Research Proposal Preparation


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  • Research Proposal Preparation

    1. 1. Preparing a Research Proposal Sanjaya Mishra
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>What is research? </li></ul><ul><li>Types of research </li></ul><ul><li>Research problem </li></ul><ul><li>Research design </li></ul><ul><li>Components of a research proposal </li></ul>
    3. 3. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Plan a research project </li></ul><ul><li>List the sections of a research proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Write a research proposal for the Project Work </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is Research? <ul><li>A systematic process of investigation into a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Is original and not repetition of something already known </li></ul><ul><li>Expand knowledge and understanding of phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to answer ‘why’ and ‘how’ </li></ul>
    5. 5. Types of Research <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Describe – how things are </li></ul><ul><li>Explain – why things are the way they are </li></ul><ul><li>Predict – phenomenon and relationships </li></ul>
    6. 6. Research Problem <ul><li>The formulation of a problem is far more often essential than its solutions, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science. </li></ul><ul><li>-- A. Einstein and L. Infeld , </li></ul><ul><li>The Evolution of Physics, 1938 </li></ul>
    7. 7. Research Problem <ul><li>A ‘research problem’ refers to some difficulty that the researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and to which he/she wants to obtain a solution. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Origin of Research Problem <ul><li>Actual problem faced </li></ul><ul><li>Previous research </li></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul>
    9. 9. Writing a Research Problem <ul><li>Express clearly to be able to undertake the research </li></ul><ul><li>As a testable research hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>As an exploratory question </li></ul>
    10. 10. Research Design <ul><li>A blueprint that guides us to undertake research on a specific problem </li></ul><ul><li>Cover issues of ‘which’ and ‘why’ of methods and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Decision on sample size and sampling procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Process of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis procedures and statistical techniques to be used </li></ul>
    11. 11. Methods, Techniques and Tools Questionnaires Scales Interview schedules Observation sheets Tests Checklists Survey Interviews Observation Content analysis and research synthesis Meta-analysis Exploratory Evaluative Experimental Elaborative Tools Techniques Methods
    12. 12. Sampling and Sample Size <ul><li>Why sampling? </li></ul><ul><li>Large samples behave in normal distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Representative sample is important to draw conclusions about the population </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the sample size </li></ul>
    13. 13. Random Sampling <ul><li>It is not haphazard </li></ul><ul><li>Every subject in the population has a known probability/ chance of selection </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Random table </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic random sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified random sampling </li></ul>
    14. 14. Components of a Research Proposal <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Time and Cost Estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul>
    15. 15. Title of the Project <ul><li>Precise and accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Unambiguous </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid extremely long titles </li></ul>Extended Contact Programme and Learning Effect of Extended Contact Programme on student achievement × 
    16. 16. Introduction <ul><li>Orient the readers towards the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance and relevance of the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Justifies the choice of the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a concise overview of relevant literature to make the proposal sound </li></ul>
    17. 17. Statement of the Problem <ul><li>Sometimes part of introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Further clarifies the intent of the investigator </li></ul><ul><li>Presented as hypothesis or exploratory question or objectives of the study </li></ul>
    18. 18. Objective | Hypothesis | Question <ul><li>To measure the level of achievement of the ECP participants </li></ul><ul><li>There is no significant difference between the achievement of male and female participants of ECP </li></ul><ul><li>How do ECP participants perform in the test? </li></ul>
    19. 19. Procedures of the Study <ul><li>Decide on the method, techniques and tools to use </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the rationale of each vis-à-vis the statement of the problems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the tool development process or use of existing one </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how you will gather data for the study </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate the population, sample size and the sampling procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the statistical methods to be used with rationale </li></ul>
    20. 20. Time and Cost Estimates <ul><li>Prepare a schedule of activities </li></ul><ul><li>Time management skill required </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Item-wise budgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Financial support required </li></ul>
    21. 21. Appendices <ul><li>Bibliography and references </li></ul><ul><li>Tentative chapter outline </li></ul><ul><li>Any other information </li></ul>References Bibliography Chapters