history ch 18


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history ch 18

  1. 1. Section 1 The student Movement and the counterculture
  2. 2. Port Huron Statement <ul><li>1962 declaration </li></ul><ul><li>Views defined by Students for the Democratic Society </li></ul><ul><li>Youths were concerned about the injustices they saw in political and social systems </li></ul>
  3. 4. Tom Hayden <ul><li>Wrote the Port Huron Statement </li></ul><ul><li>editor of University of Michigan student paper </li></ul><ul><li>The declaration call for an end to apathy and urged citizens to stop accepting a country run by corporations and big government </li></ul>
  4. 6. Free speech movement <ul><li>Led by Mario Savio and other Berkeley students </li></ul><ul><li>The issue that spark this movement was the university’s decision in the fall of 1964 to restrict students’ rights to distribute literature and to recruit volunteers for political causes on campus </li></ul><ul><li>1964 Led to sit in and savio’s famous speech with arrest of more than 700 protestors </li></ul><ul><li>Following that the supreme court validated first student amendment rights to freedom of speech . </li></ul>
  5. 8. Counterculture <ul><li>Throughout decade thousands of mostly white middle and upper class youth created their our lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>They promoted rock music, drug use, free independent living </li></ul><ul><li>Or know as hippies </li></ul>
  6. 10. communes <ul><li>Group living arrangements in which members shared everything and worked together </li></ul><ul><li>Hippies establish this in small rural communities while others lived together in parks or crowed apartments </li></ul>
  7. 12. Haight Ashbury District <ul><li>One of the most popular hippie destination </li></ul><ul><li>Located in San Francisco </li></ul><ul><li>Mid 1960 thousands of hippies came to live here </li></ul>
  8. 13. Haight Ashbury District
  9. 14. Religious movement <ul><li>In rejection of materialism many member of the counterculture embraced spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs from eastern religion to new forms of Christianity </li></ul>
  10. 16. Jim Hendrix <ul><li>A guitarist from Seattle </li></ul><ul><li>Use of electrical amplified instruments also drastic changed the sound and feel of the new music </li></ul>
  11. 18. The Beatles <ul><li>One of most famous rock groups took the country by a storm in 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Rock music was absorbed into the mainstream where it brought material success worth billions of dollars to performance, promoters and record companies </li></ul>
  12. 21. Section 2 Feminist Movement
  13. 22. Feminism <ul><li>The belief that men and women should be equal politically, economically, and socially, had been a weak and often embattled force since the adoptation of the 19 th amendment guarantee women's voting rights </li></ul><ul><li>The women’s movement split into 2 groups </li></ul>
  14. 24. The league of women voter <ul><li>Tend to promote laws to protect women and children such as limiting the hours they could work/ </li></ul>
  15. 26. The National woman’s party NWP <ul><li>Opposed protective legislation for women. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed it reinforced workplace discrimination. </li></ul><ul><li>1923 persuaded congress to introduce First Equal Rights Amendment aimed to forbid federal, state, and local laws from discriminating based on gender </li></ul>
  16. 28. Equal Pay act <ul><li>1963 in support of labors woman won act which outlaw paying men more than women for the same job </li></ul><ul><li>2 forces helped bring women’s movement to life </li></ul><ul><li>One Ordinary women and </li></ul><ul><li>President Kennedy and Eleanor Roosevelt </li></ul>
  17. 30. Equal Employment Opportunity commission eeoc <ul><li>The civil Rights Act created a new federal agency charged with administering the new law </li></ul><ul><li>Was officially operating in july 1965 </li></ul>
  18. 32. Betty Friedan <ul><li>Traveled around the country interviewing the women who had graduated with her from Smiths college in 1942 </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote The feminine mystiques </li></ul><ul><li>She found that most women reported having everything they could want in life, they still felt unfulfilled </li></ul><ul><li>Best seller </li></ul>
  19. 33. Betty Friedan
  20. 34. National Organization for women <ul><li>To take action needed to bring women into the mainstream American society, now in full equal partnership with men </li></ul><ul><li>Friedan and other set out to form this group </li></ul>
  21. 36. Title 9 <ul><li>Prohibited federally funded schools from discriminating against girls and young women in nearly all aspects of its operation from admin to athletics </li></ul>
  22. 38. Roe vs wade <ul><li>Appeal laws against abortion </li></ul><ul><li>Until1973 the right to regulate abortion was reserved to states </li></ul><ul><li>In late 1960 some states adopted more liberating abortion laws </li></ul><ul><li>1973 supreme court decision – ruled that state governments could not regulate abortion during the first 3 months of pregnancy </li></ul>
  23. 40. Phyllis schlafly <ul><li>She organized the stop Era campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>Active in politics after earning a masters degree from Harvard in 1945 and law degree </li></ul><ul><li>She testified before 30 state legislatures against the ERA which failed in 1982 </li></ul>
  24. 42. SECTION 3 new approaches to civil rights
  25. 43. Affirmative action <ul><li>Enforced through executive order and federal policies </li></ul><ul><li>It called for companies and institutions doing business with the federal government to actively recruit african americans employees with the hope that this would lead to improved social and economic status </li></ul><ul><li>Later this expanded to minority groups and women </li></ul>
  26. 45. Allan Baker <ul><li>One of the more notable challenge to affirmative action came in 1974 after officials at the university of ca medical school at DAVIS turned down a white applicant for the second time </li></ul><ul><li>When he learned that slots were set aside for minorities he sued the school </li></ul><ul><li>He said by admitting others with lower scores than him was discriminating against his race </li></ul>
