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Historical Meap

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Historical Meap

  1. 1. Item Jurying Training Assessing Michigan’s Content Expectations
  2. 2. The Need: “Today’s large-scale science tests simply aren’t that good. Too often, the questions are confusing or not well aligned to the key science ideas and skills that students are expected to learn.” Jo Ellen Roseman, Director Project 2061 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
  3. 3. Characteristics of Assessments: Validity …“When an item is well designed, students should choose the correct answer only when they know the targeted idea and they should choose an incorrect answer only when they do not know the idea. “Students should be able to demonstrate their science knowledge without being tripped up by confusing language, inaccurate information, unclear diagrams, or contexts that are unfamiliar or unnecessarily complex.” Project 2061 Today, Winter 2007
  4. 4. Basic Item Writing Principles The following slides give some  Guidelines that should be considered when writing items; and  Criteria for writing valid items;  A description of an item’s Depth of Knowledge
  5. 5. Item Format – Multiple Choice “STEM” The Big Bang Theory states that Earth is D. moving away from the center of the universe.* E. spiraling in towards the center of the universe. F. drifting in a random path throughout the universe. G. traveling in an orbit around the center of the universe. Four “OPTIONS” – one correct, three equally plausible, but incorrect (MEAP Released Item 2004)
  6. 6. Guidelines • Item “stem” should be longer (a complete sentence – i.e. a “closed stem,” if possible), the “options” should be shorter. Open-ended stems are sometimes acceptable if it is very clear from the stem what the item is asking.
  7. 7. Guidelines Change to When considering an iron as an example of a system, A. electricity is the input. B. temperature is the input. C. motion on clothes is the input. D. steam from the plate is the input.
  8. 8. Guidelines When considering an iron as an example of a system, what is the input? A. electricity B. temperature C. motion on clothes D. steam from the plate (Massachusetts released item, 2006)
  9. 9. Guidelines 2. Grammar & Vocabulary: Keep the grammar (e.g. verb tense) consistent.
  10. 10. Guidelines Example: A certain species of bird can be brown or white. White color is a recessive trait, while brown color is a dominant trait. When two brown birds mate, is it possible for them to have white offspring? A. No, because both parents will have only genes for being brown. B. Yes, because offspring color does not depend on the genes of the parents. C. Yes, because both parents may have and pass on the gene for being white.* D. No, because the parents passed on only the dominant trait to their offspring.
  11. 11. Guidelines Example: A certain species of bird can be brown or white. White color is a recessive trait, while brown color is a dominant trait. When two brown birds mate, is it possible for them to have white offspring? • No, because both parents will have only genes for being brown. • Yes, because offspring color does not depend on the genes of the parents. • Yes, because both parents may have and pass on the gene for being white.* • No, because the parents passed on only the dominant trait to their offspring.
  12. 12. Guidelines 2. Grammar & Vocabulary: Don’t repeat a word in an option that was used in the stem.
  13. 13. Guidelines Example: Which of the following is a consideration when planning a nuclear power facility? a. Emission of chemicals that cause acid rain b. Disposal of nuclear wastes* c. Production of greenhouse gases d. Removal of ash and soot from smokestacks (“Test-wiseness”)
  14. 14. Guidelines 2. Grammar & Vocabulary: Keep the readability appropriate.
  15. 15. Guidelines Example: Which device can be utilized to generate electromotive force thereby increasing the voltage from a dc source? A. Generator B. Electroscope C. Induction coil D. Mass spectrometer (Any troublesome vocabulary here?)
  16. 16. Guidelines Example: Which device can be utilized to generate electromotive force thereby increasing the voltage from a dc source? A. Generator B. Electroscope (used instructionally, but not an assessable vocabulary term) C. Induction coil (“induction” used in electrostatics only) D. Mass spectrometer
  17. 17. Guidelines 3. (a) Avoid the use of “all of the above,” or “none of the above” in the options.
