Solubility And Equations

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Solubility And Equations

  1. 1. Solubility and chemical equations<br />Chapter Two<br />
  2. 2. Isotopes<br />Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.<br />Isotopes have the same chemical properties as the electrons in isotopes are similar.<br />Isotopes have slightly different physical properties due to differing relative masses.<br />Example : Chlorine-35 and Chlorine-37<br />
  3. 3. Cations and Anions<br />Metals from cations (positively charged ions) by losing electrons.<br />Formation of cations : (Sodium) Na [Na] +<br />Non-metals form anions (negatively charged ions) by gaining electrons.<br />Formation of anions : (Oxygen) O [O] 2-<br />
  4. 4. Molecules of elements<br />Here are a few common examples<br />Hydrogen – H2<br />Oxygen – O2<br />Nitrogen – N2<br />Chlorine – Cl2<br />Bromine – Br2<br />Phosphorus – P 4<br />Sulphur – S 8<br />
  5. 5. Polyatomic Ions<br />Polyatomic ions are ions of grouped atoms<br />Here are a few common examples<br />Nitrate – NO3-<br />Hydroxide – OH -<br />Carbonate – CO32-<br />Sulphate – SO42-<br />Phosphate – PO43-<br />Ammonia – NH3+<br />Ammonium – NH4+<br />
  6. 6. Ionic bonding<br />Ionic bonding between metals and non-metals is formed by electrovalent bonds.<br />Examples :<br />Na ++ Cl-[Na]++ [Cl]-Na Cl<br />Mg 2++ Cl -[Mg] 2++ 2[Cl]- Mg Cl2<br />Notice that the ions of both elements are swapped to become the chemical formula of the compound.<br />This also applies to covalent compounds.<br />
  7. 7. Covalent bonding<br />Non-metals share electrons to create covalent bonding between one other.<br />Examples :<br />H-+ O2-[H]1+1=2 [O]6+2=8 H2O<br />C4-+ H-[C]4+4=8 [H]1+1=2 CH4<br />Although the formation of the chemical formula is the same as ionic compounds, the method of bonding is different.<br />Both atoms gain electrons through sharing.<br />
  8. 8. Chemical Equations<br />Lithium burns in bromine to form lithium bromide.<br />Li + Br Li Br<br />Nickel (II) carbonate decomposes on heating to form nickel (II) oxide and carbon dioxide.<br />Ni CO3Ni O + CO <br />Sometimes, chemical equations have to balanced to be complete.<br />
  9. 9. Balancing Equations<br />Nitrogen reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen monoxide.<br />N2+ O2 2 NO<br />Silver nitrate decomposes on heating to form silver, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen.<br />2 AgNO32 Ag + 2 NO2+ O2<br />Iron (III) sulphate reacts with sodium hydroxide to form rubidium nitrite and oxygen.<br />Fe (SO4)3+ 6 Na OH 2 Fe (OH) 3+ 3 Na2 SO4<br />
  10. 10. Soluble elements<br />Definite solubility<br />Ammonium salts<br />Sodium salts<br />Potassium salts<br />Nitrates<br />
  11. 11. Soluble elements<br />Solubility with exceptions<br />Chlorides <br />except Lead (II) and Silver<br />Sulphates <br />except Barium, Calcium and Lead (II)<br />
  12. 12. Insoluble salts<br />Carbonates<br />except other soluble salts<br />Hydroxide<br />except other soluble salts and Calcium<br />Oxides<br />except other soluble salts and Calcium<br />

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