Emergency Notification • Incident ManagementOvercoming Operational Glitches:Supply-chain Recovery isa Competitive Capabili...
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Supply Chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability


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In today's volatile and interdependent economy, even the best organized companies are increasingly vulnerable to many types of supply chain disruptions that are beyond their control.

This white paper details how mitigating supply chain disruptions can create a competitive advantage. Executives, board members and supply chain leaders will better understand the need for mitigation and how to go about it.

The author, Professor Alan Braithwaite, draws upon established case material and risk management principles in the paper. Topics include:
• How supply chain glitches destroy shareholder value
• General principles of risk mitigation and recovery
• The global economy and the implications of extended supply chains

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Supply Chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability

  1. 1. Emergency Notification • Incident ManagementOvercoming Operational Glitches:Supply-chain Recovery isa Competitive CapabilityThe need to design and plan for supply-chain risk mitigationand recovery, and how to go about itProfessor Alan Braithwaite, Cranfield University and LCP Consulting
  2. 2. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability IntroductionAbout the Author The old management adage goes, “Failing to plan is like planning toProfessor Alan Braithwaite, Cran- fail”. But in today’s volatile and interdependent economy, even the bestfield University and LCP Consulting planned and organized companies are being caught by events that are beyond their control, or which are the result of plans and designs notAlan has been working with working as expected.Cranfield’s Centre for Logistics andSupply Chain Management since These events are sometimes referred to as glitches, which on occasion1987. He is widely published, and may be a euphemism for an incident or full-scale crisis.a regular speaker at conferencesaround the world. Long before the birth of the Internet, Marshall McLuhan coined the term ‘global village’ to convey the power of communications around theHe is also Chairman of LCP Consult- world. Today we take that for granted and the commentary has moveding, a leading independent consul- on to the inter-dependence of the global economy. Companies, organi-tancy in supply chain and logistics, zations and communities are profoundly vulnerable to all manner ofwhich he founded in 1985. events that are outside their immediate span of control.LCP Consulting provides supplychain design for optimum planned Increasingly, the term ‘supply chain’ is being used to describe these ex-performance and for resilience. tended links and dependencies. Until recently the effort to manage these extended chains has concentrated on achieving better stability. But the increasing rate of experience of shocks, surprises and unpredictability has added supply chain risk management and recovery to the board- room agenda. Boards’ obligations of corporate social responsibility and complianceTable of Contents (CSR) are bringing into sharp focus the requirement to design opera-1. Introduction tions for improved resilience. But anticipating and designing out vul- nerability is not enough; the unexpected still happens. Based on the2. The Global Economy and the proven correlation between supply chain ‘glitches’ and shareholder Implications of Extended value, companies are now also planning and designing a structured Supply Chains approach to recovering from shocks, which cannot all be mitigated by3. Introducing a Supply Chain design. Risk Management Frame- work—Design for Resilience And supply chain incident and crisis management is not restricted to and Mitigation physical goods organizations; all industries now have labyrinthine4. Supply Chain ‘Glitches’ dependencies, which are the result of new business models and tech- Destroy Shareholder Value nology. Investment banks rely on pricing and trade data feeds, other financial institutions rely on third party product distribution channels.5. Case Studies of Supply Chain Service providers rely on third parties to contribute service components. Risks: What We Can Learn from Experience Port and airport operations depend totally on the seamless interaction between many companies.6. General Principles of Risk Mitigation and Recovery Complexity and dependency is so high that disruptions, large and small, will happen. Recovery is therefore a capability and the speed of recovery is a competitive advantage. The maxim is becoming “in future we must anticipate the unexpected”. The capability must be in place to respond in real time, without a full prior understanding of the specifics of the event and its impact. This white paper draws on established case material and supply chain© Copyright 2008-2012, LCP Consulting and risk management principles to show the need to design and plan for riskMissionMode Solutions. All rights reserved. mitigation and recovery and how to go about it. Page 2
