Methods and approaches in language teaching


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Methods and approaches in language teaching

  1. 1. Theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of the Lg, the nature of Lg learning (psicholinguistical and cognitive processes involved) and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings (successful use of these processes) It is easy to change
  2. 2.   A generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistics objectives focusing on the goals of the teaching/learning process, learner’s roles, tch’s roles and roles of instructional materials Do not change a lot
  3. 3.   Specific types of exercises, tasks or activities used in classes for reaching pedagogical goals Depends on the aim of each class
  4. 4.     Written literature= vocabulary and grammar No culture Final goal: translation no communication so little or no interaction among sts ot between sts and tch Tch is authority and model; teacher-centered; no sts’ feelings, interests or diffferences
  5. 5.      Reading and writing have emphasis, Lg learning involves mental exercise, critical analysis Listening and speaking less important (pronunciation is not considered) L1 equivalents when there is no literal translation Grammar: deductive way (model) Grammar patterns or conjugations are learned by heart
  6. 6.      Translation of a literary passage Reading comprehension questions in a sequence (scan / skim) Antonyms and synonyms Cognates are taught through recognition or spelling or sound patterns Fill in the blanks
  7. 7.    Memorization Use of words in given contexts Composition based upon a speccific aspecct of the reading passage of the lesson
  8. 8.       One rule: NO TRANSLATION Lg is presented through demonstration or visual aids to understand the meaning The teaccher should demonstrate not explain or translate Sts should learn to think in the target language ASAP Vocabulary is acquired not learned by heart Communication is the main goal
  9. 9.    Since the beginning of the class pronunciation through reading practice and oral production and writing through dictation should be taught from the very beginning of the Lg instrucction. Tch should be a facilitator and provide full opportunities for sts to use the target Lg in real contexts. Reading aloud must be encouraged and speak as much as possible.
  10. 10.    Grammar should be taught inductively, no explicit explanations Syllabus is based on situations or topics Learning a Lg also involves learning the culture
  11. 11.      Reading aloud Q’s and A’s Self or peer correction Teacher repeating the mistake till self awareness Fill in the blanks( diff. Application from GTM) for inferring the rule
  12. 12.    Dictation Map drawing (follow directions) Paragraph writing (free writing)
  13. 13.     No exposure to vocabulary but grammar patterns It has some characteristics of behaviorism (conditioning) Sts should geet rid of L1 habits and acquire L2 habits through repetition and chain drilling Tch models the sentences using pictures and motivate the sts to generate their own Ss
  14. 14.       Lg occurs in a context, naturally L1 and L2 have different linguistic systems to avoid interference Errors should be corrected immediately The purpose of Lg is to communicate Parts of the speech are replaced when creating new sentences Correct habits are fixed with positive reinforcement
  15. 15.   Sts should receive and answer to both: verbal and non verbal stimuli Sts should practice and practice till OVERLEARN the pattern (answer automatically without stopping to think)