What is knowledge?-Previous
What do I need to have knowledge?
To know and to think: Are they the same?
Can you think of different types of knowledge?
Life or common sense, mythic, theological,
philosophical, technic, artistical.
The knowledge and the first
Pre-socratics: why and how the things exist?
What the world is?What is the origen of the
nature and what are the causes of it’s
Thales of Miletus ( 624 BC –
c. 546 BC)
Water: Element of the
origem of all things.
The knowledge and the first
Their consern were about the origen and the
order of the world Kosmos Cosmology
They used to believe that all the things had a
reason to exist, that the world had a natural
order.The seeking for the natural order and
for the knowledge of all the beings is what we
Sugestion:To make a glossary (vocabulary
list) in the end of your notebook.
Cosmology in Heraclitus
The eternal flow:
"Ever-newer waters flow on those who step into the same rivers.“
"All entities move and nothing remains still“
"The death of fire is the birth of air, and the death of air is the birth of
Difference between the knowledge (stability) from the senses and
the knowledge of our thoughts
(the true of the continuous changes) .
Listen to “Even flow” music from Pearl Jam, and compare the lyrics
with Heraclitus’ cosmology.
Cosmology in Parmenides of Elea
The opposite: we can only think of something
that always remains the same .
To know is to reach something that is always
To realize and to think are different.
Parmenides of Elea and Russell
"The criticism of Parmenides stems from a flaw common to all
theories of his predecessors. He discovered the inconsistency in
the view that all things are made of some basic stuff and at the
same time talk about an empty space .We describe substance
saying that 'is' and empty space saying ‘is not' .Well, all previous
philosophers had made the mistake of not talking about what is
not as it was. We could even say that Heraclitus said one thing is
and is not at the same time. Given all this, Parmenides says
simply 'is'.The question is that what is not can not even be
imagined, because you can not imagine anything.What can not
be can not be thought, also not may be, and therefore what can
be can also could be thought of.This is the tendency of the
Titãs lyrics- O que é?
Homework: Is there any relation between the Parmenides’
cosmology and the theory of ideias, of Plato?What is it?
Cosmology in Democritus
Determinist and thorough materialist, believing
everything to be the result of natural laws.
The reality is built by atoms which are physically, but not
The knowledge of truth, according to Democritus, is
difficult, since the perception through the senses is
subjective. As from the same senses derive different
impressions for each individual, then through the sense-
impressions we cannot judge the truth.We can only
interpret the sense data through the intellect and grasp
the truth, because the truth is at the bottom.