  18. 18. Guidelines Example: What is the percent composition of carbon in carbon dioxide, CO2? A. 12% B. 32% C. 44% D. none of the above*
  19. 19. Guidelines Example: What is the percent composition of carbon in carbon dioxide, CO2? A. 12% A. 12% Change to B. 32% B. 27% C. 44% C. 32% D. none of the above* D. 44%
  20. 20. Guidelines 3. (b) Usually avoid the use of absolute terms, e.g. “always,” “only” or “never.” Advice taken from a “Test Taking Strategies” website: Be aware of words like "always," "never," "only," "must," and "completely." These are usually the wrong answers… http://www.shsu.edu/~counsel/hs/teststrats.html
  21. 21. Guidelines 3. (b) Usually avoid the use of absolute terms, e.g. “always,” “only” or “never.” Example: Earth’s atmosphere can contain A. gases only B. gases and solids C. gases and liquids D. solids, liquids and gases
  22. 22. “Always” & “Never” – Exception Example: The earth’s moon is • always much closer to the sun than it is to the earth • always much closer to the earth than it is to the sun* • about the same distance from the sun as it is from the earth • sometimes closer to the sun than it is to the earth and sometimes closer to the earth than it is to the sun Science Framework for the 2009 NAEP
  23. 23. Guidelines 4. Make all the options “parallel,” i.e. the same length, with similar detail. Avoid making the correct option unique or conspicuous in any way. More advice from a test-taking website: “Usually the correct answer is the choice with the most information.” http://www.testtakingtips.com/test/multiple.htm
  24. 24. Guidelines – Parallel Options Example: A local car dealership wants to know how many people hear their advertisements on radio. Which method provides the most valid results? A. Survey the next 20 customers B. Survey all the people living within ½ mile C. Survey a large random sample of people living within the listening range of the radio station* D. Survey customers at a nearby auto repair shop
  25. 25. Guidelines – Parallel Options Improved: A local car dealership wants to know how many people hear their advertisements on radio. Which method provides the most valid results? A. Survey the next 20 customers who come into the dealership. B. Survey all the people living within ½ mile of the dealership. C. Survey a random sample of people in the range of the station.* D. Survey customers at a nearby competitor’s repair shop.
  26. 26. Guidelines – Parallel Options Which of these is a mineral most commonly found in igneous rocks on Earth? A. Gneiss B. Quartz* C. Sandstone D. Clay (Quartz is the only mineral listed, The others are rocks or types of soil particles.)
  27. 27. Guidelines 5. Present numerical options consistently.  Usually in ascending, or descending order.  Don’t mix specific values with ranges, etc.
  28. 28. Guidelines Example: In certain breeds of dogs, deafness is due to a recessive allele (d), and normal hearing is due to the dominant allele (D). What is the probability that the offspring of a normal heterozygous (Dd) dog and a deaf dog (dd) will have normal hearing? A. 100% B. 0.25 C. less than 1/3 D. One half*
  29. 29. Guidelines Example: In certain breeds of dogs, deafness is due to a recessive allele (d), and normal hearing is due to the dominant allele (D). What is the probability that the offspring of a normal heterozygous (Dd) dog and a deaf dog (dd) will have normal hearing? A. 100% A. 0% B. 0.25 Change to B. 25% C. less than 1/3 C. 50%* D. One half* D. 100%
  30. 30. Guidelines 6. Make sure there is only ONE correct response.
  31. 31. Guidelines – only one correct response Example: According to the graph, what percent of the city’s residents own pets? 60 of City's Residents 50 A. Less than 20% 40 Percent B. Less than 30% 30 C. More than 50% 20 D. More than 75% 10 0 0 1 2 3 Number of Pets (‘B’ overlaps ‘A’ and ‘D’ overlaps ‘C’)
  32. 32. Guidelines – only one correct response Example: According to the graph, what percent of the city’s residents own pets? A. Less than 20% A. Less than 20% B. Less than 30% B. Between 20% and 40% C. More than 50% C. Between 40% and 60% D. More than 75% D. More than 60% Make the options mutually exclusive, not overlapping
  33. 33. Guidelines – only one correct response Example: If Karen measures the length of each of the butterflies in her collection, which would be the best measurement unit to use? A. meter B. centimeter* C. millimeter* D. kilometer
  34. 34. 7. Word Economy & Formatting Carol asked her 4 best friends, Alice, Clark, Ruth, and Matt, if she could measure their heights in inches. She found that Alice was 58 inches tall; Clark was 62 inches tall; Ruth was 60 inches tall; and Matt was 61 inches tall. To the nearest inch, what was the mean height of Carol’s 4 friends? Consider this alternative: Carol measured the heights of each of 4 friends. Her results are shown below. Alice: 58 inches Ruth: 60 inches Clark: 62 inches Matt: 61 inches To the nearest inch, what is the mean height of Carol’s 4 friends? Use a chart, a bulleted list, a graphic, etc. to break up reading.