  3. 3. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability Business success may depend on a process to deal with events that can- not be designed out and for which the full impacts cannot be anticipated or predicted. Response and recovery in a global business involves par- ties working remotely to a common process with fast communications, ensuring consistent information and actions on short lead-times. Boards now recognize that their supply chain is their business and exter- nal dependencies and risks are built in at every step. Since it is impos- sible and very costly to plan and design for every contingency, recovery is a strategic capability. Key to successful recovery is the ability to com- municate seamlessly throughout the supply chain. “If a man presumes certainty, he shall end with doubts, but if he will be content with doubts, he will end with certainties”. Francis Bacon 1561-1626 The Global Economy and the Implications of Extended Supply Chains The global economy for world merchandise trade has been expanding at a rate that is between 2 and 4 times the rate of GDP. The figures from the WTO are illustrated in Figure 1. (i)Figure 1: Growth in the WorldMerchandise Trade It has been one of the most pronounced and remarkable economic trends of the last 40 years. It has both fueled and enabled the growth in GDP of most developed countries. The risks and rewards of this change have been the subject of increasing academic and journalistic analysis and commentary from a variety of perspectives. Page 3
  4. 4. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability Rosabeth Moss Kanter (ii) identified that communities develop a criti- cal mass of capability to take leadership in specific industries where the symbiotic connections of education, culture, research and commercial skills build a powerful platform. These communities then feed on their success. She introduced the idea of the three C’s: concepts, capabilities and con- nections. Competitive advantage is about being able to initiate leading concepts: have the capabilities to deliver them: supported by the con- nections from an extended network. These connections enhance the core capability with skills that do not exist inside the firm or organization itself. Implicit in this simple idea is that the skills required to be suc- cessful are so diverse that no one organization can sustain them at the required level. In simple terms, a business is its supply chain – the dependency on oth- ers is total: covering relationships with government, regulators, educa- tion, research and suppliers of products, services and logistics. This extended chain has been identified by many authors as being a ma- jor source of risk to sustainable business performance. Braithwaite and Hall in 1999 (iii) pointed to the increasing awareness of vulnerability arising from anticipating the millennium bug. Recent work at Cranfield on supply chain risk and vulnerability (iv) created Figure 2, which highlights the risk profile of the extended sup- ply chain. Every link is liable to fail and, even through the individual statistical probability is very low, the impact of such a failure cascaded through the supply chain may accumulate into a major disruption fur- ther down (or up) the line.Figure 2: Risk is present at everypoint in the supply chain The economic dependence of a business on its suppliers is massive; the rule of thumb is that external purchases for materials, components, services and indirect supplies are 55% to 60% of revenues. In some cases this will be very much higher and can exceed 90%. Page 4
  5. 5. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability The drive for globalization has been driven by the development of low cost sources of supply, giving significant economic advantage to buyers; they have been able to increase profits directly or reduce prices in order to drive market share, volume and hence profits. The consequence of this dash for lower cost has been to increase the en- demic risk profile in the supply chain. Supply chain theory has its roots in industrial dynamics and control science which shows that extended response times create an intrinsically less stable system. Cutting lead times is good, extending them is bad. The implication of the growth shown in Figure 1 is that less and less business is purely “lo- cal for local” and risk will increase. The supply chain risks of global sourcing have now been widely dis- cussed; Wilding and Braithwaite at Cranfield (vi) and Sheffi (vii) at MIT provide useful references for further reading. In essence, the conclusion is that the dollar value of international sourcing is compelling but the risks can be substantial and may not always have been addressed. Fig- ure 3 illustrates the greed-to-risk relationship; the financial motivation has generally been the winning driver in strategic terms.Figure 3: The greed-to-riskrelationship It is wrong, however, to think that risk is exclusively associated with global sourcing and trade; rather it is global sourcing and supply that has brought the issue into sharp focus. The underlying theme is bur- geoning complexity in our supply chains. For example: • Channels of customer demand with internet trading and e-fulfill- ment expanding rapidly alongside heritage routes to market • Product and service variety increasing exponentially and creating, in turn, additional complexity and risk arising from conflicting de- mands on capacity • Outsourcing of logistics and supply, with companies engaging a wider variety of services • Consolidation and specialization of sourcing and supply taking place to secure economics increasing, irrespective of whether it is off-shored or global Page 5