  27. 47. busing <ul><li>To ensure desegregated schools, local government transported children's to schools outside their neighborhood </li></ul><ul><li>White families wanted to take their children out of the schools for private schools </li></ul><ul><li>Swann v charlotte Mecklenburg board of edu </li></ul>
  28. 49. Brown vs board of education Topeka <ul><li>By early 1970 African Americans pushed for harder education improvements </li></ul><ul><li>The supreme court ordered an end to segregating public school. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1960 still many schools did not comply with the court and continue to separate the students </li></ul>
  29. 51. Jesse jackson <ul><li>In a struggle for equal rights african american found a new political leader </li></ul><ul><li>1971 he founded People United to save humanity or PUSH a group aimed at registered voters developing african american businesses and broadening educational opportunities . </li></ul>
  30. 53. Congressional Black Caucus <ul><li>1971 african american of congress reorganized an existing organization in order t more clearly represent the concerns of African Americans </li></ul>
  31. 55. Million man march <ul><li>Lious Farrakhan of the nation of Islam helped organize </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering of African American men in Washington dc to promote self reliance and community responsibility </li></ul>
  32. 57. Cesar Chavez <ul><li>Hispanic campaign was the effort to win rights for farm workers </li></ul><ul><li>Most mexican amercian farm laborers earned little pay, few benefits and no job security </li></ul><ul><li>He helped organized a group in 1960 that fought for farm workers </li></ul><ul><li>He enlisted college students civil rights groups to boycott ca largest agricultural products. </li></ul><ul><li>17 million stop buying </li></ul>
  33. 59. LA RAZA unida <ul><li>Hispanics americans became politically active during the 1960 and 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1969 Jose Angel Gutierrez organized a new political party in texas </li></ul><ul><li>Means united people </li></ul><ul><li>The group mobilized mexican american voters to push for job training programs and greater access to financial institutions </li></ul>
  34. 61. bilingualism <ul><li>One issue both Hispanic students and political leaders promoted </li></ul><ul><li>The practice of teaching immigrant students in their own language while they also learned english </li></ul><ul><li>Congress supported and passed bilingual education act in 1968 </li></ul>
  35. 63. American Indian movement <ul><li>Native amercians formed more militant groups more a combative style. </li></ul><ul><li>This group was organized 1968 to fight high unemployment, inadequate housing, and racial discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>The group also focused on treaty rights and worked to regain tribal lands. </li></ul>
  36. 66. Section 4 Saving the Earth
  37. 67. Rachel Carson <ul><li>Effort to ban DDT was only one aspect of a larger environment movement that took shape in the 1960s and 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Marine biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote book Silent Spring talks about using pesticides DDT and killing all birds, fishes, insects, and the creatures that ingest them </li></ul>
  38. 69. smog <ul><li>In northwest timber companies were cutting down acres of forestland. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy dark smoke and chemical fumes smothered the major cities </li></ul>
  39. 71. Environment protection agency <ul><li>In 1970 president nixon signed the national environment policy act </li></ul><ul><li>The EPA took on jobs of setting and enforcing pollution standards, promoting research, and coordinating antipollution activities with state and local governments </li></ul><ul><li>They also monitor the impact of other federal agencies on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered species 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>The clean air act became law 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>The Clean water act 197 </li></ul>
  40. 73. Fossil fuels <ul><li>During the 1970 increasing number of citizens expressed concern over the growth of nuclear power </li></ul><ul><li>Supports of nuclear energy hailed it as a cleaner and less expensive alternative to __________ which is coal, oil, and natural gas which are limited </li></ul><ul><li>Opponents warned of the risks particularly the devastating consequences of an accidental radiation release into the air </li></ul>
  41. 75. 3 mile island <ul><li>The debate moved to the nation’s forefront in 1979. in the early hours of March 28 one of the reactors at the ___________________nuclear facility outside Harrisburg, pennsylvania overheated after its cooling system failed. </li></ul><ul><li>Low levels of radiation escaped </li></ul><ul><li>Since the accident 60 nuclear power plant have been shut down and none has been built since 1973 </li></ul>
  42. 77. Ralf nader <ul><li>A young lawyer from Connecticut. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1960, he noted what he considered an alarmingly high number of automobiles fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>He presented in 1965 his book unsafe at any speed </li></ul><ul><li>He charged car manufactures with putting style ,cost, and speed ahead of safety </li></ul>
  43. 78. Ralf nader
  44. 79. National traffic and motor vehicle safety act <ul><li>In 1966 Naders effort helped spur congress to pass this act </li></ul><ul><li>The act set mandatory safety standards and established a procedure for notifying car owners about defects </li></ul><ul><li>For the first time cars industry were subject to safety regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements called for seat belts, door locks, safer fuel tanks, and other improvements that helped save lives </li></ul>
  45. 81. Love canal <ul><li>Most powerful display of community activism occurred in the housing development near Niagara falls, ny </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1970 residents of _________ noticed a rising number of health problems, nerve damage, blood disease, cancer, miscarriage, birth defects. </li></ul><ul><li>They soon learned that their community sat atop of a decades old toxic waste dump. The hazardous contents had leaked into the ground. </li></ul>