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1421 Talk For 60+ Festival


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A talk for the 60+ festival Portsmouth UK about a terrific book I read...

  • This was fascinating! Please would you be able to give it to the Portsmouth Branch of the Historical Association in our next programme (2012 - 2013)? Most likely 08.01.2013 although other second Tuesdays still available.We use Park Building, 7.00 - 8.30, fund travel expenses and have 20 - 35 attendees.Email ; for further details. Thank you
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1421 Talk For 60+ Festival

  1. 1. 1421: The Year China Discovered the World? * A Personal Discovery for the Portsmouth over 60s festival October 2011 by Peter Missen
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>My personal discovery </li></ul><ul><li>The book's author </li></ul><ul><li>The book/structure </li></ul><ul><li>Nautical charts </li></ul><ul><li>Info on China </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>The web site </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence </li></ul>
  3. 3. My personal discovery <ul><li>One Saturday morning </li></ul><ul><li>Browsing a bookshop </li></ul><ul><li>For “Japanese” books </li></ul><ul><li>Oriental design caught my eye </li></ul><ul><li>Flicked through the book </li></ul><ul><li>Sparked an immediate interest </li></ul><ul><li>Parted with some cash </li></ul><ul><li>Went home and read most of the day, HOOKED! </li></ul>
  4. 4. My personal discovery <ul><li>The Skills for Life group looking for speakers </li></ul><ul><li>I mentioned the 1421 book </li></ul><ul><li>and here I am! </li></ul><ul><li>I did contact Gavin </li></ul><ul><li>and the Publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher sent a set of foils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just pictures, no notes! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have used a few (GM) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. The author – Gavin Menzies
  6. 7. The author – Gavin Menzies <ul><li>According to Wikipedia: </li></ul><ul><li>Gavin Menzies (born 1937) is a retired British submarine commander and amateur historian best known as the author of the controversial book 1421: The Year China Discovered the World, which asserts that ships from the Chinese fleet of admiral Zheng He travelled to the America s prior to Christopher Columbus' arrival in 1492 and circumnavigated the globe a century before Ferdinand Magellan as part of the era of Chinese exploration . This thesis has been discounted &quot;as nonsense&quot; by professional historians. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The author – Gavin Menzies <ul><li>Menzies, who has no command of Chinese, was born in London, England. Early versions of his book erroneously said he was born in China but in actuality he moved to China when he was 3 weeks old. Menzies joined the Royal Navy in 1953 and served in submarines from 1959 to 1970. Menzies claims he sailed the routes sailed by Ferdinand Magellan and Captain James Cook, while he was commander of the diesel submarine HMS Rorqual between 1968 and 1970, a contention questioned by some of his critics. </li></ul>
  8. 9. The book <ul><li>1421 The Year China Discovered the World </li></ul><ul><li>By Gavin Menzies </li></ul><ul><li>Published by Bantam Press, London </li></ul><ul><li>Back cover says: On 8 March 1421, the largest fleet the world had ever seen set sail from China. The ships, some nearly five hundred feet long, were under the command of Emperor Zhu Di's loyal eunuch admirals. Their orders were: </li></ul><ul><li>' to proceed all the way to the end of the earth '. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The book <ul><li>Back cover continued The journey would last for two years and by the time the fleet returned, China was beginning its long, self-imposed isolation from the world it had so recently embraced. And so the great ships were left to rot, and the records of their journeys were destroyed. And with them, the knowledge that the Chinese had circumvented the globe a century before Magellan, reached America seventy years before Columbus, and Australia three hundred and fifty years before Cook. The result of fifteen years research, 1421 is Gavin Menzies' enthralling account of this remarkable journey, of his discoveries and the persuasive evidence to support them: ancient maps, precise navigational knowledge, astronomy, surviving accounts of Chinese explorers and later European navigators as well as the traces the fleet left behind. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Fact or fiction or romance? <ul><li>I'm not an authority on any of this </li></ul><ul><li>I present some of what's in the book </li></ul><ul><li>Many have trashed this work </li></ul><ul><li>There are supporters of this work </li></ul><ul><li>The book was a fascinating read </li></ul><ul><li>The book holds many facts about China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medieval China was very developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China sent out treasure fleets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China knew some things centuries before Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don't shoot the messenger! </li></ul><ul><li>I'm happy to make this session interactive... </li></ul>