  35. 35. Additional Guidelines :  Write questions that measure understanding, insight, and higher level skills. Avoid continually asking trivial questions. (DOK)  Use concise, straightforward language.  Present the problem or question as clearly as possible in the stem. Don’t include unnecessary or redundant information. Don’t use the item stem to instruct!  Don’t try to be tricky or cute.  Avoid bias toward or against any group of individuals. Include multicultural contexts and names.
  36. 36. Additional Guidelines : 1. When calling for a judgment or conclusion, the student must be able to infer the correct answer from the text. Don’t pose questions such as “What do you think? / What would you do?” because any option could be defensible. The stems should be worded “According to the author,” or “According to the selection,…” 3. If possible, avoid using negative stems that ask the students to choose the one wrong answer, such as those that use the terms “except” and “not”. 5. “Which of the following…?” is preferred over “What is…?”
  37. 37. End of “Guidelines”
  38. 38. Criteria for Valid Items Always BEGIN with the Content Expectation! Study the Content Expectation and be sure you know which knowledge and skills are expected before examining the actual assessment item.
  39. 39. Six Criteria for Valid Items Adapted from Project 2061 Criteria used by Michigan Mathematics Leadership Academy (MMLA) • The CONTENT of the item matches the CONTENT of the expectation. • The PERFORMANCE required in the item matches the VERB of the expectation. “Underline the key concepts (important nouns and noun phrases) and circle the skills (the verbs).” Larry Ainsworth, Unwrapping the Standards, 2003 9. The item cannot be solved merely by TEST- WISENESS.
  40. 40. Six Criteria for Valid Items 4. The item addresses ONLY ONE content expectation (may not be required in some instances). 5. ALL the content in the expectation is addressed in the item bank. 6. The CONTEXT of the item is APPROPRIATE and ENGAGING.
  41. 41. 1. The CONTENT of the item matches the CONTENT of the expectation (i.e., “Alignment”) Chemistry prerequisite HSCE: P4.p2D Recognize that the properties of a compound differ from those of its individual elements.
  42. 42. 1. The CONTENT of the item matches the CONTENT of the expectation P4.p2D Recognize that the properties of a compound differ from those of its individual elements. Example: Which of the following is true for chemical compounds that have been detected elsewhere in the universe? A. They have a greater average density than the same compounds found on Earth. B. They are composed of the same elements that are found on Earth. * C. They are less reactive chemically than the same compounds found on Earth. D. Those with the greatest molar masses are found furthest away from our solar system. Question: How well-aligned is this item to the Content Expectation?
  43. 43. 1. The CONTENT of the item matches the CONTENT of the expectation P4.p2D Recognize that the properties of a compound differ from those of its individual elements. Example: Which of the following is a property of water that differs from its individual elements? A. Water is combustible in air B. Water is metallic C. Water is less dense D. Water is a liquid at room temperature* (Getting closer…)
  44. 44. Form of Carbon Charcoal (C) Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ) State at Room Temperature Solid Gas Soluble in Water No Yes Combustible in Air Yes No Based on the information in the table above, which is a reasonable hypothesis regarding elements and their compounds? (NAEP item) A. An element retains its physical and chemical properties when it is combined into a compound. B. When an element reacts to form a compound, its chemical properties are changed but its physical properties are not. C. When an element reacts to form a compound, its physical properties are changed but its chemical properties are not. D. Both the chemical and physical properties of a compound are different from the properties of the elements of which it is composed.* (Well-aligned)
  45. 45. 1. The PERFORMANCE required in the item matches the VERB of the expectation P4.4A Describe specific mechanical waves (e.g. on a demonstration spring, on the ocean) in terms of wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and speed. Example: Calculate the speed of a wave with a wavelength of 3.0 m and a frequency of 15 Hz. A. 5.0 m/sec B. 12 m/sec C. 18 m/sec D. 45 m/sec* (Poor Alignment)
  46. 46. 1. The PERFORMANCE required in the item matches the VERB of the expectation Example: The figure above shows some ocean waves. Which of the labeled distances represents the wavelength? (NAEP item) a. A* b. B c. C d. D (Better Alignment)
  47. 47. 1. The item cannot be solved merely by TEST-WISENESS Example: Nitrogen-fixing bacteria help cycle nitrogen through ecosystems. How do they do this? • They change nitrogen into forms usable by plants.* • They make inorganic compounds from organic compounds during decomposition. • They release chemical energy during respiration. • They convert sunlight into chemical energy during photosynthesis.
