner. I’m not okay.
Your self-concept is composed of all the
beliefs and attitudes you have about yourself.
On the Value of Self-Esteem
Self-esteem refers to one’s own worth; how
you feel and how you evaluate yourself and
others. It gives you empowerment to be
accountable and responsible for your decision
Self-efficacy is the belief that you can achieve
what you set out to do in life.
Self-respect is what you think and feel about
Group membership is affected by the
1. Satisfaction (reward)
3. Influence upon others (social pressure)
4. Each member influencing others (reciprocal
or mutual control)
9. Social climate
Purposes of Group Formation
1. Accidental or Voluntary
2. Task-oriented or Social Function
Factors Affecting Group Activity
1. Size of the group
2. Threat reduction and degree of intimacy
3. Distributive leadership with focus of
control on group activity
4. Goal formation
6. Consensus and degree of solidarity
7. Process awareness and continue
The objective of group dynamics is patterned
after the graphic model of awareness in
interpersonal relations.(Luft, 1970). It is called
“Johari Window,” taken from Joe Luft and
Harry Ingham of California, USA. Through
analysis, the Johari Window allows us to see
why others may respond to us differently
from what we expect.
Once you become self-aware, only you can
then learn to manage yourself.
Control disruptive moods
Think before acting
Find passion for work
Pursue goals with persistence
“If you want to lead somebody, the first
critical step is to lead yourself.”
–Maz and Sims (1991)
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson have
suggested that other people respond to us in
three distinct ways. These three responses
include: confirmation, rejection, and
Confirmation occurs when others treat us in
the manner consistent with our own notion
of who we are.
Rejection occurs when others treat us in a
manner inconsistent with our self-definition.
Disconfirmation occurs when others fail to
respond in a neutral way.
Shown below are changes that may be applied to
Known to others
Known to others
Degree of Openness
Quadrant 1. The area of free activity or
Quadrant 2. The blind area is where we
can see things in ourselves of which we
are unaware of.
Quadrant 3. Repressed or hidden area.
Quadrant 4. This is the area of the
unknown where neither the individual
nor others are aware of certain behavior
that could influence interpersonal
What is Group Therapy?
Group therapy is a powerful tool for growth
and change. The power in group therapy lies
in the unique opportunity to receive multiple
perspectives, support, encouragement, and
feedback from other individuals in safe and
These interpersonal interactions can provide
group members an opportunity to deepen
their level of self-awareness and to learn
how they relate to others. Group therapy can
be a safe and supportive place to experiment
with new ideas and ways of being.
Group therapy can help you:
Discover that you're not alone in your
struggles, thoughts, and feelings
Learn from other students facing similar
Gain multiple perspectives on your
Feel more connected to others as group
Become more aware of yourself through
genuine feedback from others
Pick up new interpersonal skills that you
can use in your daily life
Internalize the lessons you've learned by
helping others in the group
Develop effective ways of building and