  11. 12. Book structure <ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>I Imperial China </li></ul><ul><li>II The guiding stars </li></ul><ul><li>III The voyage of Hong Bao </li></ul><ul><li>IV The voyage of Zhou Man </li></ul><ul><li>V The voyage of Zhou Wen </li></ul><ul><li>VI The voyage of Yang Qing </li></ul><ul><li>VII Portugal inherits the crown </li></ul>
  12. 13. Book structure <ul><li>Epilogue: The Chinese legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Postscript </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese circumnavigation of the world 1421-3: Synopsis of Evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The determination of longitude </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Index </li></ul>
  13. 14. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Royal Navy for his education in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seamanship, cartography, astronavigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visits to 900+ museums worldwide (3 called out) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The British Museum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shaanxi Historical Museum in Xian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Museum of History in Lima </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numerous libraries all around the world </li></ul><ul><li>6 pages of names to thank </li></ul><ul><li>Finally his Italian wife, Marcella, for the finance! </li></ul>
  14. 15. Memorial stone <ul><li>The countries beyond the horizon and at the ends of the earth have all become subjects and to the western of the western or the most northern of the northern countries however far they may be. </li></ul><ul><li>Part of an inscription on a memorial stone erected by Admiral Zheng He at Ch'ang Lo on the banks of the Yangtze estuary in 1431. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Zheng He <ul><li>In the People's Republic of China </li></ul><ul><li>11th July is Maritime Day ( 中国航海日 ) </li></ul><ul><li>The day is devoted to the memory of Zheng He's first voyage </li></ul><ul><li>1st Voyage 1405-1407 Champa, Java, Palembang, Malacca, Aru, Sumatra, Lambri, Ceylon, Kollam, Cochin, Calicut </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Voyage 1407-1409 Champa, Java, Siam, Cochin, Ceylon </li></ul><ul><li>3rd Voyage 1409-1411 Champa, Java, Malacca, Sumatra, Ceylon, Quilon, Cochin, Calicut, Siam, Lambri, Kaya, Coimbatore, Puttanpur </li></ul><ul><li>4th Voyage 1413-1415 Champa, Java, Palembang, Malacca, Sumatra, Ceylon, Cochin, Calicut, Kayal, Pahang, Kelantan, Aru, Lambri, Hormuz, Maldives, Mogadishu, Barawa, Malindi,Aden, Muscat, Dhufar </li></ul><ul><li>5th Voyage 1416-1419 Champa, Pahang, Java, Malacca, Sumatra, Lambri, Ceylon, Sharwayn, Cochin, Calicut, Hormuz, Maldives, Mogadishu, Barawa, Malindi, Aden </li></ul><ul><li>6th Voyage 1421-1422 Hormuz, East Africa, countries of the Arabian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>7th Voyage 1430-1433 Champa, Java, Palembang, Malacca, Sumatra, Ceylon, Calicut, Hormuz </li></ul>
  16. 17. Introduction <ul><li>Retired Author - interested in medieval history </li></ul><ul><li>Studying charts of ancient mariners </li></ul><ul><li>Noticed 2 large “islands” where nothing exists today </li></ul><ul><li>On Pizzigano Chart of 1424 </li></ul><ul><li>Worked out as the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico and Guadeloupe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who was there? </li></ul><ul><li>70 years before Columbus! </li></ul><ul><li>Started a 15 year search </li></ul>
  17. 18. Nautical charts <ul><li>Progressing through the book </li></ul><ul><li>Sparked an interest in these early charts </li></ul><ul><li>I spent a bit of “Google” time </li></ul><ul><li>I'll show a few of the well know charts </li></ul><ul><li>From before and after the 1421 voyages </li></ul>
  18. 19. Nautical charts list <ul><li>Kangnido 1402 </li></ul><ul><li>De Virga World Map 1411-15 </li></ul><ul><li>Ming Map 1418? </li></ul><ul><li>Pizzigano Chart 1424 </li></ul><ul><li>Fra Mauro's Planisphere 1459 </li></ul><ul><li>Cantino World Map 1502 </li></ul><ul><li>Waldseemüller Map 1507 </li></ul><ul><li>Piri Reis Map 1513 </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Rotz Map 1542 </li></ul>
  19. 20. Kangnido 1402 The Honil Gangni Yeokdae Gukdo Jido &quot;Map of Integrated Lands and Regions of Historical Countries and Capitals&quot; is a map of the world made in Korea in 1402. It is 158.5 cm by 168.0 cm, painted on silk.
  20. 21. De Virga World Map 1411-15 This map, made by Albertinus de Virga between 1411 and 1415, is drawn on a piece of parchment 696x440 mm and also includes a calendar and two tables. One table was for calculating lunar changes, the other the date of Easter.