  6. 6. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability Introducing a Supply Chain Risk Management Framework—Design for Resilience and Mitigation The economic pressure described in the previous section is inexorable; it is forcing companies to increase customer choice and service while at the same time reducing cost. The question is how does a company as- sess, internalize and mitigate the associated risks? Work at Cranfield on behalf of a British Government Department (v) developed a classification of the types of risk to which a business is exposed. Risk was classified into those external to the firm, through demand, supply and environmental factors, and those which are internal, and potentially self-inflicted, through processes, controls and lack of risk management. This concept is illustrated in figure 4, which contains a brief description of the types of risk in each segment. Mitigation is the most crucial seg- ment in this model since it introduces the idea that risks can be identified and managed, down if not out, through design of the chain and the way in which it is set up and operated. A workbook was created to support the process of identifying risks and is a helpful resource in this process.Figure 4: The dimensions ofsupply-chain risk The workbook invites management teams to consider their supply chains in a structured way in order to identify their risks and vulnerabil- ities in terms of the scale, cost, duration and recovery actions that would be needed should risk turn to reality. This provides a cost and time estimate for each potential failure irrespective of its probability which, by definition, is low. Alongside this estimate the process invites the team to consider the miti- gating actions through which they can design out the risks together with the costs of such measures. Page 6
  7. 7. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability There are a number of important insights from such work that are some- what counter-intuitive. • Mitigating measures tend to converge for a number of risks – doing some things differently will catch a lot of the potential problems • The cost of these measures is often very small and certainly insignif- icant in relation to their consequences, were they to occur. So this is about organization, governance and careful planning in order to have the benefits while reducing the risk • The consideration of probability is a natural tendency but totally unhelpful. The probabilities are, by definition, very small; otherwise they would have been designed and managed out as ‘known issues’ • In the terms of Donald Rumsfeld, we are interested in the ‘known- unknowns’ and the ‘unknown-unknowns’. A good process of dis- covery can help to turn many of these into ‘knowns’ where mitiga- tion and responses can be planned; they may be remote but they are more predictable than was originally thought • This means that the self honesty of the process is critical to its suc- cess and, in the context of any organization’s power vortex, is dif- ficult to achieve • Even when many unknowns are converted to knowns, there will still be events that cannot be anticipated; it’s wise to have a robust recov- ery process to deal with them as they arise, which is also mitigation Given the evolution of tools and structures, it’s clear that failing to plan is like planning to fail, and in the future, we must anticipate the unex- pected. The questions that arise from the analysis so far are: • What do glitches really cost? Is it worth the effort to plan for them? • What can we learn from the experience of others? • What general principles can be drawn from those experiences? • How should a company organize to be able to recover from problems? • How can the MissionMode platform with LCP’s expertise support accelerated recovery? Supply Chain ‘Glitches’ Destroy Shareholder Value Glitches cost a lot more than might be imagined. The impact can be huge as experienced in terms of share price and shareholder value. These events also hit executives’ bonuses and share incentive schemes. At the extreme they are career limiting. The basis for this statement is provided by some formative research by Singhal and Hendricks (viii) who analyzed a sample of 861 profit warn- ing announcements from publicly quoted companies linked to supply chain difficulties. Page 7
  8. 8. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability They coined the term ‘glitches’, which in many cases is a euphemism for a full-scale disaster. They found that announcement of these problems was associated with an 8.62% market adjusted reduction in shareholder value; if a period of 60 days before and after the announcement is includ- ed the effect is about minus 20%. This finding is illustrated in Figure 5. Supply chain problems for the purpose of their research were classified as including: parts shortages; changes by customers; ramp and roll out prob- lems; production problems; development problems; quality problems. These so-called ‘glitches’ are occurring frequently and for a wide range of causes; it is clear that such issues are not isolated problems. They erode shareholder value to an extent that must be stomach churning for the CEOs involved.Figure 5: The effect of ‘glitches’on shareholder value They affect the company, customers and suppliers alike, often with seri- ous consequences. What is more, supply chain value is perishable; any ‘problem’ will have a recovery period during which the performance of the organization is sub-optimized in terms of either or both revenue and cost. Capacity and performance is lost forever. Boards, therefore, are having to start to make more structured choices about the exposure to risk that they will mitigate through design and that which they elect to deal with ‘if it happens’. It was not always this way; the profit motive and investor short-termism has been such that “profit today” was better than “sustainability in the future”. But governance and sustainability are now the watchwords; compli- ance and transparency are dictating the need for new approaches to risk management. As the following examples show, the risk agenda is a matter of corporate and executive survival. The unexpected is lying in wait at every junc- tion. “A business is its supply chain—risk and dependency is built in.” Page 8