  48. 48. 1. The item addresses ONLY ONE content expectation Example: How is our solar system similar to an atom? C. The force of gravity holds planets and electrons in their orbits. D. Nuclear fusion constantly occurs in the sun and in the atom’s nucleus. E. Electrons and planets both travel in well-defined paths. F. The solar system and the atom are mostly empty space.* What have we learned if a student misses this item?
  49. 49. 1. The item addresses ONLY ONE content expectation Is it … or
  50. 50. 1. ALL the content in the expectation is addressed in the item bank B3.4d Describe the greenhouse effect and list possible causes. Example: Which of the following is the main contributor to Earth’s greenhouse effect? A. Earth’s distance from the sun B. the gases in Earth’s atmosphere* C. the tilt of Earth’s axis D. the number of active volcanoes on Earth Will this item adequately assess the entire CE?
  51. 51. 1. ALL the content in the expectation is addressed in the item bank B3.4d Describe the greenhouse effect and list possible causes. Example: Which of the following facts about Earth’s temperature is due mainly to the greenhouse effect? o • Earth’s average surface temperature is 30 C warmer than would be predicted based on its distance from the sun.* • Earth’s oceans warm and cool much more slowly than its land masses. • Earth’s average summer temperature is about 15 Co warmer than its winter temperature. • Earth’s surface temperature at the poles is much colder than at the equator.
  52. 52. 1. ALL the content in the expectation is addressed in the item bank B3.4d Describe the greenhouse effect and list possible causes. Example: Which of the following atmospheric gases is NOT considered a “greenhouse” gas? A. oxygen* B. carbon dioxide C. water vapor D. ozone
  53. 53. 1. The CONTEXT of the item is APPROPRIATE and ENGAGING The Danish astronomer Ole Roemer (1644-1710) was the first person to determine that light traveled with a measurable speed. As Earth revolved around the sun, he noticed a variation in the time Io emerged from behind Jupiter, and calculated that light took 22 minutes to cross a diameter of Earth’s orbit. If the diameter of Earth’s orbit is 3.0 x 1011 m, what value would Roemer have calculated for the speed of light? • 4.4 x 10-9 m/sec • 2.2 x 108 m/sec* • 3.0 x 108 m/sec • 1.3 x 1010 m/sec (Inappropriate and confusing context)
  54. 54. 1. The CONTEXT of the item is APPROPRIATE and ENGAGING Some items require a context,… “When items are written to particular content statements, such as the history and nature of science, they may be framed in these contextual components of science content.” Science Framework for the 2009 NAEP
  55. 55. 1. The CONTEXT of the item is APPROPRIATE and ENGAGING Example: Ernest Rutherford found that when he fired alpha particles at a thin gold foil, some were scattered at large angles. What caused this scattering? A. The gold’s positive atomic nuclei attracted the negatively charged alpha particles. B. The gold’s negative atomic nuclei repelled the negatively charged alpha particles. C. The gold’s negative atomic nuclei attracted the positively charged alpha particles. D. The gold’s positive atomic nuclei repelled the positively charged alpha particles.* Science Framework for the 2009 NAEP
  56. 56. 1. The CONTEXT of the item is APPROPRIATE and ENGAGING Some items require no context,… MEAP HST Science Released Items 2004
  57. 57. End of Criteria for Valid Items
  58. 58. Depth of Knowledge Can be applied to Standards (Content Expectations), AND to Assessment Items (Dr. Norman Webb, University of Wisconsin, 1997, 2002) 1. Recall 2. Skills and Concepts 3. Strategic Thinking 4. Extended Thinking
  59. 59. Depth of Knowledge Level 1 – Recall The recall of information (fact, definition, or term), or performing a simple procedure (a “recipe”), or applying a simple algorithm or formula. Requires only a rote response, a well-known formula, or following a well- defined procedure that typically involves only one step. Key words include “identify,” “recognize,” “use,” “calculate” and “measure.” A student answering a Level 1 item either knows the answer or does not. The answer does not need to be “solved” or “figured out.” (Verbs like “describe” and “explain” can be used at different levels depending on the complexity of what’s being “described” or “explained.”)