  21. 22. 1418 Ming Dynasty Map?
  22. 23. 1418 Ming Map?
  23. 24. Pizzigano Chart 1424 The Pizzigano chart is an Italian portolan chart dated 1424. The map contains large islands in the North Atlantic Ocean to the west of Spain and Portugal!
  24. 25. Pizzigano Chart 1424 GM
  25. 26. Pizzigano Chart 1424 GM
  26. 27. Fra Mauro's Planisphere 1459 Fra Mauro's planisphere is &quot;considered the greatest memorial of medieval cartography&quot; according to Roberto Almagià. The map was made by the Venetian monk Fra Mauro. The map is a circular planisphere drawn on parchment and set in a wooden frame, about two meters in diameter.
  27. 28. Cantino World Map 1502 The Cantino World Map is named after Alberto Cantino , an agent for the Duke of Ferrara, who successfully smuggled it from Portugal to Italy in 1502.
  28. 29. Cantino World Map 1502 GM
  29. 30. Waldseemüller Map 1507 The Waldseemüller map is a wall map of the world drawn by German cartographer Martin Waldseem ü ller. It was one of the first maps to chart latitude and longitude precisely, following the example of Ptolemy, and was the first map to use the name “America&quot;.
  30. 31. The Piri Reis map was compiled in 1513 from military intelligence by the Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis, on gazelle skin. The half of the map that survives shows the western coasts of Europe and North Africa and the coast of Brazil with reasonable accuracy. Piri Reis Map 1513
  31. 32. Piri Reis Map 1513 GM
  32. 33. Jean Rotz Map 1542 The Jean Rotz map was drawn by the official 'hydrographer' to King Henry VIII. The map depicts the coastlines of Africa, Asia, India, and China with great accuracy, yet more surprisingly it also shows the east, west, and northernmost parts of Australia, some two centuries before Cook made his 'discovery'.
  33. 34. Google maps 21 st Century
  34. 35. Google maps 21 st Century
  35. 36. Google maps - Caribbean Puerto Rico Guadeloupe
  36. 37. Back to the book... <ul><li>Emphasising information on China </li></ul><ul><li>15 years of research in the book </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of background information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants/trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peoples encountered </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. I Imperial China - The Emperor's grand plan <ul><li>New Year's day 2 Feb 1421 </li></ul><ul><li>China dwarfed every nation </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Zhu Di's Inauguration </li></ul><ul><li>In the forbidden palace </li></ul><ul><li>28 heads of state present </li></ul><ul><li>From Asia, Arabia, Africa, and The Indian Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>All brought by Chinese ships </li></ul>
  38. 39. I Imperial China - The Emperor's grand plan <ul><li>NOT INVITED WERE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Roman Emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor of Byzantium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doge of Venice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King of England (Henry V) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King of France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King of Castille </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King of Portugal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These backward states lacked any: Henry V </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worthwhile scientific knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. I Imperial China – The fleet set sail <ul><li>Navigated using the Wu Pei Chi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This document has survived </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1421 China had over 600 years of ocean navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the Pole Star </li></ul><ul><li>They had the compass </li></ul><ul><li>Could not use sun for latitude yet (Portuguese in 1474) </li></ul><ul><li>Used sand clocks for time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 lots of 2.4 hours per day (length of a seaman's watch) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem measuring longitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not tell the speed of water moving under them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No measure of absolute time yet (wait 350 years for this!) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. I Imperial China – The fleet set sail <ul><li>Chinese Marine Engineers built awesome ships </li></ul><ul><li>Able to withstand storms and typhoons </li></ul><ul><li>Junk compared with a European ship </li></ul>
  41. 42. I Imperial China – The fleet set sail <ul><li>15 th Century Chinese marine technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robust frame in sections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watertight bulkheads bolted together with brass pins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 layers of hardwood on a teak frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caulked with coir and sealed with boiled tung oil and lime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acres of orchards of tung trees needed for the fleets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforced bow with channels to internal compartments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teak keel bound with iron hoops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectangular and composite stones plus mud balls for ballast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional movable keels for stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi submersible anchors to reduce rolling </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. I Imperial China – The fleet set sail <ul><li>The Chinese junks of the 'treasure fleet' were MASSIVE! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500 feet long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 masts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 decks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Models show: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zheng He's junk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European ship </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. I Imperial China – The fleet set sail <ul><li>Admiral Zheng He's fleet included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhere between 500 and 800 ships (accounts vary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>180 medical officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 medical officer per 150 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elite crew of navigators and compass men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worked from a small bridge – lived separate to rest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ships also carried artisans and all sorts of craftsmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caulkers, sail makers, anchor and pump repairers, scaffolders, carpenters, tung oil painters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These craftsmen kept the fleet in good repair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historian, Ma Huan, on board to document voyage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Published “Overall Survey of the Ocean Shores” in 1433 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 45. I Imperial China – The fleet set sail <ul><li>Separate 'grain ships' carried supplies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soya beans, wheat, millet, and rice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Chinese knew about scurvy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Took limes, lemons, oranges, pomelos, and coconuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 months supply for each sailor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soya very versatile – sprouted, milk, curd, tofu, and sauce </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh vegetables – cabbages, turnips, and bamboo shoots </li></ul><ul><li>Limited meat but lots of fresh fish caught by otters </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh water and knew how to distil from sea water </li></ul><ul><li>Rats hunted by dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenic to kill bugs and insects </li></ul>
  45. 46. I Imperial China – A thunderbolt strikes <ul><li>2 months after fleet sailed </li></ul><ul><li>Lightening struck the imperial palace </li></ul><ul><li>The gods signal a change of emperor! </li></ul><ul><li>Economy hit hard by many building works: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbidden city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treasure fleet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great wall </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. I Imperial China – A thunderbolt strikes <ul><li>Emperor Zhu Di was weakened </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol leader refused to pay his tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Zhu Di mounted an army to get back pride </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 million men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>340,000 horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>177,550 carts to transport grain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Died on 24 th August 1424 </li></ul><ul><li>His son Zhu Gaozhi ascended the throne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A disaster for the treasure fleet! </li></ul></ul>
  47. 48. I Imperial China – A thunderbolt strikes <ul><li>Emperor Zhu Di's funeral was a grand affair </li></ul><ul><li>As was his life – a visionary and gambler </li></ul><ul><li>2 day march to the imperial mausoleum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At Chang Ling in the NW foothills of Beijing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A cortege 10,000 soldiers and officials </li></ul><ul><li>A magnificent tomb </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow imperial cloak and military decorations </li></ul><ul><li>Plus 16 concubines buried alive with him! </li></ul>
  48. 49. I Imperial China – A thunderbolt strikes <ul><li>Zhu Gaozhi issued this edict on day 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All treasure fleet voyages to be stopped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All ships ordered home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All ship building and repair stopped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All official procurement for overseas voyages to be stopped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All purchasers to return to capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>China reverted to basics and closed down to the outside world </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation controlled – no mining of gold and silver </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase of luxury goods banned </li></ul><ul><li>Budget deficit slashed </li></ul><ul><li>Note: China had paper money from 806 (centuries before Europe) </li></ul>
  49. 50. I Imperial China – A thunderbolt strikes <ul><li>Any foreign trade meant execution as a pirate! </li></ul><ul><li>Learning foreign languages was prohibited </li></ul><ul><li>Embargo on trade rigorous for next 100 years </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent trade a south coast strip of land burnt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>700 miles by 30 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population moved inland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shipyards decommissioned and plans destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>All accounts of Zheng He's voyages destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Established colonies abandoned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa, New Zealand, North and South America, Australia </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. II The guiding stars - Rounding the cape <ul><li>The “missing years” from 1421 to 1423 </li></ul><ul><li>Liu Daxia, Ministry of War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordered destruction of all written records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 carved stones found, 1 in Chiang-su, 1 in Liu-Chia-Chang </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To commemorate Zheng He's crowning achievements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The great voyages of the treasure fleets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have travelled more than 100,000 li of immense water spaces and have beheld in the ocean huge waves like mountains rising sky high, and we have set eyes on barbarian regions far away, hidden in a blue transparency of light vapours, while our sails, loftily unfurled like clouds, day and night continued their course, rapid like that of a star, traversing those savage waves. (1 li is approximately 500m) </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. II The guiding stars - Rounding the cape <ul><li>The Chinese traded with Calicut since Tang dynasty (618-907) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital of Kerala and most important port in Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled by Hindu kings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive trade: cotton, textiles, spices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese use Calicut as a forward base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All sailing distances based from Calicut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The fleet returned ambassadors to Africa and headed South </li></ul><ul><li>Once round the Cape the wind and currents give a free ride all the way to Cape Verde Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese charted the West coast of Africa on their journey </li></ul><ul><li>After leaving Cape Verde next land sighted would be Brazil </li></ul>