  9. 9. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability Case Studies of Supply Chain Risks: What We Can Learn from Experience There has been major publicity for many cases of supply chain failure. Two examples from a few years ago are: • British Airways for its disastrous implementation of Terminal 5 at London’s Heathrow • Bear Stearns, and others, who lost their independence as a result of investing in sub-prime derivatives. These incidents may not immediately appear to be supply chain related, but closer inspection should change that view British Airways commissioned a new factory (terminals process passen- gers, not unlike chickens) and failed to test adequately and get a secure handover on schedule. As a result they have admitted that it will cost them tens of millions of £ Pounds and add to their existing profit warn- ing which has distracted from a record profit announcement at the same time. In Singhal and Hendricks terms this is a ramp and roll out problem Bear Stearns effectively bought bad inventory in the form of mortgage securities on which there was no redress against the suppliers. In Sing- hal and Hendricks terms this was a supplier quality problem. Attempt- ing to conceal the problem simply made it worse; if you keep bad food in the fridge, it eventually taints everything. In the more prosaic industrial world, the case material is building on how supply chains go wrong and their financial impact. Sheffi and Wilding documented many well-known examples from several years earlier, such as: • Ericsson losing its handset business as a result of a fire in a micro- chip factory because Nokia read the situation better and responded faster • The impact of the earthquake in Kobe, Japan on a range of industrial producers and the response of Toyota • The effect of a foot-and-mouth outbreak in the UK that had disas- trous consequences for a wide range of industrial producers. They might equally have described the: • The catastrophic effect on Sainsbury’s supermarkets as a result of supply chain change • The impact of bio-fuel growth on food production • Land Rover losing its supply of vehicle bodies due to supplier finan- cial collapse • Coca-Cola losing its bottled water business in the UK as a result of contamination. • $Billion write-down of inventory at CISCO in the wake of the Y2K and technology downturn Page 9
  10. 10. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability This list could be yet more extensive as Singhal and Hendricks’ research indicates through their profit warning analysis. But these are just the events that hit the headlines and where the consequences get measured and reported. Organizations around the world are experiencing inci- dents and crises (glitches) each and every day; which impact on the abil- ity of the organization to operate effectively. The challenge is to plan and anticipate better and then deal effectively with events as they occur. On this basis, Nokia and Toyota are clearly in the best in class league. In both cases they showed an ability to recover from events where disruption might have been generically anticipated but the specifics could not. Nokia recognized the event faster, understood its implications and mo- bilized to capture remaining global capacity of chips well before Erics- son. As a result Ericsson experienced long term interruption to its ability to supply and lost its market position Toyota rapidly engaged its network to move tools and re-start produc- tion of crucial components – losing only 2 to 3 weeks of assembly which was a gap it was able to make up. Recovery is clearly a strategic competence for which corporations should put in place well rehearsed routines and support mechanisms. General Principles of Risk Mitigation and Recovery A series of generalizations emerge from this analysis of risk events that can be summarized in the bullets following. • Many events are capable of a greater level of anticipation for which planning and design would reduce the risk of occurrence and/or the consequences. For example: oo Keeping a plant on an earthquake fault line, in a cyclone area or adjacent to a high hazard facility requires contingency planning oo Ramp and roll out of products, facilities and anything technologi- cal requires appropriate project governance and control • Vulnerability is accentuated when a combination of events occurs, one of which on its own would not have caused the catastrophe but when combined were fatal oo Some of these events will be the result of poor controls and op- erational compliance oo They are easy to fix and are only a surprise because all the signals were ignored • A few events are so difficult to anticipate in their specific form that they cannot be specifically planned and mitigated: oo They are usually outside the immediate control of the firm oo Their consequences are generally the same as the two previous points and so the recovery plan can draw on how to correct for other consequences. Page 10
