Why the Greeks? Why Socrates? Knowledge as precise or vague Implications for teaching Dr F.Long, Education
Hesiod/Homer 700 BCE <ul><li>Natural laws and the gods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zeus and thunder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P...
Looking for the knowledge of the gods <ul><li>Human knowledge of nature versus the knowledge of the gods </li></ul><ul><li...
How did the Greeks understand Technology? <ul><li>Tek  – wooden building, house </li></ul><ul><li>Tekton  – wood worker, h...
Implications for Teaching <ul><li>Vagueness of the knowledge affects the teachability of the art </li></ul><ul><li>An art ...
Solon 600BCE <ul><li>Technoi  must be governed by the law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing...
Technical Arts and Socrates <ul><ul><li>Precision Arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaguer Arts, highest of which was poetry...
Summary: on technology <ul><li>That some technical arts are precise and relatively easy to teach </li></ul><ul><li>That so...
Contemporary implications? <ul><li>The association of fixed knowledge with stability and implications for teaching </li></...
How to develop intuition <ul><li>Heuristic devices: symmetries; analogies;  </li></ul><ul><li>When to guess and when not t...
Intuition Dr F.Long, Education
Analysis Dr F.Long, Education
Summary <ul><li>“ what the children needed  were opportunities to test the limits of their concepts” (Bruner,  Some Elemen...
Leonard Nelson on Socrates ( Thinking  2,2 (1980): 34ff <ul><li>The Socratic method, then, is the art of teaching not phil...
Nelson (cont.) <ul><li>During such a session we may often hear the despairing appeal to the teacher: “I don’t know what yo...
Nelson (cont.) <ul><li>It is easy for dogmatic instruction to soar into higher regions. Indifferent to self-understanding,...
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L2 why the greeks philosophy of education 2012

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  •     Hesiod around 700BCE: theogony of the gods   The gods, however, had discovered a way fo tinkering with nature. They had discovered some of the laws underlying nature   The gods were powerful because they has discovered some of the secrets of nature. Zeus the most powerful controlled thunder. Prometheus stole fire and used it to hold power over humans, but was punished for it Proteus could change shape and use craft to achieve his ends   In Homer we find that the gods can intervene in human affairs and cause jealousy, lust, anger, uproar in human affairs.   The gods operate by craft, by concealment and the word Homer uses is techne, meaning cunning or craftiness. It means the judicious use of secret knowledge to further one’s own power interests. Power offered control over nature but not total control because unlike the teknites , the gods did not create a plan but simply used what was there.   Here we see two type of knowledge appearing (although not very clearly)   expert knowledge, the knowledge of technites (wood engineering, building construction) the secret knowledge of nature, used either to shape it (demiurge) or to express power.
  • What about medicine? More like a craft than a skill. Physicians had to diagnose sickness and suggest cures. Physicians were valued highly precisely because the knowledge of how the human body work s was so vague. Physicians were valued for their diagnostic skills, their ability first to notice the ailment and get to the roots of it and then cure it.   Mythos arises to fill in the holes in knowledge. No need for it in tek type knowledge. This may explain why so may piseogs relate to health, a sign of the fallibility of the knowledge   Doctors and health….     In human knowledge Fishing and farming were examples of a craftiness depending on a fallible kind of knowledge in nature Smithing, sculpting, wood work were examples of rational expert knowledge, fully explicable, predictable and reliable. This slide will present the beginnings of the theory Mythos Logos   Hippocrates pointed out the difficulty of teaching medicine for this reason that it was not entirely a form of reliable, rationally thorough knowledge. This was not a problem for the ship builder. Why?
  • Expert – “someone who is likely to go about his task in a rational and dependable manner” (Gould, 1955; Roochnik, 1996)   Experts- best teachers because they know the A to Z of a rational process Plan in mind (end in view – telos) Means to achieve that plan Mastery over the process (achieved because of rational nature of this process)   The art of Building is a determinate field of knowledge and action, a form of expertise, ordered to produce something which is the end (telos) or end product.   Building is an A to Z process. Humans create something out of materials which otherwise would remain unshaped, Irony here is that humans actually create something out of nothing.
  • L2 why the greeks philosophy of education 2012

