Carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates

    1. 1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon -based molecules Inorganic Molecule Organic Molecule Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds with other atoms!
    2. 2. Why is this important to you? So as a scientifically literate person you can intelligently judge this…
    3. 3. Carbon Skeleton – long chain of carbon atoms to which other atoms can bind
    4. 4. Functional Group – part of the molecule that gives the molecule its function (determines how the molecule will interact)‏
    5. 7. Hydrocarbons – organic molecules composed of only carbon and hydrogen
    6. 8. Organic Molecules Large organic molecules are called macromolecule s single unit - monomer many monomers linked together make a polymer
    7. 10. 4 Kinds of Organic Molecules <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul>Carbohydrates -a chain of carbon atoms to which hydrogen and oxygen atoms are attached
    8. 11. Monosaccharides -simplest kind of carbohydrate -consist of a single sugar molecule Glucose ( C 6 H 12 O 6 ) – sugar molecule that is the main source of energy
    9. 12. Disaccharides -two sugar molecules joined together by dehydration synthesis
    10. 13. Polysaccharide -3 or more monosaccharides joined together -type of polymer
    11. 14. Biologically Important Polysaccharides Starch –glucose polymer - energy storage in plants Glycogen –glucose polymer - energy storage in animals *Starch & Glycogen differ in their pattern of branching Glycogen is much more branched
    12. 15. What happens when you eat food? 1. Break down polysaccharides (either starch or glycogen) to get glucose 2. Glucose is used by cells for energy. 3. If any glucose is left over, it will be made into glycogen and stored for later 4. Break down storage polysaccharides to get glucose when needed
    13. 16. Cellulose –glucose polymer -structural molecule found in plant cell walls Chitin –glucose polymer -structural molecule in fungus cell walls and animal exoskeletons
    14. 17. Animals can digest starch, but cannot digest cellulose Certain bacteria can digest cellulose Ex. of mutualistic relationships: cows & bacteria termites & bacteria alpha glucose polymer (starch)‏ beta glucose polymer (cellulose)‏

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