  11. 11. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability • The keys to risk management are a controlled and governed pro- cess of planning, mitigation design, rapid detection and accelerated response and recovery oo These are critical capabilities covering detection, response devel- opment and managed recovery oo High performance requires real time visibility and communica- tions together with the skills to manage the situation All of these generalizations require the right questions to be asked dur- ing planning and then during the event if one occurs. The importance of developing and maintaining an integrated capability through the phases of recovery is emphasized in Figure 6. This diagram overlays response modes and horizons on the graph of the impact on share price of a ‘so called’ glitch. The timing of this overlay is not exactly right as a business would hope that detection and recovery would have been achieved and initiated at the minus 60 day point to achieve the best recovery. How should a company organize to be able to recover from problems? For the purpose of the balance of this paper, the assumption will be that the company has designed and planned for operational resilience. The main vulnerabilities have been identified to the best of the company’s ability and, where the business case justified, resilience measures have been put in place. This can be done using the framework illustrated in Figure 4 and the workbook referred to earlier. But that is not enough to ensure operational resilience; events will still happen from short term disruptions lasting just a few days to major events where the impact will be felt for weeks or months. It is almost impossible to point specifically to the likely impact of any event on the business before it happens.Figure 6: The effect of detection,response and recovery Page 11
  12. 12. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability For example: • An earthquake or tsunami, while a long term catastrophe for the residents, can permanently disrupt a supply chain or have an effect of only a few days • Industrial disruption can be short lived and wildcat or it can stop a particular operation for months • Quality issues can be either short term, or damage yields for long periods • Terrorist actions may take out a critical capability for good or lead to quite a short disruption. And, it is important to recognize that one operation’s disaster may be just a minor irritation for another. While normal operations and even anticipated disruptions can be proce- duralized, when un-anticipated events strike there is an important shift towards free-form teamwork and collaboration. This transition can be a subtle one as the business moves from standard process to accelerated and extended collaboration (incident management or crisis manage- ment), characterized by increased communication between participants and agility in response. It is well known that when a crisis hits, communication becomes of para- mount importance because only through communication can the correct actions be determined and delivered (ix). Working in a supply chain where there may be many organizations active (see Figure 2) makes communication even more important. So, organizations need to have in place a phased process and communi- cations structure through which they can mobilize their response for the supply chain crisis management. The acronym DEDReC-M is a conve- nient way to remember the sequence. • Detect – identify and alert the business to an event that may have a serious impact on business performance • Evaluate – evaluate the implications for the business in terms of scale and duration in order to guide decision making and response • Decide – determine the appropriate actions to guide the business through the event and speed recovery • Recover – mobilize the recovery actions that have been decided • Coordinate – coordinate the actions of players in the chain both inside and external to the business – directing the recovery • Monitor – monitor the recovery program to ensure that the situation moves from a status of ‘intensive care’ through ‘release to normal’ The controlled transition through this phased process requires central- ized visibility and direction, instant communications and rapid feed- back. Since most companies are now widely dispersed across many operating locations, the process requires a “virtual” command center approach with secure and universal communications to all the players Page 12
  13. 13. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability who may be involved. It is virtual in the sense that there is no physical location where all players come together to work on the problem. From a status of ‘business as usual’ to full scale crisis management can be a matter of minutes or hours. As described earlier in this paper, the speed of response may make all the difference to the outcome. There will not be time to bring people together in a single place and established communications methods may not be fully functioning. In- deed, people should often be located closest to the areas where they can direct the local response rather than in a remote crisis center far away from where things need to happen. It is simply unrealistic to expect that representatives from the whole supply chain can gather in one physical location. The command center needs to be able to receive situation reports from many locations under different communications modes that can be logged to provide a single picture of the situation. From this the leadership team, who may also be acting remotely, need to be able to assess the implications, determine and then direct and moni- tor the response across all the stakeholders.Figure 7: The command center,using different modes This command center approach is illustrated in Figure 8, with a com- bination of alerting to mobilize and collaboration to drive the response forward to a successful conclusion. The communications through the command center are crucial to the detect, evaluate, decide, recover, coordinate and monitor (DEDReC-M) crisis management process. However, the planning, testing and exercis- ing are the first step and equally important. To manage recovery, the business must have well-rehearsed and docu- mented crisis management plans that, accepting the uncertainty of the event itself, prepare the business for the type of disruption. Page 13