  52. 53. II The guiding stars - The New World <ul><li>In 499 Hoei-Shin returned from a land 20,000 li eastwards </li></ul><ul><li>He named the land Fusang after a tree there </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tree bore a red pear shaped fruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had edible shoots and bark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhabitants used for clothing and paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Maguey tree that grows in Central & South America? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hoei-Shin commented no iron was found </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron is found all over world except for Central America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did Hoei-Shin get there nearly 1000 years before? </li></ul>
  53. 54. Voyages of the Treasure Fleets, 1421-3
  54. 55. III The voyage of Hong Bao - Voyage to Antarctica and Australia <ul><li>Hong Bao's designated task was to chart world eastwards from 52º40'S (Falkland Islands) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabbage, wild celery, penguins, geese, and fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No fruit there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 4 legged animal – a tame fox type creature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly descended from Chinese food dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Canopus used as guiding star in the Southern hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Straight of Magellan” same latitude as star </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superb feat to get a junk through the straights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magellan had a Chinese map when he sailed </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. III The voyage of Hong Bao - Voyage to Antarctica and Australia <ul><li>Cold and ice held no fears for Chinese sailors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese had 800 years experience of polar sailing (North) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 years experience of navigating in ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nearest port to Beijing is ice bound 3 months a year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of Canopus gave Chinese a 50 year lead over Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese charted the South Shetland Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charting precision meant they were </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there a while! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninhabited wilderness of ice and rocks </li></ul></ul>
  56. 57. IV The voyage of Zhou Man - Australia <ul><li>Zhou Man's task – survey world west of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Encountered the Humboldt current </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swept northwards up the coast of Chile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A novel about Zheng He's voyages – Hsi-Yang-Chi (1597) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listed tributes offered from barbarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whale eyes, bream whiskers, camels that go 1000 li, ambergris, frankincense, Cholula porcelain bowls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Where was the source for these? </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming camels were llamas everything comes from Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Next stop Australia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just the small matter of the Pacific Ocean to cross... </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. IV The voyage of Zhou Man - The Barrier Reef and Spice Islands <ul><li>Valuable scientists on Chinese junks were mining engineers </li></ul><ul><li>China + India had half of the world's entire wealth in 1421 </li></ul><ul><li>China had centuries of experience in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geology, mineral extraction, processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese set up long term mineral extraction settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet included horse ships for exploring lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood ponies from Tajikistan were favourites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese took great care of their horses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese geologists arrived in a mineral paradise </li></ul><ul><li>Wrecks on coast, stone buildings ashore, aboriginal rock carvings and paintings all signal Chinese were in New South Wales </li></ul>
  58. 59. IV The voyage of Zhou Man - The first colony in the Americas <ul><li>Arrived in Nanjing 8 October 1423 with no envoys </li></ul><ul><li>Where did he sail for 4 months in the Pacific? </li></ul><ul><li>The Pacific coast of North America? </li></ul><ul><li>A wreck off Neahkahine beach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of teak, calophyllum pulley (South East Asian wood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found paraffin wax (used to desalinate sea water) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asiatic chickens from Chile to California </li></ul><ul><li>Roses indigenous to South East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Ming blue and white porcelain </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval Chinese anchors found off California coast </li></ul>
