Seek for knowledge-Grade 11


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1st quarter grade 11

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Seek for knowledge-Grade 11

  2. 2. What is knowledge?-Previous Knowledge  What do I need to have knowledge? To know and to think: Are they the same? Can you think of different types of knowledge? Life or common sense, mythic, theological, philosophical, technic, artistical.
  3. 3. The knowledge and the first philosophers  Pre-socratics: why and how the things exist? What the world is?What is the origen of the nature and what are the causes of it’s transformations? Thales of Miletus ( 624 BC – c. 546 BC) Water: Element of the origem of all things.
  4. 4. The knowledge and the first philosophers  Their consern were about the origen and the order of the world  Kosmos  Cosmology  They used to believe that all the things had a reason to exist, that the world had a natural order.The seeking for the natural order and for the knowledge of all the beings is what we call ontology  Sugestion:To make a glossary (vocabulary list) in the end of your notebook.
  5. 5. Cosmology in Heraclitus  The eternal flow: "Ever-newer waters flow on those who step into the same rivers.“ "All entities move and nothing remains still“ "The death of fire is the birth of air, and the death of air is the birth of water.“ Difference between the knowledge (stability) from the senses and the knowledge of our thoughts (the true of the continuous changes) . Homework: Listen to “Even flow” music from Pearl Jam, and compare the lyrics with Heraclitus’ cosmology.
  6. 6. Cosmology in Parmenides of Elea  The opposite: we can only think of something that always remains the same .  To know is to reach something that is always identical, immutable.  To realize and to think are different.
  7. 7. Parmenides of Elea and Russell  "The criticism of Parmenides stems from a flaw common to all theories of his predecessors. He discovered the inconsistency in the view that all things are made of some basic stuff and at the same time talk about an empty space .We describe substance saying that 'is' and empty space saying ‘is not' .Well, all previous philosophers had made ​​the mistake of not talking about what is not as it was. We could even say that Heraclitus said one thing is and is not at the same time. Given all this, Parmenides says simply 'is'.The question is that what is not can not even be imagined, because you can not imagine anything.What can not be can not be thought, also not may be, and therefore what can be can also could be thought of.This is the tendency of the argument Parmenides'.  Titãs lyrics- O que é?  Homework: Is there any relation between the Parmenides’ cosmology and the theory of ideias, of Plato?What is it?
  8. 8. Cosmology in Democritus  Determinist and thorough materialist, believing everything to be the result of natural laws.  The reality is built by atoms which are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible.  The knowledge of truth, according to Democritus, is difficult, since the perception through the senses is subjective. As from the same senses derive different impressions for each individual, then through the sense- impressions we cannot judge the truth.We can only interpret the sense data through the intellect and grasp the truth, because the truth is at the bottom.