    1. 1. Why the Greeks? Why Socrates? Knowledge as precise or vague Implications for teaching Dr F.Long, Education
    2. 2. Hesiod/Homer 700 BCE <ul><li>Natural laws and the gods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zeus and thunder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prometheus and fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Techne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secret knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Craftiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not the same as expert knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision techne (house builder) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial techne of humans who grapple to understand natural processes </li></ul></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    3. 3. Looking for the knowledge of the gods <ul><li>Human knowledge of nature versus the knowledge of the gods </li></ul><ul><li>human knowledge of human affairs versus divine knowledge of human affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing, farming and medicine (imprecise) </li></ul><ul><li>Smithing, wood working, sculpting (precise) </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry (shaping of words) and prophesy (insight into nature’s/ gods’ intentions? </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    4. 4. How did the Greeks understand Technology? <ul><li>Tek – wooden building, house </li></ul><ul><li>Tekton – wood worker, house builder </li></ul><ul><li>Tektonike – art of house building </li></ul><ul><li>Teknites – expert in woodworking. A-Z </li></ul><ul><li>David Roochnik (1996) Of Art and Wisdom: Plato’s Understanding of Techne. Penn State University Press </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    5. 5. Implications for Teaching <ul><li>Vagueness of the knowledge affects the teachability of the art </li></ul><ul><li>An art that is clear (A to Z) is determinate and rational and easier to teach (smithing) </li></ul><ul><li>An art that is vaguer (no A and no Z) is more difficult to teach (medicine) </li></ul><ul><li>Where would you put teaching as an art? </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    6. 6. Solon 600BCE <ul><li>Technoi must be governed by the law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smithing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophesy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Society must decide which technoi to value </li></ul><ul><li>The issue of value </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    7. 7. Technical Arts and Socrates <ul><ul><li>Precision Arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaguer Arts, highest of which was poetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socrates, the sculptor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education -Influencing people; Affecting the health of their souls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue of Value; Moral Value; Social Value of Arts to the State; </li></ul></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    8. 8. Summary: on technology <ul><li>That some technical arts are precise and relatively easy to teach </li></ul><ul><li>That some technical arts are vague and more difficult to teach – they require leaving space for judgement </li></ul><ul><li>That technical arts can contribute to a society by making it better </li></ul><ul><li>That the value of the art depends on the artist’s goodness/ honesty/ integrity </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    9. 9. Contemporary implications? <ul><li>The association of fixed knowledge with stability and implications for teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The association of vague knowledge with instability and the implications for teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The separation of intuition from analysis </li></ul><ul><li>An intuitive grasp of something is more clearer in one sense but has inadequate evidence </li></ul><ul><li>An analytic grasp breaks down something into smaller factors </li></ul><ul><li>To teach intuition (art appreciation, poem appreciation, beauty etc.) requires room for imprecision, guessing, judgement outside the box. </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    10. 10. How to develop intuition <ul><li>Heuristic devices: symmetries; analogies; </li></ul><ul><li>When to guess and when not to guess </li></ul><ul><li>The fostering of self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>The tolerance for creativity (against the uniformity of analysis) </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    11. 11. Intuition Dr F.Long, Education
    12. 12. Analysis Dr F.Long, Education
    13. 13. Summary <ul><li>“ what the children needed were opportunities to test the limits of their concepts” (Bruner, Some Elements of Discovery , p.30) </li></ul><ul><li>Readings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catherine Milvain, Thinking Skills within the Humanities , Ethos, 16, 4 (2008) pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andy Hargreaves, The Emotional Practice of Teaching , Teaching and Teacher Education, 14, 8 (1998), 835-854 </li></ul></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    14. 14. Leonard Nelson on Socrates ( Thinking 2,2 (1980): 34ff <ul><li>The Socratic method, then, is the art of teaching not philosophy but philosophizing, the art not of teaching about philosophers but of making philosophers of the students (p.34). </li></ul><ul><li>The art of forcing minds to freedom (p.35) </li></ul><ul><li>The essential thing is the skill with which the teacher puts the pupils on their own responsibility at the very beginning by teaching them to go by themselves….self-guidance having replaced the teacher’s supervision (p.35) </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    15. 15. Nelson (cont.) <ul><li>During such a session we may often hear the despairing appeal to the teacher: “I don’t know what you want…” Whereupon the teacher replies: “I? I want nothing at all”(p.36) </li></ul><ul><li>Finally nobody knows where the discussion is headed…(p.36) </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education
    16. 16. Nelson (cont.) <ul><li>It is easy for dogmatic instruction to soar into higher regions. Indifferent to self-understanding, it purchases its illusory success at the cost of more and more deeply rooted dishonesty. (p. 37) </li></ul><ul><li>The test of one’s own conclusions and their subjection to the rules of logic is the province of one’s faculty of judgment, not at all the province of logic…p. 37 </li></ul>Dr F.Long, Education

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