  59. 60. IV The voyage of Zhou Man - Colonies in Central America <ul><li>Mexican maque lacquer process identical to Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual, complex, and time consuming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface preparation - cracks are filled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With nimacarta – a mixture of rice flour and seshime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article is sanded down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then 10-100 coats of lacquer applied with human hair brush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Layer must dry, be sanded, and then polished </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polishing with whetstone and deer horn powder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red colours used predominate in Mexico and China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did the processes evolve separately? </li></ul><ul><li>Same with dye stuffs producing brilliant colours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex procedures to extract and fix - coincidence? </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. V The voyage of Zhou Wen - Satan's Island <ul><li>By 1337 China had accurate estimate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of the distance from the Pacific to the Atlantic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From Cape Verde just a short 2000 mile hop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zhou Wen probably thought it was 4000 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the sea moving under them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cannibals in Guadeloupe? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As Columbus found later </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did the Chinese give this island a wide berth? </li></ul><ul><li>Pizzigano information much less detailed than Puerto Rico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico people much more peaceful! </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. V The voyage of Zhou Wen - The treasure fleet runs aground <ul><li>Did the fleet get damaged? </li></ul><ul><li>Many wrecks in the area </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Bimini Road? </li></ul><ul><li>2 man-made trenches of huge rocks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slip ways to repair Chinese Junks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Ballast stones from the damaged vessels? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hauled up ships with rudder and keel in the groove </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flat bottom boat needs lots of ballast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500 – 600 tons (2000 tons of cargo) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investigation blocked by Bahamian authorities... </li></ul>
  62. 63. V The voyage of Zhou Wen - Settlement in North America <ul><li>In 1542 Verrazzano encountered people the colour of brass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With long black hair and quick black eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not natives – where did they come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese DNA evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Physical evidence... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhode island tower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wants to test the mortar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese use gypsum & rice to bind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many stones with carvings </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. V The voyage of Zhou Wen - Expedition to the North Pole <ul><li>The island of Corvo – Portuguese arrived in 1430 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found a statue of a man on a horse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inscription was not understandable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greenland circumnavigated! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm summers meant ice receded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hvalsey people possess Chinese DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Intricate carvings found on walrus ivory </li></ul><ul><li>Did the Waldseemüller map details come from the journey home? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North coast of Siberia very accurate – who was there? </li></ul></ul>
  64. 65. VI The voyage of Yang Qing - Solving the riddle <ul><li>Yang Quin stayed in the Indian Ocean – a Chinese lake! </li></ul><ul><li>100s of years experience navigating the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese built many observatories </li></ul><ul><li>Measured time by length of shadows </li></ul><ul><li>By 721 Chinese had measured shadows accurately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary by 3.56 inches per 400 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zhou Gong tower measurements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer solstice 12.3695 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter solstice 76.7400 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Could calculate each day of the year from the noon shadow </li></ul>
  65. 66. VII Portugal inherits the crown - Where the earth ends <ul><li>In 1421 Portuguese sailed to the uninhabited island of Madeira </li></ul><ul><li>Colonisation began in June 1421 </li></ul><ul><li>News filtered back to Portugal of the Chinese discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>They took up the gauntlet </li></ul><ul><li>And were NOT sailing into the unknown! </li></ul><ul><li>Started a great wave of European expansion and colonisation </li></ul><ul><li>Spread across the globe </li></ul><ul><li>Has affected the destiny </li></ul><ul><li>of billions of people </li></ul>
  66. 67. VII Portugal inherits the crown - Colonizing the New World <ul><li>All about Portugal... </li></ul>
  67. 68. VII Portugal inherits the crown - On the shoulders of giants <ul><li>North East coast of Brazil discovered by the Chinese? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On many maps before European explorers sailed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europeans rediscovered the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known at first hand to the Chinese and Niccolo da Conti </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Niccolo da Conti was on a Chinese Junk that reached Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans set sail with Chinese maps showing the way </li></ul><ul><li>How unlucky China was that fire ravaged the Forbidden City </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The world could have been a much different place! </li></ul></ul>