  60. 60. DOK Level 1 B2.1A Explain how cells transform energy (ultimately obtained from the sun) from one form to another through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Identify the reactants and products in the general reaction of photosynthesis. Level 1 Example: Which of the following is a product of the overall process of photosynthesis? A. Carbon dioxide B. Protein C. Glucose* D. Water
  61. 61. DOK Level 1 E4.p2A Describe the composition and layers of the atmosphere. (prerequisite) Level 1 Example: Air is made up of many gases. Which gas is found in the greatest amount? A. Nitrogen* B. Oxygen C. Carbon Dioxide D. Hydrogen Science Framework for the 2009 NAEP
  62. 62. Depth of Knowledge Level 2 – Skills & Concepts This level is more complex and involves mental processing beyond simply recalling or reproducing a response. Items require students to make some decisions and typically involve more than one step. Key words and activities include “classifying,” “organizing,” “estimating,” or “interpreting or comparing data” in tables graphs or charts.
  63. 63. DOK Level 2 From Science Framework for the 2009 NAEP
  64. 64. DOK Level 2 P2.1D Describe and analyze the motion that a position-time graph represents, given the graph. Example: The graph below shows the distance traveled over time by a student walking down a hall. During which time interval was the student moving the fastest? a. A b. B c. C d. D* From Science Framework for the 2009 NAEP
  65. 65. DOK Level 2 Which of the following graphs best illustrates the relationship between the heat released by the foods listed in Table 1 and the change in water temperature? a. b. c. d. Preparing for the ACT 2006/2007
  66. 66. Depth of Knowledge Level 3 – Strategic Thinking This level is more demanding and requires planning, using evidence, and complex and abstract reasoning. In most instances, requiring students to explain their thinking is Level 3. Students are asked to draw conclusions, cite evidence, develop logical arguments, solve complex problems, explain concepts and justify their response.
  67. 67. Depth of Knowledge Level 3 Example: The main reason for Earth’s temperature being hotter in summer than in winter is: B. The earth’s distance from the sun changes. C. The sun is higher in the sky.* D. The distance between the northern hemisphere and the sun changes. E. Ocean currents carry warm water north. From Science Framework for the 2009 NAEP
  68. 68. DOK 3 (From ACT Practice Test www.actstudent.org) Table 1 26. A student claimed that “If the masses Density of 1 cm3 of any solid and 1 cm3 of any Substance Phase (g/cm3) Arsenic solid 5.73 liquid are compared, the mass of the Glucose solid 1.56 solid will be greater.” Do the data in Iron solid 7.86 Table 1 support his claim? Lead solid 11.34 Zinc solid 7.14 F. No; lead has a higher density than any of Ethanol liquid 0.79 the liquids listed. Ethyl ether liquid 0.71 G. No; mercury has a higher density than any Glycerol liquid 1.26 of the solids listed. Mercury liquid 13.59 H. Yes; lead has a higher density than any of the liquids listed. Freon-12 gas 0.00495 J. Yes; mercury has a higher density than any Krypton gas 0.00343 of the solids listed. Methane gas 0.00065
  69. 69. Depth of Knowledge Level 4 – Extended Thinking This level requires complex reasoning, experimental design, and planning usually over extended periods of time. Students are asked to make connections within or among content areas. Level 4 tasks are typically assessed locally and often involve performance or open-ended assessments. Many on- demand instruments will not include any items at Level 4.
