Intro To Ecology And Biomes


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Intro To Ecology And Biomes

  1. 1. Start-Up: 1. Find the definition of biotic and abiotic in your text. 2. Identify the abiotic and biotic features in this picture. 3. Is this a population or a community? 4. Describe some of the interactions shown.
  2. 2. Explore This Ecosystem
  3. 3. Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments The goal of ecology is to understand the biological principles of how natural systems operate. Note! Ecology is not environmentalism! Ecology – science, not value based Environmentalism – value based
  4. 4. Practice: Ecology or Environmentalism? <ul><li>A population of rabbits begins to decline in number as </li></ul><ul><li>coyotes are introduced into the area. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A citizen group is formed to protest the contamination of a river by a nearby factory. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Climate change is causing a shift in the migration patterns of many species. </li></ul><ul><li>4. World fish stocks are expected to be depleted by 2050. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Overfishing will lead to the economic collapse of the fishing industry. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Climate Determines Ecosystem Patterns in the Biosphere -Earth’s climate patterns are produced by the uneven heating of the planet by the sun -causes a varying range of temperature, wind, and amount of rainfall
  6. 6. The major types of terrestrial ecosystems that cover the Earth are called biomes . The major biomes are named after their climax vegetation .
  7. 7. Tropical forest – enormous productivity & diversity <ul><li>Gorillas </li></ul><ul><li>All species endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Poaching </li></ul><ul><li>Warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Disease (Ebola virus)‏ </li></ul>
  8. 8. Savanna – grasslands with scattered trees <ul><li>Common Hippopotamus </li></ul><ul><li>Found near lakes and streams </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Poaching </li></ul>
  9. 9. Desert – extreme temperature variation <ul><li>Kangaroo Rat </li></ul><ul><li>Incredible adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Many species endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat fragmentation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Chaparral – coastal, dense evergreen shrubs, dry in summer <ul><li>Quagga </li></ul><ul><li>Went extinct in 1883 </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat fragmentation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Temperate grassland – deep, nutrient rich soil <ul><li>Prairie Milkweed </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Insects dependant on nectar </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced species competition </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul>
  12. 12. Temperate broadleaf forest – wide variety; we live here! <ul><li>Red-Cockaded Woodpecker </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Many other species dependent on nest cavities </li></ul><ul><li>Logging </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul>
  13. 13. Coniferous forest – cone-bearing evergreen trees <ul><li>Woodland Caribou </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Logging </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tundra – cold, covered in permafrost <ul><li>Harlequin Duck </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered or threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Oil pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting </li></ul>
  15. 15. High mountains <ul><li>Snow Leopard </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Poaching </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Prey population declines </li></ul>
  16. 16. Polar ice <ul><li>Polar Bear </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat Loss (melting ice)‏ </li></ul>
  17. 17. Aquatic Ecosystems
  18. 18. Ponds & Lakes – freshwater <ul><li>Lake Sturgeon </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Overfishing </li></ul><ul><li>Dams </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul>
  19. 19. Streams & Rivers - freshwater
  20. 20. Estuaries – where rivers & streams meet the ocean <ul><li>West Indian Manatee </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Entanglement in fishing nets </li></ul><ul><li>Boat collision </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ocean Zones <ul><li>Northern Right Whale </li></ul><ul><li>Critically endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial whaling </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Boat collision </li></ul><ul><li>Net entanglement </li></ul>
  22. 22. Coral Reefs – extreme diversity <ul><li>Elkhorn Coral </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Cruise ships </li></ul>
  23. 23. Deep-sea – no light; chemosynthetic prokaryotes are producers Very little is known about the population status of deep sea species