  68. 69. Epilogue: The Chinese legacy <ul><li>Chinese Buddhist architecture graces Asian skylines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Malacca to Kobe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese silk from the Ming dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Africa to Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese blue and white ceramics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Australia to Manchuria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese jade </li></ul><ul><li>Communities united by trade, religion, and written language </li></ul><ul><li>4000 km from east to west and north to south </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chinese imperial footprint remains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The footprint of a colossus </li></ul></ul>
  69. 70. Postscript <ul><li>Gavin gave a talk in 2002 about his theories and evidence </li></ul><ul><li>At the Royal Geographic Society, London </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Articles appeared in 74 newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>New evidence poured in from all around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Including news of a large wreck off Fraser Island </li></ul><ul><li>More and more DNA evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Korean DNA in Norwegian fishermen </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. Appendices <ul><li>Well over 100 pages! </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix 1 - Chinese circumnavigation of the world 1421-3: Synopsis of Evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part I – European explorers did not discover the New World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part II – Only the Chinese had the capacity to chart the world at that time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part III – Evidence of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part IV - Evidence Zheng He's fleets' visits to specific places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part V – Genetic fingerprints left by Zheng He's fleets – the DNA evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendix 2 - The determination of longitude </li></ul>
  71. 72. Notes <ul><li>There are comprehensive notes throughout </li></ul><ul><li>the book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19 pages! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually link to evidence or further reading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need 2 bookmarks for this book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One for the text and one for the notes... </li></ul></ul>
  72. 73. Index <ul><li>Yes there's an index, it's a book! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 pages of 2 column index </li></ul></ul>
  73. 74. Conclusions <ul><li>Very glad I read the book </li></ul><ul><li>Many ideas in the book to make you think </li></ul><ul><li>Increased my awareness of Chinese culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I have since started to learn Mandarin... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shows what we take for granted these days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Positioning System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google: Maps, Images, Search </li></ul></ul>
  74. 75. The web site <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>G o take a look if this has sparked an interest </li></ul>
  75. 77. Detail left out <ul><li>There follows a few slides I'd made but they did not make the final cut... </li></ul>
  76. 78. Web site flyer <ul><li>1421: The Year China Discovered the World </li></ul><ul><li>Gavin Menzies </li></ul><ul><li>Published by Bantam Press, London </li></ul><ul><li>In his first book, 1421, Gavin Menzies argues that a huge Chinese fleet circumnavigated and charted the world years before the first great European voyages of discovery. The evidence for this comes in many different forms: from shipwrecks and ancient maps, to local people's accounts and their DNA. </li></ul>
  77. 79. Evidence <ul><li>DNA tests show that in the Americas today there are 18 peoples whose forebears were settlers from Zheng He’s fleets. </li></ul><ul><li>These people have lived separate lives to other native Indian peoples from that day to this. </li></ul><ul><li>Many still understand Chinese and practise Chinese customs. </li></ul><ul><li>China had thus settled the Americas before Columbus set sail - and done so on a grand scale. </li></ul>
  78. 80. Evidence <ul><li>By 1424 the Chinese had set up a world wide trading Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only did the first European explorers have maps (based on earlier Chinese ones), which showed them the way to the New World, but also they found an established international trading system when they got there. </li></ul>
  79. 81. Evidence <ul><li>There is extensive Chinese heritage (genes) in Native American Indian populations - far more than has hitherto been accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>Some American Indian people’s DNA is so close to Chinese they could be deemed to be Chinese. </li></ul><ul><li>The Maya of the Yucatan peninsular are Chinese (DNA). </li></ul><ul><li>Late Maya art of Yucatan is often Chinese art. </li></ul>
  80. 82. Evidence <ul><li>Some of the Inca people of Peru and Chile are Chinese (DNA). </li></ul><ul><li>The Inca hierarchy, notably Viracocha, was made up of Zheng He’s Admirals. </li></ul><ul><li>Their secret language was Phaspa. </li></ul><ul><li>Fernando Llosa Porras and Reverend Ranking were correct. </li></ul><ul><li>Chile or “Chi-Le” was a directly ruled dependency of China. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Giants” of Patagonia were Mongolians. </li></ul>
  81. 83. Evidence <ul><li>It is arguable that the Aztec Montezuma was a Chinese Admiral - the birth of the Aztec Nation coincided with the Arrival of Zheng He’s fleets. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1422 a huge comet hit the earth at 48 degrees South, 166 degrees East, destroying Chinese Fleets and civilisations across the World - work of Dallas Abbott and team (comet) and Professor Edward Bryant (tsunami). </li></ul>
  82. 84. Evidence <ul><li>Zhou Man’s Fleet was hit by a resultant tsunami, and was hurled north to New Zealand and north-west to Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>The wrecks of 44 of Zhou Man’s Fleet have been located on New Zealand, South Island - work of Cedric Bell. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Man’s Fleet was coming to revive the Chinese settlement on New Zealand, which had been established in the Han Dynasty (c.150 BC) - Cedric Bell’s work. </li></ul>
  83. 85. Evidence <ul><li>The Chinese had occupied New Zealand, South Island for 2000 years before Captain Cook arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>This accounts for Maori’s MtDNA being Taiwanese - work of Dr Geoffrey Chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand was a Chinese colony founded for the extraction of gold and minerals. </li></ul>