  70. 70. End of Depth of Knowledge (DOK)
  71. 71. “Jurying” and Editing Items: Poorly written Well/poorly-written Well-written Poorly aligned Well/Poorly aligned Well-aligned Inappropriate DOK Appropriate/Inappropriate DOK Appropriate DOK (Beyond hope) (Salvageable) (Acceptable)
  72. 72. “Jurying” and Editing Items:  Unnecessary information in the stem  Mutually exclusive options  Alignment Issues (HSCEs)  Vocabulary Issues (Companion Documents)
  73. 73. “Jurying” and Editing Items: Examples (unnecessary information) Body cells of fruit flies contain only 8 chromosomes, compared to human cells that contain 46. Scientists used studies of fruit flies to discover how egg and sperm cells (gametes) are formed. What did they observe? A. Body cells of the offspring flies had 16 chromosomes. B. Sperm cells from the male had 8 chromosomes. C. Egg cells from the female had 4 chromosomes.* D. Body cells of the offspring flies had 4 chromosomes. Connecticut Released Item 2006
  74. 74. “Jurying” and Editing Items: Examples (unnecessary information) The body cells of fruit flies each contain 8 chromosomes. Which of the following statements correctly describes how fruit flies reproduce sexually? A. Body cells of the offspring flies have 16 chromosomes. B. Sperm cells from the male flies have 8 chromosomes. C. Egg cells from the female flies have 4 chromosomes.* D. Body cells of the offspring flies have 4 chromosomes.
  75. 75. “Jurying” and Editing Items: Examples (unnecessary information) California Released Item 2007
  76. 76. “Jurying” and Editing Items: Examples (mutually exclusive options) Under what conditions will a substance be likely to enter a cell through diffusion? A. when the substance is a particle of food B. when a molecule of the substance is very large C. when the concentration of the substance is greater outside the cell than inside* D. when the concentration of the substance is greater inside the cell than outside Connecticut Released Item 2006
  77. 77. “Jurying” and Editing Items: Examples (mutually exclusive options) Under what conditions will a substance be likely to enter a cell through diffusion? A. when the substance is a particle of food B. when a molecule of the substance is very large C. when the concentration of the substance is greater outside the cell than inside D. when the substance is needed to store genetic information
  78. 78. “Jurying” and Editing Items: Alignment? “The Coriolis effect is the apparent deflection of moving objects from a straight path when they are viewed from a rotating frame of reference.” http://en.wikipedia.org California Released Item 2007
  79. 79. “Jurying” and Editing Items: No Alignment to MI HSCEs California Released Item 2007 E4.p2I Identify major global wind belts (trade winds, prevailing westerlies, and polar easterlies) and that their vertical components control the global distribution of rainforests and deserts. (prerequisite) E4.2A Describe the major causes for the ocean’s surface and deep water currents, including the prevailing winds, the Coriolis effect, unequal heating of the earth, changes in water temperature and salinity in high latitudes, and basin shape. E4.2f Explain how the Coriolis effect controls oceanic circulation.
  80. 80. “Jurying” and Editing Items: Vocabulary Issues B2.4e Explain how cellular respiration is important for the production of ATP (build on aerobic vs. anaerobic). “cytokinesis?” Massachusetts Released Item 2006
  81. 81. “Jurying” and Editing Items: Vocabulary Issues HSSCE Companion Document: “The companion document is intended to provide boundaries to the content expectations.” Unit 9 Cell Division Vocabulary: cancer carcinogenic jumping genes chromosome karyotype chromosome pair meiosis crossing over mitosis deletion mutation DNA replication new gene combinations diploid progeny duplication of genes recombination of haploid genetic material gametes sex cell genetic variation sex
  82. 82. “Jurying” and Editing Items: Vocabulary Issues HSSCE Companion Document Unit 4 Rock Forming Processes Vocabulary: contact metamorphism magma cooling metamorphic rocks crystallization metamorphism California Released Item 2007 deposition molten rock erosion non-foliated texture E3.1A Discriminate extrusive plate tectonic context between igneous, Foliation regional metamorphic, and metamorphism sedimentary rocks and grain shape rock cycle grain size rock sequence describe the processes igneous rocks sedimentary rocks that change one kind Intrusive sedimentation of rock into another. lithification weathering
  83. 83. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples Fluorine is a gas at room temperature while iodine is a solid. This is because: C. fluorine atoms have less attractive forces than iodine atoms* D. iodine atoms repel each other more than fluorine atoms E. fluorine can lose an electron to form -1 ions F. iodine atoms are spread out more than fluorine atoms C4.3A Recognize that substances that are solid at room temperature have stronger attractive forces than liquids at room temperature, which have stronger attractive forces than gases at room temperature.