  14. 14. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability The preparation, case scripts and exercising are a major investment by the firm to anticipate the issues and build a state of readiness with a team that can be mobilized at any time. If the crisis team is well rehearsed and can work together effectively us- ing a command center, they will be well placed to deal with any event, prepared for or not. The ability to run the command center in a decentralized way requires that there is total information visibility of the situation that is in line with the crisis management plans for the situation. The combination of different times and locations is key to the command center approach. It is the only way to run a continuing situation across many locations and time zones. This is shown in figure 9 with a diagram from MissionMode.Figure 9: MissionMode combinesdifferent times and locationsusing different modes The control center can be accessed through a range of screens as shown on page 16. From the moment the situation is detected and an alert is- sued, the log can follow the information and analysis as the situation is managed through. Requests and instructions can be issued to key people and the feedback logged. Because the ‘A’ team will have exercised on the scripts and lines of com- munication, and leadership is clear, the process is designed to work well from the first moment. The team can come together for conference calls as required and they’ll all be working from the same information base. If specialist advice and information or particular skills are required, then these can be bought in and the people patched into the system. Of par- ticular importance is the ability to keep private information private, yet share that information which should be shared. Following the exercise or real crisis, the command center log can be used to analyze the effectiveness of the response and recovery and improve the business processes between all parties in the supply chain. Page 14
  15. 15. This white paper is brought to you by Crises are difficult. Crisis management software shouldn’t be.MissionMode’s web-based crisis management and Smarter Emergency Notificationcommunications solutions simplify your responseto any type of incident, from routine operations The Notification Center™ eliminates the guessworkissues to major disasters. They reduce the time and of what message to send, who to contact andcost of returning to normal business operations. how. Customized automation adapts to constantly changing situations, yet the system is so easy to use that accurate, targeted alerts can be sent in as littleIncident Management Simplified as ten seconds.”The Situation Center™ provides the tools to remedy Revolutionary Mobile Communicationsthe incident better and faster. This simple-to-usevirtual command center enables your team to share EarShot goes far beyond ordinary notification. Itinformation, monitor tasks, track people’s status, enables rich 2-way communication using forms,send alerts, access any type of file, and more. It photos, text, profiles and GPS location services.provides an accurate common operating picture for EarShot combines a unique mobile app with anmaking informed decisions and ensuring that no online control console and complete emergencydetail is overlooked. notification system. Online tools that are easy to use, cost-effective, and require minimal training. Contact us to learn more or schedule a “MissionMode radically reduces the demonstration. time it takes to get an overview of an incident and take appropriate action to www.missionmode.com minimize its impact” info@missionmode.com Group Business Risks Manager North America Toll-free: 877.833.7763 | +1 312.445.8811 “With MissionMode, we feel like we are their only customer.” International Phone: +44 1494 837198 Director of Corporate Crisis Management Page 15
  16. 16. Recovering From Glitches: Supply-chain Recovery is a Competitive Capability References i. World Trade Organisation – www.wto.org ii. Moss Kanter, R (1997) World Class: Thriving Locally in the Global Economy, Simon & Schuster Ltd iii. Braithwaite, A. & Hall, D. (1999) “Risky Business? Critical Deci- sions in Supply Chain Management”, Supply Chain Practice, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 44-56. iv. Hall, D. & Braithwaite, A. (2001) “The Development of Thinking in Strategic Supply Chain & Logistics Management” in Handbook of Logistics and Supply Chain Management, (ed) Brewer, A., Button, K. & Hensler, D., Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 81-98. v. Cranfield 2003 for the Department for Transport, Supply Chain Vulnerability ~ A Self-Assessment Workbook vi. Braithwaite, A. & Wilding, R. (2006) “The supply chain risks of global sourcing” in Managing Business Risk, (ed) Reuvid J, Sim- mons & Simmons vii. Sheffi, Y, (2005) The Resilient Enterprise: Overcoming Vulnerability for Competitive Advantage, Massachusetts Institute of Technology viii. Singhal, V.R. and Hendricks, K. Supply Chain Management Re- view, January/February 2002. ix. Sapateiro, C, & Antunes, P (2008) Crisis Management: A collabo- ration model for unstructured activities Institute for Complexity Science: 1st ICC Workshop on Complexity in Social Systems, ISCTE Lisbon, January 2008 101512 Page 16