  84. 86. Evidence <ul><li>Zheng He’s Fleet passed through the Red Sea - Nile canal and reached Europe - Martin Tai and Antonia Bowen-Jones. </li></ul><ul><li>The Fleet, which set sail in 1421, was of 1000 ships not 100 as stated in the book - Professor Robert Finlay of Arkansas University. </li></ul>
  85. 87. Evidence <ul><li>The Chinese discovered Jupiter’s moons 2000 years before Galileo. </li></ul><ul><li>They deployed this knowledge to be able to calculate longitude 3 times each day - work of Rosa Mui. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese had colonised the Azores (DNA) before they were discovered by the Portuguese. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese had colonised Puerto Rico (DNA) since 1421. </li></ul>
  86. 88. Evidence <ul><li>The Taino of Puerto Rico were Chinese. </li></ul><ul><li>Zheng He’s passage charts of South and West Africa, Australia, the Antarctic and Weddell Sea have recently been found in a Hong Kong library. </li></ul>
  87. 89. Evidence <ul><li>Recent DNA analysis by DNAPrint Genomics – we have results which show up to 40 % East Asian admixture amongst Native American Indians. </li></ul><ul><li>Hot spots include the Melungeons and Ojibwa. </li></ul><ul><li>Full details will be published as and when we get them. </li></ul>
  88. 90. Evidence <ul><li>Members of the 1421 team delivered a series of presentations at the Library of Congress International Symposium on Zheng He Studies, May 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations covered topics including early Chinese voyages to the Americas from 2200 BC, Marco Polo and Kublai Khan's exploration of the world, and the finding of an huge Chinese base by Paul Chiasson in Nova Scotia. </li></ul><ul><li>For more information please visit </li></ul>
  89. 91. Evidence <ul><li>Zheng He's master chart of the world, 1418, has been found in China. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The so called Ming map - has caused some controversy! </li></ul></ul>
  90. 92. Evidence Gallery <ul><li>Shipwrecks </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramics </li></ul><ul><li>Jade </li></ul><ul><li>Metal artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Cave art </li></ul><ul><li>Stone buildings, mortar, carvings </li></ul><ul><li>Flora and fauna </li></ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous artifacts </li></ul>
  91. 93. More from Gavin's web site <ul><li>A section of the website contains speeches that Gavin gave in the Far East in November 2003. He addressed a total of 16 different organisations in Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Japan. The speeches are based on new evidence that has continued to pour in from the 1421 website, as well as research carried out by people from all over the world. Much of the evidence was revealed for the first time in these speeches. </li></ul><ul><li>To read &quot;Talk A - How the story came about...&quot; please click here </li></ul><ul><li>To read &quot;Talk B - Zheng He's Fleets Voyages from South America to New Zealand and Australia&quot; please click here </li></ul><ul><li>To read &quot;Talk C - The first Panama Canal and the first Suez Canal were built by the Chinese and the Egyptians&quot; please click here </li></ul><ul><li>To listen to Gavin’s presentation at the Ancestry e-Symposium please visit the following link here </li></ul>
  92. 94. List of Maps and Diagrams <ul><li>Voyages of the Treasure Fleets, 1421-3 </li></ul><ul><li>East Asia, c. 1421 </li></ul><ul><li>The voyage to Sofala </li></ul><ul><li>The circulatory winds and currents in the South Atlantic Ocean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i) The Kangnido map showing Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii) The Kangnido map corrected for longitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iii) Modern Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The journey to the Cape Verde Islands </li></ul>
  93. 95. List of Maps and Diagrams <ul><li>The journey to Tierra del Fuego </li></ul><ul><li>The Piri Reis map compared to modern Patagonia, showing the straights of Magellan </li></ul><ul><li>The Falkland Islands on the Piri Reis, compared to a modern map </li></ul><ul><li>The journey to Antarctica </li></ul><ul><li>Locating the Southern Cross </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Bao's journey to Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Man's journey to Australia </li></ul>
  94. 96. List of Maps and Diagrams <ul><li>Evidence of the visit of the Chinese treasure fleet to Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Auckland and Campbell Islands, as shown on the Jean Rotz map </li></ul><ul><li>The journey around New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>The routes of Hong Bao and Zhou Man around Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Bao's journey home and Zhou Man's journey through the Spice Islands </li></ul>
  95. 97. List of Maps and Diagrams <ul><li>The San Francisco Bay area, showing the winds blowing into the Sacramento River </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of the visit of the Chinese treasure fleet to the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Wen's journey through the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Guadeloupe shown on the Pizzigano map, compared with a modern map </li></ul><ul><li>Puerto Rico shown on the Pizzigano map, compared with a modern map </li></ul>
  96. 98. List of Maps and Diagrams <ul><li>The bays and inlets of Puerto Rico, depicted on the Pizzigano map </li></ul><ul><li>The Cantino map showing the Caribbean and Florida, compared with a modern map </li></ul><ul><li>Locations of unidentified wrecks on the route to Bimini </li></ul><ul><li>The junk's approach to Bimini and the Bimini Road </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Wen's journey up the east coast of Florida </li></ul>
  97. 99. List of Maps and Diagrams <ul><li>The journey to Rhode Island </li></ul><ul><li>The locations of standing stones in Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>The voyage to the Azores and Cape Verde Islands </li></ul><ul><li>The journey around Greenland </li></ul><ul><li>Greenland shown on the Vinland map, compared to a modern map </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese bases across the Pacific Ocean </li></ul>
  98. 100. List of Maps and Diagrams <ul><li>Solar eclipse </li></ul><ul><li>Lunar eclipse </li></ul><ul><li>The progression of a lunar eclipse across the Earth's surface </li></ul>