  84. 84. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples Guideline #1: Incomplete Stem  Complete Stem: Which of the following statements best describes why fluorine is a gas at room temperature while iodine is a solid? E. Fluorine atoms have less attractive forces than iodine atoms.* F. Iodine atoms repel each other more than fluorine atoms. G. Fluorine atoms can lose an electron to form -1 ions. H. Iodine atoms are spread out more than fluorine atoms. C4.3A Recognize that substances that are solid at room temperature have stronger attractive forces than liquids at room temperature, which have stronger attractive forces than gases at room temperature.
  85. 85. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples In which state of matter would molecules move the fastest? B. Gas* C. Solid D. Liquid E. None of the above C2.2B Describe the various states of matter in terms of the motion and arrangement of the molecules (atoms) making up the substance.
  86. 86. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples 3 “plausible, incorrect” options In which of the following substances do molecules move the fastest? C. Gas* D. Crystalline Solid E. Liquid F. Aqueous solution C2.2B Describe the various states of matter in terms of the motion and arrangement of the molecules (atoms) making up the substance. (Other examples: “increase, decrease, remain the same…”)
  87. 87. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples A rock is dropped from the top of a cliff. How far did the rock travel in 3.0 s? (Use the 10.0 m/s/s as the acceleration due to gravity.) A. 30. m B. 45. m* C. 90. m D. 120 m P2.1g Solve problems involving average speed and constant acceleration in one dimension.
  88. 88. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples Guideline #10: Present problem clearly (Which 3 seconds??) Guideline #2: Verb tense A rock was dropped from the top of a cliff. How far did the rock travel during the first 3.0 s? (Use the 10.0 m/s/s as the acceleration due to gravity.) A. 30. m B. 45. m* C. 90. m D. 120 m P2.1g Solve problems involving average speed and constant acceleration in one dimension.
  89. 89. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples E2.2C Describe natural processes in which heat transfer in the Earth occurs by conduction, convection, and radiation. The Earth’s mantle is made up of very hot material that rises to the top of the mantle, cools, then sinks, reheats, and rises again, constantly repeating the cycle. This action, which causes the Earth’s crust to move, is known as — A convection currents B magnetic fields C hot spots D advection forces Virginia Released Item 2006
  90. 90. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples Guideline #2: Grammar & Vocabulary The Earth’s mantle is made up of very hot material that rises to the top of the mantle, cools, then sinks, reheats, and rises again, constantly repeating the cycle. This action, which causes the Earth’s crust to move, is known as — A convection currents B magnetic fields C hot spots D advection forces Virginia Released Item 2006
  91. 91. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples Guideline #2: Grammar & Vocabulary The Earth’s mantle is made up of very hot material that rises, cools, then sinks, reheats, and rises again, constantly repeating the cycle. Which of the following terms best describes this process? A a convection current B a magnetic field C a seismic wave D elastic rebound
  92. 92. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples P.EN.04.41 Demonstrate how temperature can be increased in a substance by adding energy. A substance is heated. Which of the following would NOT be correct? A. The measured temperature of the substance would go up B. The molecules in the substance would move faster C. The average kinetic energy of the molecules would increase D. The substance must undergo a phase change*
  93. 93. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples “Test-Wiseness” Issues: A substance is heated. Which of the following would NOT be correct?  The measured temperature of the substance would go up  The molecules in the substance would move faster  The average kinetic energy of the molecules would increase  The substance must undergo a phase change*
  94. 94. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples “Test-Wiseness” Issues: Which of the following is necessary for the temperature of a substance to increase? A. The substance must undergo a change in state. B. The particles in the substance must decrease speed. C. The substance must be mixed with another substance. D. The substance must gain heat energy.*
  95. 95. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples A physics book is sitting on a table. Identify the action and reaction forces acting on the book. A. The book pushes down on the table. The table pushes up on the book.* B. The book pulls up on Earth. Earth pulls down on the book. C. The table pulls the book down. The book pushes the table down. D. There are no action and reaction forces acting because the book is at rest. P3.3A Identify the action and reaction force from examples of forces in everyday situations (e.g., book on a table, walking across the floor, pushing open a door).
  96. 96. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples Guideline #6: Make sure there is only one correct answer. (A and B) Letter ‘D’ is essentially “none of these.” A physics book is sitting on a table. Identify the action and reaction forces acting on the book. A. The book pushes down on the table. The table pushes up on the book.* B. The book pulls up on Earth. Earth pulls down on the book. C. The table pulls the book down. The book pushes the table down. D. There are no action and reaction forces acting because the book is at rest.
  97. 97. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples Which of the following statements best describes the action and reaction forces acting on a book which is sitting on a table. A. The book pushes down on the table. The table pushes up on the book.* B. The book pushes down on the table. The table pushes down on the floor. C. The floor pushes up on the table. The table pushes up on the book. D. The table pushes down on the floor. The floor pushes up on the table.
  98. 98. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples On a pool table the first shot is called the break. Motion of the balls in the break would be considered which type of motion? A. linear B. two-dimensional* C. periodic D. circular P2.1E Describe and classify various motions in a plane as one dimensional, two dimensional, circular, or periodic.
  99. 99. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples Guidelines #10 Don’t use the stem to instruct, and #12: Avoid bias On a pool table the first shot is called the break. Motion of the balls in the break would be considered which type of motion? A. linear B. two-dimensional* C. periodic D. circular P2.1E Describe and classify various motions in a plane as one dimensional, two dimensional, circular, or periodic.
  100. 100. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples Two rubber balls roll toward each other on a flat surface and collide, as shown in the figure. After the collision, each ball continues moving, but with a different speed and direction. Which term best describes this type of motion? A. linear B. two-dimensional* C. periodic D. circular
  101. 101. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples 1. During the combustion of methane gas, methane combines with oxygen gas to form water and carbon dioxide. The heats of formations of methane, carbon dioxide and water in kJ/mol are -1200, -400 and -300 respectively. Use Hess’ Law to determine the amount of heat given off when 8 grams of methane are burned. A. 200 kJ B. 400 kJ C. 100 kJ D. 250 kJ
  102. 102. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples 1. During the combustion of methane gas, methane combines with oxygen gas to form water and carbon dioxide. The heats of formations are given below: Compound Heat of Formation (kJ/mol) methane -1200 carbon dioxide -400 water -300 Use Hess’ Law to determine the amount of heat given off when 8 grams of methane are burned. A. 200 kJ B. 400 kJ C. 100 kJ D. 250 kJ
  103. 103. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples 16. Look at the two pictures below. They show what happened when two solid blocks were each put in a jar containing a liquid. Based just on what you can see in the pictures, what can you say about the blocks and the jars? A) The liquid in the jars must be water. B) The block in jar 1 weighs more than the block in jar 2. C) The block in jar 1 is floating lower in its liquid than is the block in jar 2. D) The block in jar 1 must be made of metal and the block in jar 2 must be made of wood. NAEP Released Item http://nces.ed.gov
  104. 104. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples 16. Look at the two pictures below. They show what happened when two solid blocks were each put in a jar containing a liquid. Based just on what you can see in the pictures, what can you say about the blocks and the jars? A) The liquid in the jars must be water. B) The block in jar 1 weighs more than the block in jar 2. C) The block in jar 1 is floating lower in its liquid than is the block in jar 2. D) The block in jar 1 must be made of metal and the block in jar 2 must be made of wood. NAEP Released Item http://nces.ed.gov
  105. 105. “Jurying” and Editing Items Examples Guideline #13: When calling for a judgment or conclusion, the student must be able to infer the correct answer from the text. Don’t pose questions such as “What do you think? / What would you do?” because any option could be defensible. 16. Look at the two pictures below. They show what happened when two solid blocks were each put in a jar containing a liquid. Based just on what you can see in the pictures, what can you say about the blocks and the jars? A) The liquid in the jars must be water. B) The block in jar 1 weighs more than the block in jar 2. C) The block in jar 1 is floating lower in its liquid than is the block in jar 2. D) The block in jar 1 must be made of metal and the block in jar 2 must be made of wood. NAEP Released Item http://nces.ed.gov
  106. 106. Contact Information Tom Wessels, Director Grand Traverse Regional Math and Science Center Traverse Bay Area Intermediate School District 1101 Red Drive PO Box 6020 Traverse City, MI 49682 231.922.7875 twessels@tbaisd.k12.mi.us

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